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2020, Vol., No.52

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  • 1.

    Strengthening the royal authority of King Uiduk of Baekje and Iksan

    taekhyun oh | 2020, (52) | pp.5~42 | number of Cited : 1
    King Uideok has been recognized as a weak king. Recently, there has been a research for his achievement through international relations, but the research has not being able to be expanded because of the lack of the historical records. This is an inevitable result since the remained historical records are almost about his international achievement. However, we can find out a special thing by examining the aspect of the international relations. It is the fact that he wanted to gather descendants of King Seong through the construction of the temples in the diversified diplomacy. In addition, it is the wrong judgement to regard him as the weak and passive king for he had an attempt to strengthen his royal authority by accepting advanced Chinese culture. At the same time, it was found out that Iksan was related with King Uideok's reinforcement of royal authority. Iksan has been discovered, through archaeological discovery, as the place being related with Baekje royal family even when their capital city was Hansung, not Iksan. Also, 녹유편(Nogyupyeon) which was found in the first-built palace site (Wanggung-li) is being recorded chronically as the one in the period of King Uideok, comparing with Nogyupyeon in China. In other words, King Uideok had focused on Iksan where he had had interest from the period of capital, Hansung. Although he failed in developing Iksan, he had started to construct the facilities for royal family, and the following King Mu had continued to build large temples and a palace in Iksan. In brief, King Uideok had tried to strengthen his regal power consistently through the diversified diplomacy, construction of temples, and development of Iksan.
  • 2.

    A study on “Kamishibai” of simplified life insurance in colonial joseon

    kwon hee ju | Sung, Yun-A | 2020, (52) | pp.43~72 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, I studied “Propaganda” of Simplified Life Insurance, Ministry of Communications of Japanese Government-General of Korea, and “Kamishibai” produced by Ministry of Communications of Japanese Government-General of Korea. First, the Japan looked for the origin of insurance in Korea's unique “gye,” emphasizing the fact that “insurance” is very Korean and universal to Koreans who may be unfamiliar with the concept of insurance, and expressed that this is the way to go on the path of civilization. but, it is difficult to obtain the effect of redistribution of income, and it is difficult to say that a large benefit has been returned to the low-income group, because it is not insurance that the whole country subscribes to, but by the general public for a small amount. Second, it was confirmed that even if the head of a family dies, it is appealing to the familial aspect that insurance is an essential matter that adults must subscribe to for the family left behind. Third, it can be seen that it is appealing to a sense of community that the nature of insurance is found in'mutual aid', and that insurance subscription is not only for you, but is helpful to all Koreans and can prepare for future risks together. Fourth, it conveys the message that insurance not only guarantees future security, but also enables normal health care and can help pioneer one's own life. The “Kamishibai” of the post-colonial Ministry of Communications of Japanese Government-General of Korea was produced in accordance with the purpose of the Korean people at that time to subscribe to the Simplified Life Insurance. “Kamishibai” went directly to farm villages in a poor environment where it was difficult to receive cultural benefits, and delivered information through a drama with a story, accompanied by a amusement function.
  • 3.

    Experience in the International Labor Market and Dilemma as a Nationalist; Focusing on Ju Yo-seop’s Novels Inspired by the Writer’s Overseas Stay

    Joung, Ju A | 2020, (52) | pp.73~109 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper discusses discrimination and exclusion in international labor markets that a young Korean nationalist writer Ju Yo-seop experienced. Ju went to Shanghai to join the provisional government of Korea just after the March 1st Movement in 1919. Since then, he stayed abroad for about 16 years in Shanghai, Beijing, and California from 1920 to 1940. Based on his overseas experience, he has written some novels. Born in Pyongyang (the North Korean capital of today), he was under the influence of the Pyongyang regional nationalist movement represented by Ahn Chang-ho who asserted “Capacity-enhancing Movement” as the way to gain Korea’s independence; especially emphasizing modernization through industrial development. Ahn had a great influence not only on Korea but also on overseas Koreans. The time in the US and China helped Ju realize that ethnic and class issues can never be separated from the international labor market, a place where racial and ethnic discriminations prevail. He faces a dilemma between preserving the ethnic community and at the same time solving the problems of the classes that exist within it. In this paper, Ju's novels and articles are examined to show Singanhoe was considered by him as an alternative to combine both the survival of ethnic community and abolition of class discrimination.
  • 4.

