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2019, Vol., No.49

  • 1.

    ‘The calamity of Pyeonchon-ri’ and Hongju righteous army

    kim In sik | 2019, (49) | pp.5~53 | number of Cited : 0
    In Sep.26 1907(the 19th day of eighth month of lunar calendar), the military and the police of the Japanese Empire raided on the Lee Nam-kyu’s house in Yesan. When the night he taken to police, Lee Nam-kyu and his son Lee Chun-gu were scathed by the knife of Japanese army and died in around the Pyeonchon river of Onyang. There were two Nobi followed him as a porter. Kim Eung-gil who is one of them also died, but another Nobi Ga Su-bok lived barely. The military and the police of the Japanese Empire intended to kill him immediately from the time when raided his house. In the end, they killed him with an excuse that he refuse to comply the ordinance prohibiting topknots. ‘The calamity of Pyeonchon-ri’ is the incident that the arrester was killed by Japanese Empire which claim to stand for ‘civilized country’, without the formal legal processes. Lee Nam-kyu and his son were killed on a deserted place, and their bodies were dumped on the path. In this regard, it is a incident that revealed the invasion of Japanese imperialism. In the process of staging a counter attack after the collapse of Hongju righteous army, Lee Nam-kyu aggressively backed up the activities of Hongju Righteous Army centering on Yesan, which eventuated in Lee Nam-kyu and his son's martyrdom. Yesan was a base of the counterattack of Hongju righteous army, and Lee Nam-kyu was at the center of the struggle. That is the reason why the ‘calamity of Pyeonchon-ri’ is necessary to be record as the Korean national movement history, not personal history. The basic outline of this incident has been revealed. But the whole story of ‘The calamity of Pyeonchon-ri’ has not been described, and other records show some errors of fact. The calamity of Pyeonchon was reported on in The Korea Daily News(『大韓每日申報)』 six days after the incident. Madoilgi(『馬島日記』), The Maecheon’yarok(梅泉野錄), The Yeomjae’yarok(念齋野錄) also record ‘The calamity of Pyeonchon-ri’, but there are few errors that need to be corrected. This paper attempts to review the records of the ‘The calamity of Pyeonchon-ri’, and restore the fackt of this incident based on the testimony of the survivor of this incident(Ga Su-bok), relative and descendant of Lee Nam-kyu. Also this paper try to reconstruct this incident by analyzing the background and cause of the incident in relation to Hongju righteous army.
  • 2.

    Analysis and Suggestions of Gangwon Area History Research Result

    Lim, Ho-min | Nam-Hyun Kim | 2019, (49) | pp.55~83 | number of Cited : 1
    Until now, the study of Gangwon area history was generally focused on studying the specificity of the area. The field of research has been concentrated in specific fields due to the concentration of research human resources and the development of lukewarm research subjects. In recent years, it is difficult to expect a quantitative and qualitative increase in regional research results, as the successive generations of scholars are not cultivated smoothly. The study of Gangwon area history research should basically start from the viewpoint of publicizing and recognizing the historical legitimacy of the area. Local history research is not exclusive to those who live in the area or who serve in local universities. In the 1990s, the results of Gangwon area history research have been widely published with the expansion of professional researchers. In addition, local universities, cultural institutes, and cultural organizations jointly held regular academic seminars and continued to publish research results. Therefore, Gangwon area history researchers need to analyze various causal factors in the area and expand the construction more widely, get out of the way of studying local history with limited research units. In order to overcome this phenomenon, Gangwon area history research should be pursued in the following direction. First, researchers and related organizations need to make efforts to ensure that the conferences are held continuously. Second, local educational institutions should have a firm perception that regional research is important. And it must be practiced faithfully. Third, local universities and municipalities should cooperate with each other in building a system to share local research results. The shared research results should be used as a resource for local history education.
  • 3.

