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2016, Vol., No.34

  • 1.

    ‘Extinction of Young Adults’ and Change in Structure of Feelings in Contemporary China

    Ko Yoonsil | 2016, (34) | pp.1~21 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Young adults in the 21st century have come to suffer from fierce competition for survival and anxiety about their future. They no longer form a central point through sense of community and common good, and they have become fragmented as ‘separately-existing us’ or ‘individuals extinguishing alone.’ This appears more apparently in cultural phenomena and subcultures of resistance and defiance are consumed as individuality and youth is commercialized. Young adults who grew mature though internal reflection and contemplation were named based on various cultural traits and distinction of generation, and they have become the principal agents of consumption. Polarization of cities and rural areas in China has become even more serious and survival has emerged as dire problem for young adults in competition structure represented by ‘survival of the fittest’ and ‘winner takes it all.’Selfishness for survival prevented genuineness from growing up through inner self, and young adults who lost this genuineness have come to be born again as snobbish subjects, which takes place not only in China but also around the whole world including Korea. Especially, appearance of snobbish society and rebirth of snobbish subjects are deemed to be related with change in economic structure and corresponding transposition of power. Radical change in the dominant structure of feelings in China is linked with the change in the form of power which is closely related with economic conditions. This structure of feelings in Chinese society faced a turning point of rapid change at them time of Den Xioping’s ‘Addresses in the Southern Provinces (南方講和).’ At the beginning of this historical point of inflection lay 6/4 Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989. Since then, Chinese system has been on the continuum of Deng Xioping’s system called ‘6/4 system’, which has strengthened consumption capitalism, produced emergence of various cultural tribes of young adult generation and created a new structure of cultural industry-new media-mass culture, spreading the materialism of desires. Now, snobbish emotions have taken firm root widely in overall contemporary Chinese society. From white collar workers to farmers in rural areas as well as young adults are willing to spend their whole life to accumulate wealth and earn social status, and shameless pursuit of these values means formation of structure of feelings which puts these values before anything else and does not feel ashamed of it. This has changed everything from individual way of thinking to interpersonal relationship and way of daily lives. This study explores the changes in Chinese young adults’ culture and structure of feelings through analysis of popular discourse on ‘extinction of young adults’, popularization of cuteness (萌) culture, phenomenon of retrospection of youth and various sub-culture phenomena of young adults.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Reproduction of Subalterns in Ann Hui’s A Simple Life

    Sung-Hee Jin | 2016, (34) | pp.23~48 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This research paper explores how cultural texts that reflect phenomena within the world we live in and create social discussions regarding such phenomena view subalterns and the way they describe them. In order to achieve this, the present author selected the Hong Kong film A Simple Life as the subject of analysis and examined how the film reproduces the issue of Hong Kong’s female commoners and elderly, and also discusses the cultural discourse formed by the narrative constructed by the film. A Simple Life is a film about how a subaltern female maidservant and an upper class employer. However, the film focuses on its portrayal of the upper class, namely, the employer as sincerely caring for the remainder of the maidservant’s life so as to express the warmth between human beings and the possibility of equal solidarity. Furthermore, the film, in this way, delivers the hope that the issues of social and political realities in relation to commoners can be overcome. Ann Hui also places stories on Hong Kong films that seemingly have no direct connection to the lives of the main characters, in various parts of the film, with the purpose of directly portraying the lives of the characters. The director’s contrived setting of inserting scenes related to Hong Kong films in between the overall flow of the story in which the main character, who has lived her entire life in a relationship of master and servant, ends her life amidst the consideration of others is nothing but a roundabout revelation of the director’s regret for the current status of Hong Kong films and the Hong Kong which has come to serve another master, China, after escaping the British. Such a setting derives a particular narrative as the story about the current main character(within the film) and the reality of Hong Kong and Hong Kong films(outside the film) become interlinked. Thus, as it attempts to speak of the lives of subalterns, A Simple Life commits the error of again turning subalterns into the others through its text by deleting the narrative of revenge which has been articulated by the subalterns themselves. By examining the narrative configuration of A Simple Life and the construction of its cinematic devices, the study can draw out discussions on whether subalterns can speak in their own voice through cultural texts. The study can also form an arena of discourse regarding how texts that attempt to recreate subalterns and their lives should adhere to an ethical attitude or gaze toward the others.
  • 3.