    Implementation of the Mu-yi-fa in the Mid-Song Period and Local Officials

    Geun-myung Lee | 2020, (52) | pp.111~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Mu-yi-fa was first implemented in late December 1070. It was con- ducted on a trial basis in the capital area, and then expanded to the whole country in October 1071, 10 months after that. The method of collection for the exemption money(Mu-yi-qian) has changed several times. Initially, it was only imposed on middle class households and above, but it was expanded nationwide in October the following year, allowing inferior households to collect the exemption money. Most of the provinces would then impose an exemption money on inferior households. The collection of exemption money for inferior household has become one of the main points of contention in the opposition party's criticism of Mu-yi-fa. How did Mu-yi-fa's implementation affect the lives of lower class people? The opposition party all argued that the policy was disad- vantageous to the inferior household. However, the reformist group showed a completely different view. They argued that Mu-yi-fa had many benefits for the inferior household. The circumstances of Mu-yi-fa implementation in various places were very complex. However, in general, Mu-yi-fa was carried out in a tight manner. In addition, the exemption money was overcollected from farmers. Local officials at that time tried to make as much surplus as they could. The government used fiscal surplus as one of the criteria when evaluating local official. The government placed great importance on securing finances in the implementation of Mu-yi-fa. It also encouraged financial surplus when implementing Mu-yi-fa. As a result, Mu-yi-fa's original intentions changed significantly. It was for this reason that the exemption money was collected from the inferior household, or the exemption money was collected from farmers much more than needed.
  • 5.

    The Organization and Role of the Chinese Consulate in Chongjin, Colonial Chosun During the Republic of China Period

    LEE EUNSANG | 2020, (52) | pp.147~182 | number of Cited : 0
    The Chinese Consulate in Chongjin began operations in June 1930 under the jurisdiction of North Hamgyeong Province of the Colonial Chosun, but was closed in July 1936 because of the incident of the Chosun Army's attack on the Chongjin Consulate. This article examines the organization and role of it. Firstly, I review the reason for the establishment of it. The reason is that, first, as a military and economic hub that connects with Manchuria, Chongjin is important, and second, there is an increasing number of overseas Chinese in Chongjin. Fu Shi-ying, Ma Ting-liang and Wang Shou-shan, the Consul-General in Colonial Chosun, consistently requested that the establishment of it was necessary for the above two reasons Secondly, I analyse the organizational change of it and the Japanese response to it. At the time of the opening of it, four consulate officers were in charge, including Ma Yong-fa, the consul of Chongjin. However, It was reduced in July 1931 when Ma Ying-fa, still consul in Chongjin, moved to Wonsan on the grounds of his appointment as vice consul in Wonsan, was converted into a office because of the lack of operating expenses. At the end of 1933, when the probationary consul Sun Bing-gan was dispatched, it was reinforced, and the end of 1935, five consular officers worked. Since the Japanese Government-General of Korea did not recognize consulate officers, which requested that the Chongjin part be removed from the list. Finally, I examine the role of it, focusing on the Anti-Chinese Riots and Chongjin incident. The establishment of it was a long-time wish of local overseas Chinese. When the Riots spread nationwide, the consular officers actively responded and tried to protect the overseas Chinese. Seven people, including five consular officers involved in the Chongjin incident. After negotiations between China and Japan, they released on the condition of repatriation, but suftered great pain.
  • 6.

    Dynamics of Material Culture in Early Greek Colonies and Its Border. Some Archaeological Evidence of Euboean Migrants in South Italy

