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2017, Vol., No.35

  • 1.

    Loss and Return ― A Review on Chinese “Consciousness of Roots”

    sung-hee Jin | Eun-Jung Choi | 2017, (35) | pp.1~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines, through the cultural texts, the aspects of separation and emigration experienced by the people from the “Three Areas across the Taiwan Strait” as these areas went through a history of severance or separation through modern, post-modern, cold war and post-cold war period. Those who emigrated from these areas experienced a cultural hybridization as they ‘separated themselves’ and ‘were separated’ from their mother lands and came to have a desire to return to it. This aspiration created a consciousness of ‘returning’ to their mother lands, which in turn generated a ‘root mechanism’ that made them recognize where the base of their lives and their cultural mother lands were located. ‘Nostalgia’, which is one of the most representative phenomena of the ‘root mechanism’, not only generates a desire to return to one’s hometown, but also leads to a behavior of imagining about one’s hometown in a special way. The sensibility of separated and emigrated aliens or marginal people, who think that they have lost their roots, are being placed in a space between their hometowns and other areas; and makes many of them constantly long for an emotional bond with their hometowns. However, most people. who are unable to return to their hometowns and who find it difficult to become real members of other communities, are sometimes aware of their “having no roots” and so create distorted memories of their roots. The characters in the works of Yu Guangzhong, Autumnal Lament In Exile of Ann Hui, and The Wedding Banquet of Ang Lee all have an inherently intense nostalgia because they fail to get recognized as full members of any society; but their hometowns exist only in their imagination and are very far from reality. This leads them to a double loss in which they once again grow away from their hometowns.  Loss creates a function of ‘filling again’, Hence, the way of the existence of aliens and marginal people leads to a ‘succession of tradition’. The succession of tradition shown in the above works led to a return to the Chinese culture, which was completed with the Sinocentrism’ and the value of ‘national homogeneity’ taking precedence over anything else. However, it only ironically proves that the more aliens and marginal people emphasize their tradition and the more they assert the ‘Sinocentrism’, the less their existence has to do with their “having roots”
  • 2.

    The Study of Images through Transmediation of Visualtexts ― Focused on Walker and APRES LE DELUGE

    Kim Soyoung | 2017, (35) | pp.41~68 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyse two films Waker(2012) and APRES LE DELUGE(2008) which show transmediation in filmmaking. The former is made by Tsai Ming-liang who is one of the most important film directors in Taiwan. The latter is done by Gao Xing-jian who was born in China and moved to France. Both of films are transmediated by fine arts such as performance, painting, and dancing. To examine the visual images of two films deeply, Gilles Deleuze’s cinema theory is taken use of for an analytic tool. Movement-images and time-images are the representative words, which succeeded to Henri Bergson’s ontology including theory of images Firstly, a lot of shots of Waker are captured by movements of main actor and cameras. These shots are related to Deleuze’s movement-image as well as time-image. According to Bergson, movement-images is in the process of changing bound for the whole or the duration. The transmediation of performance to this movie makes audiences feel that this movie is out of genre and get forward to think about the existence of ourselves in the universe under the philosophical thought. Secondly, Gao Xing-jian made APRES LE DELUGE as poetic cinema mentioned by Pier Paolo Pazloini. In this movie, three components of frame, shot, montage are combined into symbolic images. Appling Deleuze’s theory to analyse them, the montage(time-images) of this film is formed by the confluence of paintings and dancings functioning as movement-images(shot). In other words, two fine arts are transmediated to this film and this phenomenon causes this movie’s poetic, symbolic, experimental, and abstract characteristics. I assume that two film directors would like to make a new style of filmmaking using various genres of fine arts, and share their ideas of human beings in the world or universe. Through this study, the concept of images can be discussed by multiple views based on a few scholars’ philosophical arguments.
  • 3.

    Cultural and Political Implications of Formation of Chinese ‘New Worker’ Group Identity ― Focusing on ‘Workers’ House(工友之家)’ in Picun, Beijing