    A Study of China Game Industry Advance Overseas Market Status and the Implications

    Kwon Ki Young | 2016, (34) | pp.49~75 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is China game industry go-to-market strategy for analysis abroad and in the future, Korea and with the collaboration of China's game industry to derive implications in relation to the purpose. China's game industry is about 30 percent every year for the past 8 years of growth, China domestic game is 70% and the domestic market. China in accordance with these developments in overseas exports grew rapidly in the game. The evolution of the game industry promotion China game industry for a variety of government policies and efficient policy propulsion system, and sharply expanding the domestic market will be helped, such as a scale. But more than anything the innovative efforts of companies important China game powered by. China game industry carve out their particular overseas markets appears significantly in these efforts. The game of companies are exploring various strategies for overseas. Of course, to take advantage of these various models are above their capabilities and considering the characteristics of the market abroad by region was selected. China Government's policy was to help to support overseas, but in the last 10 years, China companies showed that the performance of these enterprises' innovative overseas advance was the result of the effort. They are rapidly growing giant did not settle in the domestic market and didn't have a lot of return on the market in Southeast Asia was not neglected. They entered the mainstream market in order to enhance the capabilities of game development on intensive investment in itself. They are suitable for local characteristics, the way I had to try a wide variety of offshoring. They recently secured a global excellent IP (intellectual property) and an aggressive investment for. They also pioneered the emerging markets are moving rapidly. These innovative efforts of China companies in overseas markets have to compete with the China companies and also many implications for Korean companies.
  • 4.

    Anti-religious Discourse and ‘Youth’ around May Fourth

    Hong junhyong | 2016, (34) | pp.77~104 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The development process of anti-religion discourse covering criticism on Confucianism during the New Culture Movement period and Anti-religion Movement in 1922 reveals that religious discourses have changed ceaselessly according to the changes in social discourses. While anti-religion discourses basically began by denying the usefulness of religion from the perspective of scientism, the religious debates in the Young China Association pointed out the uselessness of religion for social reform as the social trends of China had been radically being changed since the May Fourth Movement. In the meantime, criticism was especially developed against the effect of religion on young people's ideology or ethics. The Anti-religion Movement of 1922, influenced by these trends, was a product of struggle that appeared in front of the hegemony over young students who played principal role in ‘Social Remodeling’ in the radical turmoil of youth discourse following the May Fourth Movement. The progressives took the lead in developing various discourse struggles for anti-religion and antichristianism to remove the influence of Christianity on young people. Meanwhile, they called new subjects of youth represented by progressive youth and strived to go beyond ‘Christian youth’ based on religious humanism and emphasizing the self-discipline of individuals and even the enlightening subject of youth with the spirit of May Fourth Movement represented by ‘new youth’. ‘Class Consciousness’, ‘Hot blood’ and ‘Justice’ were suggested as virtue that progressive youth as new subjects of youth should possess: ‘Class Consciousness’ was intended to awaken and inspire young people with motive for Social reform and remodeling; ‘Hot blood’ and ‘Justice’ were emphasized as emotional attitudes and ethical foundation to be possessed by ‘progressive youth’.
  • 5.

    An Research Ecofeminism Shown in Shen Congwen’s Xiangxi Work

    HYE IM LEE | 2016, (34) | pp.105~133 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Shen Congwen upholds nature and appreciates women, making a very highly organic integration of man and nature. He criticizes the male chauvinism, and speaks for ecological values of the sexual balance. Shen Congwen’s female shape is an important means to express his unique perception and understanding of the social life.
  • 6.

