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2013, Vol., No.22

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    陶家駿 | 2013, (22) | pp.29~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The transcription of the long lost The Annotations on Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra (維摩詰經注), which is in Dunhuang Academy’s collections, is a hand copy done in Northern Dynasties. There are 9 pieces of paper of the transcription still can be seen today. The transcription is written on both sides of the paper and they were done by the same person. On the obverse side of the transcription, the key words of the sutra are written in bigger sized Chinese characters followed by annotation in smaller sized Chinese characters. The annotator was highly possible to be one of Kumārajīva(鳩摩羅什)’s advanced students. There is a supplementary annotation of Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra done by the copyist. As an early copy of its kind, it has highly precious documentary value. This transcription is rather well preserved. It is comparatively long and contains a lot of Chinese characters in nonstandard forms. It is a very good material for studying Chinese characters in nonstandard forms in the Dunhuang MSS written in early period. In this paper the author complied and made philological studies of some of these nonstandard Chinese characters, e.g. (麤), (憕瞢), (顛), (惡), (聖). The author studied the origin and change of these nonstandard Chinese characters. Based on his studies, the author discussed and corrected the viewpoints made by the predecessors.
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    杨金华 | 2013, (22) | pp.71~89 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The boom that Chinese teaching is experiencing all over the world needs to be supported by corresponding Chinese teaching materials. However, we find it quite common those within non-target language context are flawed. First, Most Chinese teaching materials are published for general purpose in Mainland China, which are only applicable to domestic Chinese teaching. However, when they are transferred to be applied in foreign countries, the language context for learners has changed along with the disappearance of previous applicable environment for teaching materials. ‘Time has changed’ as Chinese teaching materials become ‘endemic’. Second, due to insufficient basic and theoretical research as well as corresponding supportive syllabus, there are quite a few problems in aspects such as types, depth and series of Chinese teaching materials compiled by different countries. Nevertheless, distinctive Chinese teaching material can only be found in few countries including Singapore. This article discusses the theoretical basis, necessity and feasibility for nationalization of Chinese teaching materials under non-target language context from two perspectives—instrumental and social cultural. It points out that Chinese teaching under non-target language context is different from domestic Chinese teaching characterized by Chinese rich culture. It should be aligned with place, time and people, together with consideration of non-target cultural and living environment to nationalize Chinese teaching materials so as to enhance their pertinence and affinity. It is believed in this article that nationalized Chinese teaching materials can not be compiled without some early groundwork, for instance, to design a syllabus, to compare between language elements, to study international teaching for English and French and learn experiences from their success, and to collate relevant materials to cater for various learning objectives and interests. Inaddition, nationalized Chinese teaching materials should be focused on cultural integrity, practicability and enjoyment as well as their standardized and systematic features.
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    東晉 佛敎에 나타난 支遁의 인물형상

    Jinyoung Kim | 2013, (22) | pp.91~105 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    儒敎及諸子百家固然有優越的政治與倫理思想存在, 但在宗敎思想和宗敎文化方面, 顯然則有所欠缺. 由於攝取了佛敎, 在中國思想界上, 使深度與廣面增大, 因而開擴了視野, 充實了內容. 對於儒敎之完成宋理學及陽明學, 道敎之發展都有很大的貢獻. 另外在美術、 工藝、 天文、 音樂、 醫學等方面, 因爲攝取印度和西域的文化要素, 愈益使其內容更加豊富. 佛敎之傳入, 固屬充實了一般庶民的信仰生活. 從接受者的角度來說, 對外來文化的認同、 吸收和借鑑, 使之變爲具有民族特色的自己的東西, 也是中國人吸收外來文化的成功範例.最能表現這一歷史過程的便是晉代佛敎與玄學的合流以及玄學的貴族佛敎. 同時, 儘管《世說新語》與《高僧傳》並不具現代意念的小說型態, 不過其書中人物在不同狀況下呈現出多樣面貌, 或是某些性格或是個性反覆出現在書中被加以强調及詮釋, 因此透過對人物透徹的重點强調, 可以全盤地了解該人物的形象. 本論文是論者直到現在發表的連續論文之一, 這次以東晉佛敎的代表僧侶支遁爲探討核心, 透過此般對人物全面且多重的分析, 可將書中人物形象以及東晉佛敎的面貌等考察.
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    孟郊 시가에 나타난 자연묘사 양상