    Hyejin Kim | 2020, (52) | pp.183~213 | number of Cited : 1
    This study examines the archaeological evidence related to the Euboeans found in Pithekoussai (or Aenaria) and Kyme (or Kymai, Cumae), two places where the Greek Euboeans settled in southern Italy around the 8th century BC, and the exports of the Euboeans found in the nearby Etruscan communities. Through this, the study examines the cultural identity of the Euboean migrants and their cultural relation with neighboring communities. The study is concentrated on some archaeological evidence, including materials on selected potteries, and analyze its cultural properties related to the Euboeans in southern Italy during the early colonial periods of the mid-8th century to 7th century BC. Using this evidence, the study aims to reconstruct the cultural topography of the colonial city and its borders. The Euboean craftsmen and merchants among the pioneers who migrated from the mother-city exchanged technologies and products with indigenous people and neighboring communities, and the localization of migrants was reinforced through marriages. As such, the Euboean migrants spread Greek culture (pottery, scripts, etc.) to their neighbors, and the cultural boundaries of Greece expanded as foreign people accepted it. Specifically, ‘Nestor’ Cup’ is evidence that reveals the symbol of Euboean aristocracy, and the fragment of ‘-inos’ is evidence that the Greek alphabet was used as a symbol of Greek cultural identity. Furthermore, ‘Tataie’s lekythos’ show that the Euboeans embraced local culture through intermarriages, and ‘Aristonothos’ krater’ demonstrates that Euboean craftsmanship displaying Greek epic themes and alphabets were accepted by the upper class of the Etruscan communities. The archaeological evidence shows how the Euboeans and their culture traveled during the early Greek colonial period in southern Italy, and the formation of the Greek cultural sphere, known as the ‘Greek World.’ It also demonstrates how the Euboeans migrated to new lands and came into contact with foreign cultures, accepting and transforming it. In this process, at the border where Greek met indigenous culture, the boundary crossed through the material culture of Greece. The diverse cultural exchanges and the varied cultural identities formed between the Greek migrants and the indigenous people, and the Etruscans, reflect the cultural dynamics of southern Italy during the early period of Greek colonization.
  • 7.

    Ottoman Empire the beginning of the Vizier of Devsirme - Grand Vizier Zağanos Pasha -

    Lee Younghee | 2020, (52) | pp.215~249 | number of Cited : 2
    In Ottoman Empire, İlmiye and Turkish noblemen were appointed as Vezir-i A’zam. Starting with Zağanos Paşa, however, government officials from Devşirme were appointed as Vezir-i A’zam. Zağanos Paşa was a government official from Devşirme, making huge contributions to the development of Ottoman Empire as a teacher and political companion to Mehmed II. Not only did he support Mehmed II in Battle(Siege) of Constantinople, but he also led the battle successfully. After being dismissed from the position of Vezir-i A’zam, he led an expedition to Mora and Trabzon successfully. It was Zağanos Paşa that opened the era of Devşirme Vezirler devri in Ottoman Empire. The government officials from Devşirme won many conquest wars along with Padishahs of Ottoman Empire, turning Ottoman Empire into a global empire. The present study thus set out to shed new light on the life of Zağanos Paşa that was from Devşirme.
  • 8.

    Binding of the Multi-sided Wooden Documents and the Ancient Korean Peninsula as a Contact Zone

    Lee, Jaehwan | 2020, (52) | pp.251~285 | number of Cited : 1
    Until the Han Dynasty, weaving bamboo slips into books formed an axis of Chinese writing culture. Even in the case of wooden documents, there were cases where several strips were tied together by strings. As an example in which individual strips contained their own information and were intended to be tied together, MD14 of Han wooden slips from Juyan district are noted. They were identified as part of a single table written in columns with each other based on wooden slip 286.1. The way of writing in columns with other than individual wooden strips was also found in the ancient Korean Peninsula, but some acculturation has been made. Wooden document No.2 excavated from the moat of Wolseong palace in Gyeongju has similar margins at the top of all four sides. Four-sided wooden doucument Gaya1602 from the Seong- sansanseong Fortress in Haman also has the same large space at the top of two sides where the letters remain well. The lines that were conscious of when writing must be found outside the document. Gaya1602 would have been made with the intention of being tied together as a sum of several wooden documents containing individual information. However, a multi-sided wooden document is intended to be read on each side while rotating, and cannot be secured by stringing top and bottom. Gaya2645, which is also thought to be tied together with other wooden documents, has a groove for string only at the bottom. The broken upper end of Gaya1602 could be originally a groove to tie the string too. It is assumed that these multi-sided wooden documents were linked by binding only one end. These cases contradict the assumption that the method of binding wooden documents would not have flowed into ancient Korea. The existing hypothesis that the multi-sided wooden document would have been used alone also rejected. The binding of the multi-sided wooden documents is an example of cultural exchange and transformation that took place on the ancient Korean Peninsula which was a Contact Zone.
  • 9.

    Researches on the Bamboo and Wooden Documents Related to the Multiplication Table Unearthed in China, South Korea and Japan and the Study of Mathematics in Basic Society

    DAI weihong | 2020, (52) | pp.287~326 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    From the background of the cultural communication of East Asia, the bamboo and wooden documents related to the Multiplication Table which have been unearthed in China, South Korea and Japan, is a part of the cultural communication and exchange of Chinese characters. The similarities of the bamboo and wooden documents related to the Multiplication Table unearthed in the three countries are shown in the following four aspects.1)According to the sequence of the table, they were arranged from the ninth paragraph to the next paragraph. 2) The use of repetition symbol“〓”,When the same factors multiplying, repetition symbol“〓” is used in the Multiplication Table.3)20、30、40 were written in The Chinese character “廿”“卅”“卌”.4)It was used not only by grassroots officials but also by hand craftsmen.5)In terms of its nature and use, the Multiplication Table is not only a textbook used in childrens’mathematics education, but also a textbook and practice material for grassroots grassroots officials and hand craftsmen to re-study. Whether the conjunction of multiplier and product is used when the product is a unit digit, it is not used in some cases. For example, it is directly written as "二四八" instead of "二四而八", which is influenced by the writer on the one hand, and is also the actual state of the Multiplication Table in practical application. .Because of the times' difference and the development of the Table itself, the basic contents are different.And because of different writers with different purposes and roles, the contents and formats are slightly different. Since the Pre-Qin Period, the Multiplication Table was a basic knowledge for those who learned arithmetic at that time. It was not enough that they could only write, they had to use it correctly and skillfully.In the Tang Dynasty, there was a Doctor (博士) of mathematics under the Imperial College, and the Ten kinds of the Arithmetical Classic(算經)are textbooks for the mathematics education. The education of mathematics in Paekche, Silla and Japan was influenced by the Tang Dynasty. However, not all of them have the opportunity to study in official schools. In order to become an official and then get promoted in the assessment system, civilians and the officials at the grassroots level also have to practice their writing and math skills. As the basis of mathematical calculation, the Multiplication Table has become a common material for them to practice, which is one of the reasons why there are many bamboo and wooden documents related to the Multiplication Table unearthed in the three East Asian countries. The Multiplication Table, widely used and unearthed in East Asian grassroots societies, is a fresh and precious first-hand material for understanding the cultural transmission and communication of Chinese characters.
  • 10.

    Research historical review of King-Jinheung monument(真興王碑) and the study of Oriental history in modern times

    KOMIYA Hidetaka | 2020, (52) | pp.327~360 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper considers awareness of the problem missing from the historical narrative when considering the historical phase of the King-Jinheung monument(真興王碑) in East Asia. The Jinheung monument can show Confucianism and peculiar beliefs through words. This complex thought can be confirmed through the stone carving materials in Northern Wei. Therefore, this stone monument is important as a stone monument in East Asian history that covers the Northern Dynasties and the ancient countries of Korean Peninsula. However, the Jinheung monument did not find any significance in the history of East Asia. Because, in modern oriental history, there was an understanding that monument studies was underestimated. The first study of the Jinheung monument in modern hisitory was done by Konan Naito(内藤 湖南). He found the significance of the Jinheung King monument in the exchange between the Northern Court of China and Silla. However, he had a sense of opposition and superiority to Gim Jeong-hui(金正喜). In other words, his thought was critical of the Kaozheng(考証学) scholar's emphasis on stone monument research, which is called the "Northern stelae and Southern copybooks(北碑南帖論)".
  • 11.

    Study on the problem of Overseas Chinese refugees of Vietnam during the First Indochina War

    Yi, Jung-hee | 2020, (52) | pp.361~405 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to review the problem of Overseas Chinese refugees of Vietnam during the First Indochina War through official documents of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of China. The results of these review are as follows. Overseas Chinese refugees of Vietnam who escaped to Guangxi province and Yunnan province in China were from Northern Region of Vietnam. These reasons resulted from geographical factor with China–Vietnam border. Overseas Chinese refugees of Vietnam hoped to return to former Vietnamese residence because of no means of livelihood and hyper inflation in Chinese Civil War. After accepting their petition, the Republic of Chinese government took administrative actions, including diplomatic negotiations with French Colonial Government of Vietnam. UNRRA and IRO of international organization in UN played a small part in solving the problem. French Colonial Government of Vietnam provided them relief funds and removed restrictions concerning passport and visa to return to Vietnam. These actions enabled them to return to former residence of Vietnam.
  • 12.

    The Making of the National Border between China and Vietnam-Laos: Focusing on Trans-border Ethnic Groups

    Ahn Chi-Young | Chang, Jung-a | 2020, (52) | pp.407~445 | number of Cited : 0
    This article explores the historical basis of trans-border exchange in Chinese border areas. International movement and exchange transcending the borders established by modern states are subject to state control and management. Any movement and exchange that occurs outside government control and management is considered illegal. In reality, however, movement and exchange in border areas varies depending on state capacity for border management, historical circumstances, regional characteristics, and other factors. In China, residents of border areas are granted special privileges, allowed to cross over borders and engage in exchanges without special permission. This implicit allowance has been longstanding. The complicated characteristics of movement and exchange in Chinese border areas thus signify a border not as a line clearly demarcated and controlled by the state but a mechanism for new and various movement and exchange. Movement and exchange occurring in China’s border areas are not only related to China’s management of its borders with surrounding states but also, more fundamentally, the history of China’s border formation. The objective of the current study, then, is to understand the history of the formation of the border between China and Vietnam-Laos. The article deals with a hitherto little-explored issue in the formation of this border: the living space for local residents known as ethnic minorities. These residents were all but invisible in the border formation process not only to the Qing Dynasty central government and colonial authorities but also the central governments of neighboring states following their achievement of independence. The border thus took form without regard for these residents’ existence, intentions, or living space, which has been artificially fractured into the territories of different states. It is precisely this border formation process that has been such an important factor in creating China’s numerous trans-border ethnic groups. Movement and exchange occurring in China’s border areas and the differing forms of movement and exchange that have emerged over the course of China’s opening are related to the history of the marginalization of ethnic minorities in China’s border areas amid the process of border formation. This article, which explores the formation of the border between China and Vietnam-Laos through modern and contemporary history, focuses on the signing of national border treaties. The existence of trans-border ethnic groups signifies that border areas serve as the artificially divided living spaces of ethnic communities.
  • 13.

    “Without the Lips, the Teeth feel the Cold(脣亡齒寒)” and the Structure of Asymmetry : The Vietnam-China Relations and the Historyscapes of the Border

    Shim, Ju Hyung | 2020, (52) | pp.447~499 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper traces the trajectory of the bilateral relationship between Vietnam and China through the historyscapes of the border in motion. In 2020, both countries celebrated the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the bilateral relationship. As neighboring socialist countries facing the national border, Vietnam and China have shared the extraordinary history of anti-imperialist war and nation-state building, deeply inscribed in the border region since the beginning of the 1940s. After the Japanese troops conquered part of south China, they entered through the northern border of Vietnam in 1940. Since then, the discourse of “without the lips, the teeth feel the cold (脣亡齒寒),” once Hồ Chí Minh referenced in his poem for Sino-Viet anti-imperialist alliance, has long been appropriated for Viet-China Relationship. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) was established in 1945, and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was founded in 1949. While the DRV was in the middle of the First Indochina War against France and enclaved in its northern border with China, the PRC granted its official recognition as the first country ever in the world to the DRV in 1950. The so-called socialist fraternity seemed to burgeon and shape an exceptional relationship between Vietnam and China; however,the apparent difference in scale had constituted the asymmetric political structure in the Cold War era. While many scholars have examined the Vietnam – China relationship mainly focusing on the party-state level interactions, this paper attempts to problematize the historyscapes of the border as the vulnerable and legible place of the bilateral relations. The borderscapes between Vietnam and China had been constituted by the imagination of the socialist fraternity as well as been affected by the structure of asymmetry deeply embedded in the bilateral relations. The border had served as the memorable site of historical moments: the military cooperations until 1954, the safe-havens and the flows of aids during the Vietnam War, the war in 1979, and the normalization of the diplomatic relations in 1991. The historyscapes of the border have been not only reflected by but also mattered to the Viet-China relations. This paper also tries to focus on the Vietnamese perspective about China and the border, since the way Vietnam copes with China and governs the border reveals its political strategy to manage the normalcy of the asymmetric bilateral relations and how China responds to it. In sum, the Cold War historyscapes of the border between Vietnam and China have unraveled that the political strategy of intimate independence rather than dominance or dependence has kept being in question at the border region. The border between Vietnam and China has gradually been transformed from the symbol of the socialist fraternity to the place of encountering asymmetric national ‘geo-bodies’ of both countries.