    The Socially Controlled Women of the Republic of China in Heterosexuality - Focused on 17 - year Female Literature in China and Early Chinese Contemporary Female Literature

    Lho,Sung-Sook | 2016, (34) | pp.135~157 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study contemplates the conceptual trend of socially controlled heterosexuality, which was started from Socialism female literature, and developed in 17-year female literature, and finally reached the peak during Cultural revolution in China. Particularly, 17-year female literature, Scar and Remembrance literature of early Chinese contemporary female literature are mainly focused for insightful consideration. Heterosexual feeling between man and woman was extremely excluded from the field of literature because it was branded as the negative, the bourgeois, and the decadence, and revolution-romanticism by “Revolution + Love” was the typical way of literary creation at that time. Although both men and women were forbidden to have serious heterosexual feeling, especially women’s feeling should be nearly annihilated because such emotional annihilation of women played a huge role of making men never feel any heterosexual feeling towards women. Since a woman should be recognized to a man not as an object of heterosexual feeling but as a comrade of revolution accomplishing the development of New China, strict social restriction towards women was ended up with women’s virilization. Even though having heterosexual affection between man and woman was forbidden to all, it destroyed women much more severely. Women who lost femininity became virilization, so that women in the republic of China finally possessed dissonant identity; woman’s body with man’s mind(social gender). This study examines how the national policy in China from 1949 to 1976, so-called ‘the social control of heterosexuality’, was expressed and created in literature. Woman policies the bureaucrat conducted towards women as member of the Republic of China reached the peak during Cultural revolution in China. However, scars and pains of this period caused by prohibiting the creation of pure literature were not reproduced as a form of literary work until reaching Remembrance literary trend and the scars of Chinese contemporary female literature. For this reason, 17-year female literature and early Chinese contemporary female literature became the center of this study as research subjects. To study how heterosexuality had been controlled to women in the People’s Republic of China from 1949 to 1976, the body is mainly divided into three parts for insightful analysis. The first part is ‘Pure heterosexuality and Revolutionary comradeship’. In this part, 「Hong dou」 writthen by ‘Zong pu’, 「Ai, Shibunengwangjide」 written by ‘Zhang jie’, and 「Shang hen」 written by especially male writer; ‘Lu xin hua’ becomes the center of research to consider how heterosexuality was recognized under the social circumstance; ‘revolutionary comradeship’ was the main social consciousness. The second part is ‘Disappeared heterosexuality and Eliminated feminity’. In this part, 「Womenfufuzhijian」 written by ‘Xiao ye mu’, 「Wo zainarcuoguoleni?」 written by ‘Zhang xin xin’, and 「Zuzhibuxinlaideqingnianren」, 「Hu die」 written by ‘Wang meng’ are subjects of consideration how much strictly controlled heterosexuality towards both man and woman affected particularly women. The third part is ‘Heterosexuality in private area and Marriage in public system’. In this part, 「Laochunv」 written by ‘Li hui xin’, 「Rendaozhongnian」 written by ‘Chen rong’, and 「Yu, shashasha」 written by ‘Wang an yi’ are main literary works to analyze the social trend of women’s perception towards heterosexuality during this period and the fact that social restriction towards private area like heterosexuality among people affected public system like marriage.
  • 7.

    As 『Zhuangzi』 Leadership Viewed the Issue of Globalization and Multiculturalism

    Kim,Song-Hee | 2016, (34) | pp.159~190 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Each country gradually has becoming different culture because of the 21st century Globalization has accelerated, in addition, we became a structure of governance and management which cannot be done separately from neo-liberalism. It is true that globalization has positive effects for humanity, But it is true that globalization also does raised certain realistic fears about some harm that it brought. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, It is a great significance that looking at the issues of globalization and multiculturalism from the insight of Chinese classics 『Zhuangzi』. If so, what kind of leadership shows from the 『Zhuangzi』? In the warring states period, a week country Song was threatened with powerful nations. Crazy mixed up world at times. How does they survive in the world can be threatened with life? 『Zhuangzi』 is written by using humor or a fable. The message is, Freedom and happiness ought to be restored to public life. In that sense, 『Zhuangzi』 shows how to overcome the tough world with it is exemplifying the theory with a specific example. 『Zhuangzi』 is a book that often seems eccentric and confused, but actually has a very sharp mind. It has amazing insight about contemporary. I think we can say that is a virtues of leadership. Discussion on multiculture in Korea started in side of human rights protection for marriage. However the concept of 21st multiculturalism have changed greatly with rapid free trade and globalization. So, the heart of the problem is not limited on this subject, it is not simple. Excessive competition has destroyed people's moral fibre, just only winner takes all structures. Because free trade made it easier for economically stronger countries to overpower and exploit weaker ones. Only money have become the standard for all of the people. The traditional sentiment(情) of Korean community is gradually disappeared. The number of foreign residents in South Korea has already passed the two-million mark on the back of the influx of migrant workers and foreign wives for koreans. Koreans and foreigners associated with the job of conflict will be more serious social problem. 『Zhuangzi』 showed leadership through different eyes, so I wish to discuss issue of globalization and multiculturalism in Korea through it.
  • 8.