    The Current State and Outlook on the ‘Popularization of Historical Studies’ in Smart Media : with a Focus on the Podcast 'Man-in-Man-Saek: Writing History Together'

    Kim, Taehyun | 2019, (49) | pp.85~114 | number of Cited : 2
    The Current State and Outlook on the ‘Popularization of Historical Studies’ in Smart Media - with a Focus on the Podcast [Man-in- Man-Saek] Although ‘historical studies’ have lost their footing in the popularization market, the popularization of history in general has gained a larger following. For instance, history-related contents on Youtube fall under four categories - a fusion of entertainment and expertise based on historical storytelling, history as a general interests / common knowledge topic, communication with the general public, and preparations for exams. As evidenced in these channels’ number of followers and views, the level of demand for history among the general public is quite substantial. Under such circumstances and as a practical matter, historians have been called upon to go beyond critiquing the ‘consumption’ of history, to take direct charge of the production and distribution of history in order to bridge the gap between the general public and historical studies. As such, there is a need for research into the ‘popularization of history’ or the ‘popularization of historical studies’ if historians are to take charge of the production and distribution of the consumption of history. Such research must be conducted with an approach regarding the general public who partake in history. A top-down method of interpretation, wherein the public’s views on history are examined via the nature of the ‘popularization of history’, prevents one from discovering the public’s desire to accept ‘historical studies’. On the other hand, a direct analysis of the public who partake in history has enabled us to form an outlook on the possibility of the public’s acceptance of ‘historical studies’. Although the responses considered are from a limited section of the public, we believe that further analysis on members of the public who partake in history will provide fertile ground for the ‘popularization of historical studies’ to take root. Motivated by this observation, this study has attempted to draw a distinction between the ‘popularization of history’ and the ‘popularization of historical studies’ while raising the question regarding the directionality of the ‘popularization of historical studies’ within the current ‘popularization of history’ trend. Though limited due to the lack of data collection on the general public who partake in history, this study has attempted to approach the subject based on the tendencies and comments left by the viewers of [Writing History Together].
  • 4.

    “Sinocentrism” in Russia’s Reorientation to the East: Re-examining Russian foreign policy under the third Putin administration (2012-2018)

    Kato Mihoko | 2019, (49) | pp.115~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Russia’s “Turn to the East” has received increased international attention in the wake of prolonged, US- and EU-lead economic sanctions against Russia following its annexation of Crimea. However, it soon became clear that major Asia-Pacific countries either chose to not participate in the sanctions regime (e.g. China, India, South Korea) or were reluctant to impose severe economic sanctions on Russia (e.g. Japan). Despite the sanctions it appears that Russia had gained room to maneuver by strengthening its bilateral cooperation with China and countries in the region. However, under Vladimir Putin’s third presidency (May 2012 – May 2018), Russia has decided to cooperate with China and side with China on several regional and global issues. Neorealist theory dictates that this is a rational choice – it is better for Russia to align with an emerging global power in the interests of forming a global balance-of-power than it is for Russia to try and align itself with traditional allies of the United States. While this choice may balance power in the international system, it may also increase tensions among countries in the Asia-Pacific region as the region becomes economically integrated. This paper examines why Russia gives priority to strengthening its bilateral relationship with Xi Jinping’s China rather than pursue more diverse regional relationships following the annexation of Crimea in two stages. First, it assesses the role of Northeast Asian countries in Russia’s “Turn to the East” and shows how Russia’s behavior is constrained in this regard by the international system, including regional disputes over North Korean nuclear proliferation, territorial disputes with Japan, and broader issues with the United States. Second, it examines Southeast Asia’s role in Russian foreign policy by focusing on tension and confrontation between China and Vietnam, which are both strategic partners of Putin’s Russia. This paper argues that, as a hedge against the potential uncertainties of the Russo-Chinese partnership, Russia still aims to maximize its presence in this region by utilizing its military capabilities rather than by diversifying its economic and political relationships.
  • 5.

    The Hybrid Vernacularization on the Adaptation in Sweet Dream the Early Korean-language Talkie