    Jung Soo Kim | 2017, (35) | pp.69~94 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on the formation of the new worker group identity shown in some ‘migrant worker’ groups in China in recent years. It first rejects ‘migrant workers’, the given identity and gives themselves the identity of a ‘new worker(新工人)’. This ‘new worker’ is a self-calling made for the acceptance and recognition of the work (especially manual labor) and life of the ‘new worker’ group as they are, and furthermore for a constructive new identity. The identity of this ‘new worker’ is distinguished from the social status of the workers’ of state-owned enterprises in the socialist era by attaching the word ‘new’ and reemphasizes the meaning and value of labor in the post industrial society with the word ‘labor’. The identity of this ‘new worker’ is not just a one-time declaration, but a cohesive force that proposes a new cultural arts and lifestyle. This paper focuses on the activities of the ‘Workers‘ House’ established in Picun, Beijing(北京皮村). Starting with the first music, poetry and reading activities, an elementary school for children of migrant workers (Tongxin shiyan xuexiao 同心實驗學校) and college for migrant workers (Gongren daxue 工人大學) were founded with the profits of album sales and a cultural arts group that can express their own voice (Xingongren wenhua yishutuan 新工人文化藝術團) and museum containing the history of migrant workers (Dagong wenhua yishu bowuguan 打工文化藝術博物館) were founded. In addition, through the profit activities such as recycling shops (Tongxin huhui shangdian 同心互惠商店) and farms (Tongxin nongyuan 同心農園), the self-reliance of workers and the financial independence of the organization are being planned. The identity of ‘new worker’ is significant in that it provides a venue for gathering the capacity of a new worker group. In addition, the possibilities are still open in that it continues to experiment for independence, solidarity and solidarity of workers through various forms.
  • 4.

    Culture and Art Policy of CCP in the Establishment of China’s Reform and Opening up

    KIM, EUNSOO | 2017, (35) | pp.95~118 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The Communist Party of China, based on the new historical situation and tasks, put forward the slogan of the new literary and artistic work to replace the slogan "literary and political service" which has been used for many years. July 26, 1980 "People's Daily" editorial, to convey the spirit of the Party Central Committee. Usually referred to as "two for" direction. To serve the people is to serve the people of the whole country, including the broad masses of workers, peasants, intellectuals, soldiers, cadres and all those who support socialism and love the motherland, except for a handful of hostile elements; Socialism, economy, politics, military, culture and other undertakings of the fundamental needs of service, today, is the great cause of socialist modernization services. The general slogan of "literature and art serving the people and serving socialism" stipulates the general direction of literary and artistic work: cultivates new socialist people, promotes the further improvement and development of socialist society, improves the socialist consciousness of communism and the morality of communism To meet the growing and diverse cultural needs of the people, to help people understand and overcome obstacles in the process of socialist modernization, to resist and overcome the influence of the feudal class and bourgeois ideology, to inspire people's morale and inspire people to work together Germany to join the great cause of socialist modernization.
  • 5.

    A Study on Change of China’s Cultural Strategy

    Kim Kye Tae | Lo, Nam-Joung | 2017, (35) | pp.119~147 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Both Korea and China have been progressing various cultural exchanges bound with ‘Confusian cultural areas’ or ‘Chinese character culture areas’ for a long history before modern times. The cultural exchanges of both countries which share ‘the cultural genes’ focused on buddhism, Confusianism, Chinese character, and law-code had such close and various contents and styles that we can’t find precedents easily in human history. After modern times, with the change of East Asian and international situation, though the cultural exchanges of both countries didn’t have the same width and depth as those before modern times, the exchanges in the fields of person, thought, and academy were being progressed with taking the identical national task that they should establish the modern nation against imperialism. After independence and especially ‘the Korean war’, as Korea was divided under Cold-war system and China was converted to the socialist nation, the cultural exchanges of Korea and China stopped completely. With the Korea-China diplomatic relation in 1992, however, the relationship of both countries was normalized and therefore the overall cultural exchanges started, continuing until today.
  • 6.

    Yulongmanyan(魚龍曼延)Dance ― The Correlated with Buddism

    KwangYoungKim | 2017, (35) | pp.149~170 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    "Yulongmanyan(魚龍曼延)Dance." is a majestic demonstration of acrobatic performances featuring imitations of laop fish (define what "laop" means), dragons, and birds. This dance was very popular in Han and Tang Dynasty. "Yulongmanyan(魚龍曼延)Dance." is imported from India. In this sense "Yulongmanyan(魚龍曼延)Dance." is fusion of Indian culture and Chinese culture. So "Yulongmanyan(魚龍曼延)Dance." includes ancient Indian Buddism culture. If explain concretely Performance of “Yulongmanyan(魚龍曼延)Dance.” must accompony many mystical animal, for example dragon, elephant, sheli(舍利) and mystical bird. Among these elephant and Sheli(舍利) are corelated with ancient Indian Buddism. Elephant and Sheli(舍利) represents the birth and death of Budda. In this respect, "Yulongmanyan(魚龍曼延)Dance is corelated with Buddism.
  • 7.