    The Composition and Significance of Li Yu’s 『Mei Shan Xiu』

    Youn Hyeon Sook | 2016, (34) | pp.191~221 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Li Yu(李玉)'s 「Mei Shan Xiu(眉山秀)」 is a classic play based on the five novels 「Su Xiao Mei San Nan Xin Lang(蘇小妹三難新郞)」, 「Yi Chang Zhuan(義倡傳)」, 「Wang An Shi San Nan Su Xue Shi(王安石三難蘇學士)」, 「Ao Xiang Gong Yin Hen Ban Shan Tang(拗相公飮恨半山堂)」, 「Wu Jie Chan Shi Si Hong Lian Ji(五戒禪師私紅蓮記)」 and some historical facts. Some people appreciate this play very much, but some people think it has no literary value. The major reason this work received bad evaluation is that it had adopted existing contents of the five novels. Therefore, it is evaluated to have poor contents. But I don’t think it is an objective evaluation. So, I attempt to do objective analysis on the composition and significance of the play. According to most analyses, 「Mei Shan Xiu」 is known to be based on the five novels. However, it is only one-third of whole work. The rest is created by Li Yu. Moreover, even though the rest part of the work is based on historical facts, Li Yu reconstructed it according to his own historical view. Through this process, it was reborn as a new work. According to 「Mei Shan Xiu Ti Ci(眉山秀題詞)」, 「Mei Shan Xiu」 received fervent response from the audience, which proves its quality. 「Mei Shan Xiu」 depicted the political situation of Song(宋) Dynasty. Actually, it was very similar to the age in which he lived. The characters in the work are not men of the past, and the situation in the work is never the same one as the past. Therefore, Li Yu attempted to throughly depict the past reflect the current situation and this proves that 「Mei Shan Xiu」 has high ideological value.
  • 9.

    A Study of Throwing, Capturing and Obstructing Hidden Weapons in The Romance of The Three kingdoms(『三國演義』)

    HONG, Youn-ki | 2016, (34) | pp.223~246 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There are some throwing, capturing and obstructing hidden weapons in The romance of the three kingdoms(『三國演義』). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the features of the novel description about these hidden weapons. For example, Meteor hammer(流星鎚), Three meteor hammer(三個流星鎚) and Flying hammer(飛鎚) belong to throwing hidden weapon. Lasso(套索) and Hooking rope(鉤索) belong to capturing hidden weapon. Caltrops(鐵蒺藜) and Tripping horse rope(絆馬索) belong to obstructing hidden weapon. Through this investigation, we can know the following features: The first, All of these throwing, capturing and obstructing hidden weapons in The romance of the three kingdoms(『三國演義』) are actually non-existent weapons in The history of the three kingdoms(『三國志』). The second, the most characters who are using these hidden weapons are fictional characters that the writer give them negative images. The third, as the novel props, these hidden weapons make the excellent action which cause momentary inversion of the battle condition, make heroes death more glorious and more grievous.
  • 10.