    Chon Woohyung | 2019, (49) | pp.155~187 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Contact zones are fields of différance weaved with spatial difference and temporal delay. This différance strengthens the hybridity of Contact zones. Différance is often referred to as transculturation, which explains the nature of contact zones that colonies invent or derive from the process of borrowing from the empire. This essay focuses on translation, adaptation, and re-mediation as a representative example of how to use the empire's representation style, and how to appropriate oneself through conversation and intervention in the process. Focusing on early Korean-language talkie Sweet Dream(1936) which was adapted from A Doll’s House(1879) the Henrik Ibsen’s Drama, The ultimate goal of this essay was to identify the way the film intervenes in the narrative of the origins of modern women and its effect. Through this, this essay tried to find out the aspect of hybrid vernacularization between the West and East Asia, the empire and the colonies contributing to the possibility of the change of relationship. It was confirmed that the translations on Sweet Dream, that is, the actively intervention of the adaptation, reverts the separation of the house and the public place given to the woman since A Doll’s House to unidentifiable. Through this, Sweet Dream went back to the history of female enlightenment, suspected the validity of translation and enlightenment originating from the West, and recalled the discourse of the “Wise Mother and Good Wife” to the vacancy. However, this Wise Mother an Good Wife was distant from the Chosun Dynasty or the traditional women of East Asia. It first appeared in the educational philosophy of enlightening women in Japan, where first adopted Western civilization in East Asia, and this was also a translation of the Western civilization discourse. This fact suggests that the translation is a representation style reinforcing the hybridity of contact zones between Korea the colonies, and the dynamics of hybrid vernacularizing things in the process of translation. In addition, this essay points out that the discourse of the Wise Mother and Good Wife discourse of Japan leads to the colonialist discourse that places the women of the colonial Korea as inferior. It is notable that the contemporary context of the Wise Mother and Good Wife discourse. In the mid-1930s, Japanese imperialism was at the height of the fascist regime. The characteristic of Japanese imperialism at this time was that it declared the national-familyism which was to be abolished from the West and to be concluded with the World as One Family for the construction of the Greater East Asia Commonwealth. The Wise Mother and Good Wife of Sweet Dream was related to national responsibility and ethics beyond the ethics of home or family. The reason why the Japanese imperialist speech was able to intervene without any interruption in Sweet Dream is because it was the early Korean-language talkie that made the audience a target of low-level audience. In the end, due to these media attributes, Sweet Dream became a premature “enlightenment theater”, and the popular culture of the colonial Korea, which is represented by the film, has become a promising actor in the total dictatorship system. This historical contingency also confirms that contact zones of the colonial Korea was the place of différance.
  • 6.

    Chinese Factors in the Changes of Transborder City Hunchun: (New) Northeast Phenomenon and the ‘San Hua San Dong’ Strategy of Jilin Province

    PARK CHULHYUN | 2019, (49) | pp.189~216 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research criticizes previous researches which analyzed the changes of Hunchun city from the viewpoint of international forces and subjects like 「Tumen River Area Development Project」 and 「Great Tumen Initiativ e」. Hunchun is not only located in the border region where China, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan encounter with each other, but also belongs to Jilin Province of China. Therefore, the changes of Hunchun city are not only decided by the international forces and subjects, but also by the complex influences of the domestic forces and subjects of Northeast region and Jilin Province of China. ‘International development discourse’ alone could make the vision of Hunchun city much positive, but it should be noted that Hunchun city is one of the Northeast region and Jilin Province cities which have been suffering ‘Northeast phenomenon’ and ‘New Northeast phenomenon’. In other words, we should pay attention to the fact that the domestic forces and subjects of Northeast region and Jilin Province are interacting with each other to influence the changes of Hunchun city. In this way, we could find much more complex feasibilities of the changes of Hunchun city, which are very different from the linear rosy vision that Hunchun city will become “a Shenzhen of the 21st century”
  • 7.

    The Mixed Residence and Hybridism in Kiachta, Russia’s Border City of Qing in the 18th and the First Half of 19th Centuries.

    Jibae Park | 2019, (49) | pp.217~265 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article is aimed to examine how Kiachta and Maimachen, the frontier cities between Russia and Qing empires, lived together and contacted each other in the 18th and the first half of 19th centuries. Kiachta and Maimachen were the border towns builded by the Kiachta Treaty in 1727 after the long conflict between Russia and Qing during the second half of 17th century. The overall plans of the two cities, the style of the building, and the people's daily life including the clothes and food are so heterogeneous that they seem to be in a confrontational state. Border surveillance was also rigorous, and it seemed to be a tight cordon to a European visitor. Nonetheless, Kiachta and Maimachen were bordering cities facing each other, a buffer zone in which tensions of two empires were eased, and a contact zone where exchange was ongoing and various contacts in daily life occurred. However, the contacts between Kiachta and Maimachen were not made in an highly asymmetrical relationship of power when the Europeans encountered the Americans. Overall, the two empires were in a similar power relationship on the borderline set by the Kiachta Treaty. Maintaining these borders steadily benefited both empires, which required the care and understanding, not conflict and struggle between them. Therefore, in Kiachta and Maimachen on the border region between Russia and Qing, it was important to acknowledge and accept the other cultures rather than the forced conversion and one-sided influences. On this basis, through Kiachta could be exchanged tremendous volumes of goods and greatly be expanded the trade and the contact between the Eurasian regions.