    Bae Daniel | 2013, (22) | pp.107~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    孟郊(751-814)是中唐一位很有個性的诗人, 有‘诗囚’之稱, 與贾岛齐名, 人稱‘郊寒岛瘦’, 现存诗歌500多首, 以苦寒奇險風格在唐代自然诗的发展过程中做出了獨特贡献. 他的自然詩, 不同于陶淵明、谢靈等人的创作, 有前人山水诗中的闲淡之情, 有着自己独特的艺术特色和风格. 本篇論文着眼于上記的內容, 在主要三個方向下分析了孟郊自然詩的特點和意義. 第一, 孟郊在写自然诗时, 愛好使用一些令人膽寒的意象, 據筆者調査, 孟郊詩歌500餘首中活用了‘寒’字60次, ‘冷’字13次, ‘冰’字35次, ‘凍’字19次, 可知孟郊指向的詩的意象相當部分帶着冷靜蕭瑟的傾向. 这種意象能给人一種阴森恐怖的感觉, 情景相生而形成凄寒的艺术风格. 第二, 孟郊的诗歌还善于将自然界中幽奇险僻的景物运用于其中, 使之让人感到驚骇. 孟郊有時意識的将自己投入到清风朗月之中尽情享受, 描写一些令人感到凄凉悲惨的險怪事物, 如虎哮、妇啼等, 让读者感到苦涩之味和心靈上的震颤之感,第三, 孟郊自然詩忠實表現着現實的不滿和個人的悲感. 孟郊的一生经历了科举考试不弟的打击, 他一辈子都诅咒贫穷饥寒, 可偏偏一辈子與贫穷饥寒作伴, 这一切就好像是他一生都要體验不幸, 痛苦、贫穷而孤独、凄凉的生活. 孟郊的一生饱受了命运和现实社会的折磨, 因此才造就了他自然诗别具一格的悲剧风格. 可以说孟郊自然诗中的三種意境—凄寒、奇险、苦涩三者是相辅相成的, 正因为有这三種意境贯穿其中, 才使得孟郊的自然诗别具一格、独树一帜.
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    건륭제(乾隆帝)의 남순(南巡)과 양주(揚州) 희곡

    Mikyung Cha | 2013, (22) | pp.131~152 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    乾隆一朝, 社会安定, 经济繁荣, 国库充实, 人口大增, 边疆及少数民族关系巩固稳定。 政治、 经济、 军事、 文化均达到了盛世状态。 在繁荣昌盛中, 乾隆一生南巡共计六度, 时间分别为乾隆十六年(1751)、 乾隆二十二年(1757)、 乾隆二十七年(1762)、 乾隆三十年(1765)、 乾隆四十五年(1780)、 乾隆四十九年(1784)。 在南巡过程之中, 运河流经扬州, 扬州成为乾隆南巡时必经之地。 因此扬州的官绅士族、 富商大贾为了恭迎圣驾, 可谓是竭尽所能。 特别两淮盐商为了迎銮接驾, 组建迎銮戏班, 以便随时供应演出, 著名的八大内办便是在这样的背景下组建而成的。 又两淮盐商以征聘的方式招致盛名远扬的艺人, 各式名流文人大量编撰新剧, 戏曲演员不断提升表演水平和声腔技艺, 促进了扬州戏曲表演技艺的提高, 带动了扬州剧团的全面发展。
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    On Taoism Ethics and Its Refraction in “San Yan”

    Eunsun Ham | 2013, (22) | pp.153~170 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Taoism is originated from the Chinese traditional culture. Its belief covers the ethics values involved with the interpersonal relations based on the relation between heaven and man. According to the content of the Taoism belief, the Taoism ethics can be reduced to four aspects: heaven dominates human, heaven praises virtue and punishes vice, do good works to accumulate virtue in behavior, and attain the Tao and immortalize through giving up desires. For his preference of Taoism, Feng Menglong reflected the influence of the Taoism ethics on the social life through a series of characters and plots in the stories written in “San Yan”. This not only expressed the author’s respect to Taoism ethics, but also confirmed the value of the mental restraint of Taoism ethics on the social behavior.
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    A Study on the Changes and Characteristics of Chinese ‘Wuxia(武俠) Film Genre’ — Centering on <Dragon Gate Inn> Series

    Kang Nae Young | 2013, (22) | pp.171~207 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore the Changes and Characteristics of Chinese ‘Wuxia Film Genre’. Genres of Film essentially have intertextuality, and change by mutual relation between spectators’ taste and film-makers’ strategy. Chinese Wuxia films represent chinese film genres, which have righteousness and traditional martial arts. This study analysed ‘Dragon Gate Inn’ series in order to explore Wuxia film genres. As a result, Wuxia genre has changed from ‘legitimate Wuxia’ to ‘SFX Wuxia’, ‘blockbuster wuxia’ in Hongkong and China. Therefore, be able to extract main causes of genre changes. because Firstly, Wuxia film have intertextuality of genre film, Secondly, are affected film-maker’s strategy, Thirdly, are influenced spectators’ taste, Fourthly, development of technology, Fifthly, received context cultural cord, etc. And, now leading Wuxia film genre is ‘blockbuster Wuxia(as a mixed genre)’. This trend has a significant meaning, which gives greater amusement to spectators. But, then again, righteousness spirit of Wuxia film more and more becoming weak. And, as Chinese Wuxia film reflect global market strategy, as time goes on Wuxia film more emphasize universal humanism than Chinese traditional values, eventually in the future may be weaken Chinese cultural identity.
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    《華語萃編(初集)》에 나타난 사회문화상 연구 — 의생활, 식생활, 주생활을 중심으로 —

    Eunhee So | 2013, (22) | pp.209~245 | number of Cited : 1
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    語言是文化的載體, 一個民族, 一個國家, 其社會制度, 經濟形態, 價值觀念, 思維方式, 風俗習慣等無不在其語言中得到反映。 從語言學角度來看, 特別詞彙研究可以說是獲得特定歷史時期社會狀況最敏感, 最迅速的寶庫。本文以20世紀日本漢語會話教材《華語萃編(初集)》爲語料, 通過考察這本書所出現的詞彙, 對反映當時社會文化現象中的衣食住行等問題進行全方位地研究。日本以培養完成1901年大陸侵略計劃所需要的中國專家爲目的, 爲了使日本人能夠靈活運用漢語和適應中國的生活, 在當時的政治、 經濟、 社會中心上海設立了海外漢語教育機關《東亞同文書院》。本論文以1914年完稿, 1916年發行的用北方官話編寫成的《華語萃編(初集)》裏出現的衣、 食、 住等生活面貌爲中心, 探討當時的社會文化現象。 內容整理如下。1911年, 在孫文的辛亥革命和近代化的浪潮下, 受西方文化的影響, 中國的衣食住等方面產生了很大的變化。 這樣的變化, 特別是衣、 食、 住方面, 使得以前的風俗和新的風氣共存下來。衣著生活方面, 在1911年辛亥革命爆發後, 持續了兩千多年的帝王統治體制瓦解, 中華民國誕生, 國民成了國家的主人。 根據身份來穿戴的嚴格的規定被廢止, 衣服成了國民不顧身份高低, 自由地展現自己個性的手段。飲食生活方面, 在《華語萃編(初集)》附錄的第9課飲食類單詞表中, 由於上海地區的特性, 羅列了近34種關於魚類的詞語和接近20種關於海鮮的詞語。 特別是受當時西方文化的影響, 突出了各種蛋糕、 餅幹、 外國的葡萄酒、 啤酒等酒類、 罐頭等的出現。 但是這本教材是爲了日本人能夠適應中國生活而編寫的, 所以通過教材可以了解到包括一部分中國飲食的外國的各種各樣的飲食文化與日本人的飲食文化共存的事實。住房生活方面, 兩層的洋房和電燈設施, 以及飲用自來水, 乘坐電車等變化, 體現著政治、 經濟、 社會文化中心的上海逐漸西方化的面貌。