    On the Promotion of Chinese Literati's Status According to Du Fu's Poem on Painting

    Su Hang | Choi woo suk | 2016, (34) | pp.247~264 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In Chinese poetry, calligraphy, painting, and poetry ever since long time ago have developed into the excellent level. Although there are some works long before in calligraphy and painting art, they are basically thrived in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Even though many people like calligraphy and painting, the status of calligraphy and painting cannot be compared with that of the poetry. Until the heyday of the Tang Dynasty, calligraphy and painting get the equal status in the theoretical perspective. This position has laid a solid foundation for the prosperity of the literary art of the later generations and is the key node of the development of Chinese aesthetics. Du Fu was the first to create a large number of poems on painting and calligraphy. He marked the arrival of a new era. This article from the analysis of Du Fu's poetry, calligraphy and painting discusses the subjects of paintings and also argues about Du Fu on the faith of the expression and identity. Thus, in this article, I show that this critical period interaction between the various categories of art in the development history of Chinese aesthetics is one necessary annotation to understand the Chinese aesthetics.
  • 11.

    The Influence of Manchurian Culture on China and the Manchurian Culture Crisis Theory — with the Manchu language vocabulary in the Northeast dialect as the center

    Na, Min Gu | LEE SOO BIN | 2016, (34) | pp.265~291 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Manchu people constantly assimilated with and influenced on their surrounding peoples’culture and enhanced their ethnic values by striving for harmony with various peoples and producing their own unique culture. Eventually, Manchurian culture contributed to the development of human civilization as a cultural heritage valuable to China and the world. Especially, Manchu people made an frequent exchange with Han Chinese and the Manchu language vocabulary existing in the Northeast dialect vividly reflects Manchu people’s cultural life, manners and customs, etc, richening today’s vocabulary of the Northeast dialect. But in spite of the influence that Manchurian culture had on the Northeast Asia, the Manchurian culture crisis theory came to the fore with intensifying Chinese economic reform and the effect of foreign culture. Manchu people no longer communicate with one another using the Manchu language. Their traditional manners have been weakened and they are assimilating with Han Chinese at high speed. Nowadays every culture experiences rapid change by the influence of economic globalization and foreign culture. However, the change of common language, region, economic activity and culture does not necessarily mean the people’s complete extinction. So long as Manchu people adopt a positive receptive stand to the Manchurian language, they can explore the value of their language and culture and going further contribute to the development of the field of economy, society and culture. Therefore, the decline of the population commanding the Manchurian language should not lead to the reduction of interest in the language and Manchurian culture. Today’s Manchurian culture waits for a new type of progress, equipped with practical values. The Manchurian culture crisis does not apply to only the Manchu people but it is a common issue to minority races in the world. So it is required that we should take an interest in and support minority races’language and culture. Furthermore, we should read the stream of times and prepare for the light and shadow of globalization in a long-term perspective.
  • 12.

    A Research on the Modern Modification and Its Factor of Chinese Ancient ‘Ding(鼎)’: Focused on the Analysis of the Huge Ding(巨鼎)

    Park, Seok Hong | 2016, (34) | pp.293~317 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Ding(鼎) is a famous traditional and historical caldron in China. It is originated from earthenware pottery which was used cooking utensils by prehistoric man in the prehistoric age of China. By the Shang(商) and the Zhou(周) dynasty, Ding was frequently used as a ancestral rites instrument. It had been accepted as the symbol of king and the royal families of ancient China. Recently there are many huge Ding(巨鼎) in various provinces of China. Some of these have huge size, for example Zhonghua Baifu Dading(中华百福大鼎), Zhonghua Wanshou Dading(中華萬壽大鼎), Shishiqiushi Dading(實事求是寶鼎), Jiulong Baoding(九龍寶鼎), Minzhu Tuanjie Baoding(民族團結寶鼎), etc. The largest one is over 10 meters long and weight of 56 tons. This paper focused on analysis the meaning of these Chinese huge Ding, and tried to search the root cause of appearance of Chinese huge Ding in modern China. Main findings of this study is that Chinese huge Ding have the means of legitimacy, stability, the best, eternity to express social and public message of current Chinese society by various graphonomical and phonetical symbolic methods. And the fundamental reason of making huge Ding is based on the psychic unity of mankind(‘Elementargedanken’) and cultural memory about the big tripod caldron of Ancient Chinese including Ding of the Shang and the Zhou dynasty.
  • 13.

