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2018, Vol., No.47

  • 1.

    A Study of the Chousen Amnokgang Waterpower Corporation, a Chousen Special-Purpose Company Active in the 1930s

    Joung An-Ki | 2018, (47) | pp.5~57 | number of Cited : 2
    As part of a research project on Korean special-purpose companies of the 1930s, this study empirically examined the formation and management of Joseon Amnokgang Waterpower Corporation which had undertaken the development of water power on the Amnokgang River since September 1937. In August 1937, the Japanese Government- General of Korea signed a joint operation agreement with Manchukuo to establish Joseon Amnokgang Waterpower Corporation. The company was an ordinary corporation formed by the pooling of private resources, unlike Manchuria Amnokgang Waterpower Corporation characterized as a government-owned special-purpose business entity. Furthermore, by setting up the Korea-Manchuria Amnokgang Joint Technical Committee, the Amnokgang Waterpower Development Committee and the Amnokgang Dam Technical Committee, the Japanese Government- General of Korea had the exclusively authority to supervise and control the overall progress of the Amnokgang River hydropower development project and was inextricably involved in the distribution of ownership. The first phase of the Amnokgang hydropower development plan was intended to build a global-scale dam and power plant in Supung, which started operations in August. The Supung Power Plant served southern Manchuria and the northwestern area of Korea with its power-generating capacity for plentiful and cheap electricity, contributing to the rise of energy-intensive industries and the heavy and chemical industrialization in the areas. Joseon Amnokgang Waterpower Corporation was a strategic capital entity and typical Korean special-purpose company the Japanese Government-General of Korea assigned to promote the development of key industries, by mobilizing capital, technological capabilities and business resources from the private sector.
  • 2.

    The significance of art criticism on Guhuapinlu(古畵品錄) in Northern and Southern Dynasties

    Kim, Yeon-Joo | Kim, Eun-Kyung | 2018, (47) | pp.59~92 | number of Cited : 2
    Xie He(謝赫, active around about 490-530) proposed Six principles of Chinese painting by describing Guhuapinlu(古畵品錄), described the criteria of painting creation and the critical point of view by commenting for the work propensity of painter. Huapin(畵品) is “the piece of work which was directly influenced by the social trend of prevalent character criticism” at that time. Especially, Liupin of Xie He is considered to be “the small edition of 9 Pinfa(九品法) since the era of Han dynasty. Pin(品) has the meaning that the taste is commented, eventually, it reflected the aesthetic taste at that time by showing the systematized, structured aspect since the trend of character criticism influences to the territory of each art of poem, writing and painting, etc. Xie He’s Guhuapinlu can be divided into the preface part handling Six principles of Chinese painting and the part of Liupin(六品) that applies the criteria of criticism. It is evident Six principles of Chinese painting by Xie He is the principle arranging the aesthetic effect systematically appeared in the criteria of painting creation and the screen that have been applied universally at that time. However, the point of criticism of Xie He is influenced significantly in the point of criticism of Gu Kaizhi (顧愷之). Nevertheless, if Gu Kaizhi focuses on the pursuit of the essence of the objects, namely the pursuit of essence of object, Xie He expanded the point of criticism placing the side dot in the concrete method for the pursuit of essence of object and the pursuit of personality of artist. In conclusion, Xie He systematized and proposed the principle of painting creation that has been applied universally at that time from the stance of a portrait painter. Also, his Guhuapinlu is meaningful in that he arranged the criteria of painting criticism through this, emphasized the existence of new intent/new meaning that the painter aims as the final purpose, and suggested the view of Aesthetics at that time with the various critic words.
  • 3.

    Baojia of East Asia: Reorganization of substratum administration in Taiwan, Manchuria and China in the early 20th Century

    Moon, Myung-ki | 2018, (47) | pp.93~154 | number of Cited : 4
    As a mutual surveillance system in Qing China, baojia system used to be a channel with which state could mobilize local society’s manpower and various resources. modern states in East Asia also had tried to reorganize baojia system on the same purpose. But compared with Taiwan Sotokufu’s success in reorganization, Manchuria’s performance was half-success at best, and Republican China’s was just a failure. The ‘innovated baojia’ in colonial Taiwan was innovative in three ways: First, ‘innovated baojia’ enabled police organization to surveil and lead the baojia system. Second, Taiwan Sotokufu could successfully changed local elites into domesticated collaborators. Third, Taiwan Sotokufu even enlarged the role of baojia, from police assistance organization to general administration assistance organization, and this transition were greatly helpful in improving government efficiency. But in Manchuria and especially in Republican China, the state could not afford to locate enough police power. It was police power that divided the fate of baojia system in each region. Then, was the baojia system in colonial Taiwan really modeled on Qing China's traditional baojia like Goto Simpei said? The baojia system in colonial Taiwan was similar to mura(村) in early modern Japan, rather than traditional baojia in various ways.
  • 4.

    Conflicts Between Koguryo and Mulgil(勿吉) in the Late 5th Century, and Changes in the Northern Border Areas

    Yeo Hokyu | 2018, (47) | pp.155~209 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Examined in this article are the conflicts that continued between Koguryo and Mulgil(勿吉) in the 5th century’s latter half, and how those clashes affected the border space in the Northern regions. At the time, the central region of Mulgil was located at the midstream and downstream areas of the East-bound(東流) Song’hwa-jiang(松花江) river. While fighting Koguryo, Mulgil advanced its presence to the upstream of the same river before 475, and then in 475 finally made its debut on the international stage by dispatching a diplomatic envoy to the Northern Wei [北魏] government, via a waterway connecting the Song’hwa-jiang and Nen-jiang(嫩江) rivers as well as a land route crossing the Eastern mountain foot of the Daxing’an-ling(大興安嶺) mountain range. After 475, Mulgil proceeded to the downstream area of the North-bound Song’hwa-jiang river, and even attempted to proceed in the direction of the Koguryo territory. This resulted in both sides fiercely fighting with each other at the said river’s downstream area. In 494, the Late Buyeo(後扶餘) faction in the Nong’an(農安) area surrendered to Koguryo, and right before 503 and 504 Mulgil successfully annexed the above-mentioned downstream area of the North-bound Song’hwa-jiang river, following its prior occupation of the East-bound Song’hwa-jiang river’s upstream area. Meanwhile, Koguryo and Mulgil competed diplomatically as well, to win several tribes in the North. In order to separate Mulgil and Northern Wei from each other, Koguryo discussed with Yuyeon(柔然) in 479 the division of the Jiduwu(地豆于) area. Koguryo’s effort generated a much wanted effect, as it prevented Mulgil from sending an envoy to Northern Wei from 478 through 485. Yet this also caused a bit of a backfire for Koguryo, as its relationship with Khitan(契丹) deteriorated as a result. Mulgil took advantage of this new situation, by befriending Khitan and therefore managing to resume envoy-sending to Northern Wei. Later, Koguryo found itself in an increasingly disadvantageous diplomatic situation, as it fared worse in several armed conflicts with Mulgil. With the Mulgil approaching the region, Koguryo came to share borders with it at the Daeheuk(大黑) mountain range. Koguryo’s Northern territory was seriously compromised, and to make matters worse its connection with the North was partially blocked by Mulgil. It became much more difficult for Koguryo to communicate with Northern tribes because of the presence of Mulgil.
  • 5.

    Conflicts and Foreign Negotiation Around Song-Liao's Border Area in the mid-11th Century

    Lee, Geun-myung | 2018, (47) | pp.211~235 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In February of 1042, Liao sent an envoy to Song and demanded the return of the ten counties of guan-nan region. Guan-Nan region was a strategic point. When Liao's request was announced, the imperial court of Song was shocked. The imperial court looked for an envoy to negotiate with Liao, but no one came forward. No one accepted to take on a dangerous role, as the outcome of a diplomatic compromise is extremely uncertain. In this situation, prime minister Lu Yi-jian recommended Fu Bi. Lu Yi-jian's recommendation was to put Fu Bi in trouble. When Fu Bi was decided to go to Liao, criticism erupted everywhere. In particular, Tai-jian criticized the prayer for the strange tactics and Fu Bi in a matched voice. The controversy over Fu Bi`s dispatch of Liao was likely to have a huge impact on Song's political career. This has highlighted Lu Yi-jian's dogmatic and unjust policy, as well as the opposition to him. In April of 1042, Fu Bi was sent to Liao as an envoy. Lu Yi-jian, in consultation with the prime minister and the executive, confirmed the direction of his response to Liao, put it in a national document and delivered it to Fu Bi. He also offered two alternatives to his request for Liao to return the ten-counties of guan-nan. It was an increase in marriage and Sui-bi to the Liao kingdom. However, there seems to have been a lot of theory inside Song about two alternatives to Liao. Inparticular, allegations have been raised that marriages far more damaging than Sui-bi's increase in national mail and mail, particularly among the critics of Lu Yi-jian. Liao finally chose to increase Sui-bi among the two alternatives presented by Song. It was in September, 1042, when Sui-bi's question of increase finally came to an agreement. Instead of Sui-bi increasing, Liao promised to press Xixia. However, Liao's pressure on Xixia did not go smoothly. Rather than acting as Liao suggested, Xixia even made a provocation against him on the border. As Xixia took a hostile attitude, in September 1044, Liao led a large army and invaded Xixia. Liao's expedition to Xixia was not to fulfill his promise to Song but to punish Xixia for his rudeness. Xixia sent an envoy to Song to avoid attacks from both Song and Liao when the army marched on. The peace treaty between Song and Xixia was finally concluded in October of 1044. The treaty was signed in a way far from what was agreed between Song-Liao, the format in which Liao would influence Xixia and speed up Song. The diplomatic compromise and negotiations between Song and Liao, which originated from Liao's demand for the ten counties of guan-nan region, were led by Lu Yi-jian, who was then in power. However, Song's unilateral acceptance, submission, and lack of diplomatic compromise have caused a huge backlash among young people centering on the admonition officers. In this way, the emperor eventually characterized Lu Yi-jian and named Fan Zhong-yan and Han Qi as members of the committee. The negotiations between Song and Liao in the mid-11th century served as a crucial catalyst for the reorganization of the pro-communist politics.
  • 6.

    Colonial Encounter with Traditional Social Elite Class in Bengal : Emergence of New Social Classes on the Ruins of the Mughal Empire

    Narayan Hriday | 2018, (47) | pp.237~269 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Historically, Bengal has gone through the successive rule of Hindu, Buddhist and Mughal rulers. Islamic culture and Persian language were introduced in Bengal through the Turkish conquests in the early thirteenth century. And, by the late sixteenth century when Mughals invaded Bengal, the Islam culture has become a part of local culture. But the Turkish and Mughal conquest of Bengal was completely different than the colonization of Bengal by East India Company in the late eighteenth century. The British under East India Company conceived and implemented different land revenue settlements as a colonial tool of exploitation in colonized Bengal. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze and to interpret the extents, and far-reaching consequences of the land revenue settlements, linguistic and educational policies adopted by the British administration during its rule over Bengal. Especially, the paper looks into the impact of these policies on the prevailing traditional Hindu and Muslim elite classes and socio-economic structure, and the changes or transformations brought in the social, political and educational spheres.
  • 7.

    The Ethnography and the War Mobilization : The Southern Discourse of Taiwan Media during the War Period of the Japanese Occupation

    Mal-Soon Choi | 2018, (47) | pp.271~298 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the article is to examine the southern discourse that is revealed in the Taiwanese media in the late Japanese occupation period. Due to the geographic location that bridges Japan and the South Sea, Taiwan had been recognized as a stronghold of the South Sea. Therefore, various knowledge of the South Sea was accumulated under the leadership of Japan from a very early period. Especially in the late 1930s, Taiwan became a base for the Japanese military advancement of the South Sea, so that it is largely discussed to produce strategic materials using the resources and raw materials of Southeast Asia. At that time, the Taiwanese government general proactively prepared for the conquest to the South Sea by rapidly gathering information during the warfare. The Southern Discourse, composed of these collected data, shows a complete ethnography of the groups in the South Sea, including Philippines, French Indochina, Thailand, the Dutch East Indies, the British Malay Peninsula, Java, Myanmar and Singapore, in the form of social and natural knowledge (i.e., race, natural environment, geography, history, industry), the interaction history with Japan, and travel stories. Especially after the Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and the Pacific War in 1941, the publication of the South Discourse had abundantly increased related to the national policies of the establishment of the South Co-prosperity Sphere. In the end of the Japanese colonial period, the Taiwanese magazine “Nanfang” had produced various southern discourses in response to the invasion of the South Sea since 1941. Based on the highly detailed anthropological information, it had served in the war for the rich resources and the industrial value of the South Sea, the colonial repression, the liberation of each ethnic groups, and the revival of the East Asia. In addition, the Pacific Islands near the equator are mainly described as undeveloped land awaiting pioneering and filled with the mysterious, untapped people. The description above in the “Nanfang” magazine are originated from the foundation of colonialism. According to the progress of the war, it emphasized the resistance to the west and the Asian identity, which reveals that its purpose is to assist the war. The statement of the inexhaustible resources and the uncivilized aboriginal people were effective in elucidating the necessity of conquest and occupation and articulating the Japanese Great East War. In conclusion, the cultural discourse of the anthropological ethnic group published in the “Nanfang” was basically the nature of the discourse for the war mobilization.
  • 8.

    From “Frontier” to “Contact Zones” : Eastern Border Studies in the German Historiography of the Twentieth Century

    Cha Yong Ku | 2018, (47) | pp.299~335 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, we will look at twentieth century Germany's eastern border studies. According to the traditional border studies of the 19th and early 20th centuries, borders were exclusive lines with the function of protection, disconnection, control, and interdiction. The eastern border of Germany was understood to be the stronghold of a civilized territory where Germanic inheritance and advanced culture had spread since the High Middle Ages. The loss of the border would have been understood as the defeat of civilization by barbarism, and it was a sacred boundary that must be defended. New borderlands research in the 1970s revealed that the notion of the border in the premodern era was not as a definite line. Germania Slavica, the contact zones between medieval Germany and the Slavic culture, was not a fault line but hybrid zones of cultural encounters and inter-ethnic relations. Some Slavs moved into German-speaking areas where they were employed in, and integrated into, German domains: there were significant processes of entanglement and accommodation, and also of powerful contest. In Germania Slavica, there was no ethnic hatred that scholars later imagined, and so the conflicts between medieval German- and Slavonic-speaking people should not be projected as the nationalistimages. Social interactions cut across ethnic lines. Overall, Germania Slavica research emphasizes the harmonious birth of a new hybrid culture, and it can be highlighted that the process of conflict and exclusion is relatively neglected in the field. Moreover, the subject and direction of Germania Slavica research has combined with West Germany’s Neue Ostpolitik of the 1970s. In particular, the research group led by Christian Lüdtke in Leipzig was related to the European integration movements of the late 1990s and the expansion of the European Union in Eastern Europe. These efforts to dismantle the prejudice and politics of nationally-driven historiography also face the dilemma of corresponding to the realpolitik.
  • 9.

    Meaning of Contact Zone Studies in the Area of Literature and Culture

    Lee Byoung Hoon | 2018, (47) | pp.337~365 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of Contact Zone Studies in the Area of Literature and Culture and their academic possibilities. Contact Zone means a field where various cultures and values meet, interchange and fuse and coexist with each other. How do diverse, fuse cultures and valuese and co-create new things in Contact Zone? What is the culture formation principle in the consciousness of Contact Zone Studies? The cultural theory of M. Bakhtin and Y. Lotman explains the meaning of Contact Zone as a cultural formation principle. Through the concept of ‘otherness’, ‘transgressness’, ‘outsidedness’, Bakhtin argues that a new culture is formed in contact with other meanings of different cultures in the contact zone. According to Lotman, in the course of the formation of a new culture, the boundary is both an exclusive principle for distinguishing differences from other cultures, and a mechanism for integrating with them. The discussion of German immigrant literature provides many points to consider in understanding Korean literature in the age of multiculture. ‘Migrant Literature’ is works written by migrant authors who left their own hometown and live in an different culture. The current situation of German immigrant literature will be an appropriate case for predicting the future of Korean literature. In particular, how the German immigrant literature forms a relationship with mainstream culture, that is, the discussion of conflict, integration and mutual coexistence between the two cultures can be an important reference for understanding korean migrants and their culture.