    A Research of Episteme of Shamanism in Ancient China ― Focusing on the Social Status of Shaman in Shang Dynasty

    Lim Hyunsoo | 2017, (35) | pp.171~196 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This dissertation is to reexamine the validity of the theory of shamanism in Shang Dynasty. It was presented by Chen Meng Ja and Zhang Guang Zhi. It is that Shang Dynasty was controlled by shamanism and the king of Shang was all the shamans’ leader. On the one hand, oracle bone inscriptions, the documents of divination in Shang Dyasty, are greatly shortage of the data of shamanism. If Shang Dynasty was dominated by shamanism, it is commonsensically proper that there would have been much informations of it in oracle bone inscriptions. Paying attention to the incongruity between theory and sources like that, this dissertation tried to investigate whether the theory of shamanism in Shang Dynasty was true or not. It intended to inquire the social status of shamans in Shang Dynasty as well. The assertion of it was crucially realized by relying on interest in writing. Shang Dynasty performed religious practices such as divination based on writing. In other words, writing was the core of Shang religion. It is sufficiently persuasive that writing restricted and managed the spirituality of shamans in Shang Dynasty, and so there was the opposition between divination groups using writing and shamans. The king of Shang was the head of the former. Consequently the social status of the latter was lower than the former.
  • 8.

    A Study of the Food Culture in Chinese Lexicon

    Yu Hyun a | 2017, (35) | pp.197~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    China is known to have a variety of cultural heritage and the food is the typical one among them. Food takes the key position in Chinese culture, which is related to its society in various ways. Especially an idiom ‘People regards food as the Sky’ shows us their basic ideas on the food. A nation’s language contains many active words in peoples’ cultural activities, and we handle here several linguistic expressions of main and refreshment food to learn their concepts on food and its feature in the culture.
  • 9.

    A Study on Wang Guo-wei’s Practical Criticism of the Superiority of the Five Dynasties & the Northern Song Dynasty’s Ci and Its Theoretical Features

    Hong Seu-youn | 2017, (35) | pp.217~243 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this research is to clarify Wang Guo-wei’s practical criticism of the superiority of the five dynasties & the Northern Song Dynasty and its theoretical features. These aspects having been excluded from previous research of the Ci-xue theory by Wang Guo-wei. For that purpose, this research thoroughly analysed and translated a total of 154 articles of the Zhou Xi-shan edition of the RenJianCiHua. Those criticisms of Wang Guo-wei about important successive generations of Ci writers have been reconstructed based on those analyzed documents. Three categories resulted from the analyses of the practical criticism and its theoretical features of the superiority of the five dynasties & the Northern Song Dynasty of Wang Guo-wei: highly valued, poorly valued and complex valued. The highly valued category of writers mainly originates from the five dynasties & the Northern Song Dynasty. Representative writers of this group are: Li Yu(李煜) and Feng Yan(馮延巳) Si from the five dynasties and 0u Yang Xiu(歐陽脩), Qin Guan (秦觀) and Su Shi(蘇軾) from the Northern Song Dynasty, with the exception of Xin Qi Ji(辛棄疾) and Na Lan Xing De(納蘭性德), respectively from the Southern Song Dynasty and the Ch'ing dynasty. All the writers belonging to the poorly valued category originate from the Southern Song Dynasty, such as Zhang Yan(張炎), Wu Wen Ying(吳文英), Zhou Mi(周密), Shi Da zu(史達祖) and Wang Yi Sun(王沂孫). Representative writers belonging to the complex valued category are Zhou Bang Yan(周邦彦) and Jiang Kui(姜夔), respectively from the Northern Song Dynasty and the Southern Song Dynasty. The theoretical features of this criticism can be summarized as follows: ‘sincerity of the emotions’, ‘natural form of language’, ‘writer’s style’, ‘relations between the writers through the ages’, and ‘Wen Ren Ci’. This research could be used in the future as elementary material for research on the superiority of the Southern Song Dynasty & the Northern Song Dynasty of the Ch'ing dynasty’s Ci-xue theory.
  • 10.

    Analysis of Writing Technique in Liangfuyin(梁父吟)

    Hwang, Hyunguk | 2017, (35) | pp.245~263 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Pai Hsien-Yung(白先勇:1937∼ )’s Liangfuyin(梁父吟) was presented in the 33th volume of Xiandaiwenxue(『現代文學』) in 1967 and was included in Taibeiren(『臺北人』). Pai Hsien-Yung is one of the most influential writers among current Taiwanese writers. Xiazhiqing(夏志淸) evaluated him as “one of the best writers in the present age”, and acknowledged artistic accomplishment of his stories. His literary works also gained positive reputation in China and Hong-kong. Pai Hsien-Yung put great emphasis on writing technique and earned great success on the technique in deed. WangMengYang, who is the main character of Liangfuyin, was a revolutionary hero. However, he died sick and lonely due to the big change of an era. This book expressed historical consiousness and destiny awareness through mourning WangMengYang’s death in his funeral. Pai Hsien-Yung described the present and past crossly through conversation of characters. He improved his expressions by using appropriate narrative points of view and added ethnic characteristics to language style by straight language expressions. The author demonstrated his mature writing skills at his best through Liangfuyin. The goal of this paper is to catch out the artistic achievement of Liangfuyin by analyzing the author’s expressive techniques in the contents of the novel. