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2015, Vol., No.28

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    A Study on Spatial Practice of Shanghai - Centering around the Plaza in Urban Area

    Ko Yoonsil | 2015, (28) | pp.101~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is about the city space and spectacle of Shanghai, along with the spatial practice happening inside its “Circle of Life”. Shanghai’s spectacle, which is composed of urban planning, capital and various senses spanning three decades, reconstituted humans as subjects of capitalism, that is, subjects of consumption, using the commercial desire as an instrument. Department stores are a key apparatus of Prominent Shanghai People’s Capitalistic subjectivation that pioneers consumption and trend, life and culture, along with entertainment and leisure. The term Guangchang (Plaza), which refers to a department store, first made its appearance in the 1990s and became overwhelmingly abundant after the start of the 21st century. During this process, the original meaning of Guangchang(Plaza) as a public space has diminished. Due to capitalism, the ‘Plaza’ became private space but the people of Shanghai has appropriated the private ‘plaza’, designated by politics and capital, to a square of the citizen. If a square privatized by capital was reclaimed to an amusement square for everyone, through the case of Guangchangwu, the transition from mourners for the Apartment Fire of 11.15 to demonstrators caused the sense of individual ownership to change into “community ownership”. For the first time, the people living in Shanghai experienced the common emotional bond as “Shanghai People”, and through this process, the true meaning of the Square was resurrected. This strategy of everyday life is constantly realized in the “Circle of Life”, originally formed from the authorities and capital, and it is beginning to generate new meaning. The objective of the Tactics of Everyday Life is not aimed at the mere neutralization of the authorities. Through endless trial and effort, it’s purpose is to restore the area once dominated by capital and power into the property of the public.
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    A Study of Culture Go Globa Strategy and Type in China

    Kwon Ki Young | 2015, (28) | pp.125~150 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Enter the 21st century, while the Chinese government has decided an important factor to enhance the comprehensive national strength and culture and promote multifaceted cultural industry development policies. The establishment of such a policy response to the invasion of Western culture, enhance the national image of China in the international community and strengthening the soft power switch and external purposes in China ’s industrial structure, culture and regional identity, establishing a regional development strategy based on cultural resources of the country internally the purpose of such action was the result of a comprehensive. Among them was the Chinese government to raise more than anything is the subject of global market competitiveness of Chinese cultural enterprises focused. This strategy was just to encourage them go global(走出去) of Chinese companies. The Chinese government’s strategy can be said is quite aggressive responses. China has implemented a strong regulatory policies on China’s foreign cultural products and cultural enterprises to protect domestic cultural industries. However, the Chinese government Chinese companies did not want to settle for these shields. Rather, the government wanted to learn the skills and experience of developed countries in a variety of ways by the Chinese enterprises to enter the competitive global market plunge in and adapt to the rules of the global cultural market. And the Chinese government has mobilized a comprehensive promotion strategies, financial commitments, tax incentives and financial support system construction, culture multilateral trade policy instruments, such as bases for this purpose. Korea-China FTA is will to act as an important instrument for actively engaged in the culture of Korea-China bilateral trade is evident. But look at China’s foreign cultural trade policies and strategies that are expected to give South Korea trade show in the culture is very optimistic, but does point is to know. Movies, drama, Animaition challenges expect no less consultation on co-production. Especially in overseas markets and the recent types of foreign investment in China is rapidly expanding, which aims to enhance the practical impact by trying to dominate the distribution network or platform to mobilize huge capital market, as well as acquiring skills and experience of the developed countries. Aggressive investment in China to Korea -China FTA cultural enterprise in the instrument is expected to be further expanded.
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    How to Read the Post Socialist China - The Deconstruction of the Production Subject & Art

    kim Young Mi | 2015, (28) | pp.151~176 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article notifies the change in life status of the people that were workers in which, the main productions of the socialism in the past, and learning the arts that were related to this theme. There are two types of art that are studied. One is the Fluxus art. Unlike other types of performance arts, Fluxus art sends out its messages actively by communicating with the audience. They transform things that we directly experience every day, like death, hygiene, pollution, and services into art. The audience is pleased and experiences the problems of life which, can not be felt by news or other media, by being a part of this art. The other is the Photograph art. In this particular art, the picture observes people’s lives. They are exposed to consumption, and their position that are now away from the labor site are brought out without any censorship. By revealing especially the rural exodus worke, vagrants in streets, or children who were abandoned by their parents, one can observe various spectrums of people during the post-socialist period. The two arts recognize the following. People’s lives from the socialist period are already moving towards consumption from production. However, there are people who remain in the past socialist period because they couldn’t get used to the new consumerism culture. As a member of society, people now have various positions from their own direction. These two arts are becoming new ways of offering them into aesthetic politics.
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    A Study on Liang Qi-Chao’s “Record of Japan and Chosun Annexation”

    Choi, Hyeong-Wook | 2015, (28) | pp.295~332 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Liang Qi-Chao who took the led of the drastic transitional period of modern China played important roles not only as a representative theoretician but also as an activist among the intellectuals of revitalizing reforms and patriotic enlightenment. Moreover, his innovative efforts in the fields of politics, media, academia, education, and literature had great influences on the intellectuals of China as well as Chosun around the time. Many Korean progressive intellectuals in the transitional period of Chosun at risk of the state of the fall of Chosun Dynasty attempted to develop their understanding of western academic ideologies through Liang Qi-Chao’s publications and thus to establish systematic theories for saving the nation. Meanwhile, Liang Qi-Chao also had great recognitions of situations in Chosun while paying special attentions and sought to take some lessons learned from Chosun for China, which resulted in his development of interactive relationships between the two. Based on these recognitions and as a result of the close examinations of Liang Qi-Chao’s publications, Chosun as to him was a special otherness that might reflect China in comparison with the Western and so to speak, a miserable neighboring nation that China had close kinships. In this perspective, he kept the record of the declining history of Chosun in order for Chinese imperialism to avoid Chinese possible national and ethnic conflict and crisis, under the recognition that China would be placed in the destiny like Chosun in the near future. In his position, it was a great shame that Chosun which was subject to Chinese power tried to escape from the power. He also blamed the Chinese government for its incompetency that led to inevitable loss of its control over Chosun. Furthermore, Liang Qi-Chao composed poetry and prose in relation to Chosun in the position of Sinocentrism, nationalism, imperialism, and enlightenment. The major ten publications of Liang Qi-Chao had been released between 1904 and 1911 in the period in which Japan had come to complete its control and authority over Chosun. Among them, in particular, 「A brief history of the fall of the Chosun Dynasty」 (1904. 9), 「The fall of Chosun, vol. 6 in the collection of world history within the past one year」 (1906. 2), 「The reasons for the decline of Chosun」 (1910. 9) had been written for Chinese special attention to and recognition of the decline and the fall of Chosun Dynasty. The purposes of these books lied in expanding Chinese power and thus enlightening the Chinese public. In other words, the books aimed to analyze the problems with Chosun and through exaggerating expressions to raise Chinese public awareness of the importance of national power. Out of his publications, the most important work on the fall of Chosun involved Liang Qi-Chao’s record of Japan and Chosun Annexation. The book illustrated the processes of the fall of Chosun, which was divided into two parts in the introductory chapter. The first part described the historical era from the perspective of Chosun, which was classified into 1) the period of Chosun subject to China, 2) the period of nominal independence of Chosun, 3) the period of Chosun subject to Japan, and 4) the period of Japan and Chosun annexation. The second part illustrated the era from the perspective of Japan, which was grouped into 1) the period of the China-Japan dispute over Chosun, 2) the peirod of the Russia-Japan dispute over Chosun, 3) Chosun as a Japanese protectorate, and 4) the period of Japan and Chosun annexation. His recognition in the book, The Record of Japan and Chosun Annexation represented his sympathy on the fall of Chosun, the regret about the loss of Chosun as a Chinese tributary nation in the views of the Sinocentrism and imperialism, the censure on the force of Japan as a rival, and his criticism on the national characteristics and the political elites of Chosun as a fundamental reason for the fall of Chosun. His ultimate goal to keep the record of the fall of Chosun was to give lessons for the enlightenment of China on the basis of his desperate recognition of Chinese future which could be similar to Chosun’s case. In particular, his ideas behind the book were developed based on his excessively subjective and biased thoughts about Chosun because he believed that the fall of Chosun was attributed to Chosun’s inferior national traits. His perspectives can be interpreted that he intended to enlighten Chinese public and reorganize Chinese national characteristics or directly accepted Japanese manipulative perspectives about Chosun. Liang Qi-Chao’s excessive criticism about Chosun can not be considered as appropriate constructive criticism due to his subjective and biased perspectives. However, his criticism may have some value as a considerable criticism about the people from the emperor to ordinary people of Chosun at that time who were incompetent to appropriately react to the historical changes worldwide and were incapable of getting out of their comfort zone in many aspects of their lives.
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    The Prosodic Structure of Mandarin Chinese Syllable and Moraic Length

    송시황 | 2015, (28) | pp.413~433 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In light of CV theory, X-bar theory and moraic theory, this essay studies the prosodic hierarchy structure of mandarin Chinese Syllables. We propose that, (a) according to the natural pronunciation and isochronous principle, the deep structure of third tone should be a low pitch 21, rather than a full falling-rising tone 214.(b) Mandarin Chinese syllable is a double-mora structure which takes two chronemes. (c) Initials and alliterations are front mora while finals are back mora. (d) The essential vowel could either be the front mora or the back mora, which also reflects that it is decisive to Chinese syllable.