    The Stylistic and Semantic Features of “adjective+zhe” Structure: Focusing on the Character Adjective of the Single Syllable

    Ko Young-ran | 2016, (34) | pp.319~343 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In academia of grammar, while verbs taking the aspect particle “zhe” have been studied by a lot of scholars, few people have paid attention to adjectives with the aspect particle “zhe”. Therefore, in this study, based on 159 single syllable adjectives, the researcher tried to make a comparison between the results from the statistical data and the existing research results on the basis of the data collected from the large scale corpus and the new media. The conclusions of this study are as followed. Firstly, although the adjectives which take the aspect particle “zhe” have been generally little considered so far, the results in this study showed that 93% of monosyllabic adjectives can take the aspect particle “zhe”. Secondly, it was found that the use of “adjective+zhe” structure is more close to the written language style, such as novels or Weibo showing strong subjectivity. This is because the subjective style is often used as “self-centered speech” to describe the movement and the status of people or things. Thirdly, “adjective+zhe” in the meaning can be divided into two categories: the mainstream meaning and non-mainstream meaning. Mainstream meanings include the continuity of states, the attachment of properties and attributes, the strengthening of meanings, and the continuing meaning of the past from the present. On the other hand, non-mainstream meaning is only limited to the “measure adjective+zhe” form to indicate the comparative significance. According to the results from this study, while the structure frequently appeared in the literary works of “Lao She”, it rarely used at present.
  • 14.

    The Study of Sun’s Daily Orbit Through Chinese Characters - Focusing on the Ri Radical in Chinese Character of ShuowenJiezi

    Heungsoo Park | 강몽 | 2016, (34) | pp.345~374 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The ancient Chinese considers the sun’s orbit and orbiting time the same concept. The observation on the sun’s orbit and the its position in the sky help people with identifying the time. Based on the sequence of dawn, orbiting and sunset, the theme of the article focuses on the analysis of the Ri radical in Chinese character of Shuowen Jiezi in order to identify Chinese character’s representation of the status of sun’s daily orbit through analyzing the origin, pattern and meaning of 21 Chinese characters. In particular, some knotty Chinese characters which are categorized to the Ri radical of Shuowen Jiezi, but neither the oracle script nor the original meaning literally represents the correlation with the sun’s daily orbit. For example, there is no ‘日’ in the oracle script of ‘昕’(), but ‘囧’ is categorized to the pictograph which means ‘the window is bright' and therefore the original meaning with ‘日’ is the same. Another example, though the oracle script of ‘昔’ is (), its original meaning is not ‘dry meat’ according to the exegesis, but ‘the sun is gone’ which is extended to ‘the past’. Furthermore, the article also indicates some characters which are not categorized to Ri radical of Shuowen Jiezi, but the original meaning is related to sun’s daily orbit, and then the characters are classified as the status of dawn, orbiting and sunset according to the meaning and pattern. For example, ‘朝’() is categorized to Gan radical of Shuowen Jiezi, but stands for the status of ‘the sky is slightly bright and the moon is still visible’. Therefore, ‘朝’ should be classified into the status of ‘dawn’. In addition, ‘是’() is categorized to Shi radical of Shuowen Jiezi , but stands for the status of ‘the sun vertically shines on the ground and on the top of people’s head’. Therefore ‘是’ should be classified into the status of ‘orbiting’. ‘莫’() is categorized to Mo radical of Shuowen Jiezi , but stands for the status of ‘the sun is falling into the grass’. Therefore ‘莫’ should be classified into the status of ‘sunset’. Based on the pattern and meaning, the article probes into the cultural connotation embedded by the Chinese characters that represent the sun’s daily orbit. For example, the oracle structure of the character ‘晛’() embodies the compositional features of 'scatter perspective' which is similar with Chinese painting. In addition, the meaning of‘晋'() represents the ancient Chinese’s perception on the power of the gods of bow and arrow. Finally, based on the analysis of pattern, meaning and cultural connotation of Chinese character, the article indicates the Chinese characters of dawn, orbiting and sunset in sequence, and summarizes the status of the sun’s daily orbit that expressed by Chinese characters.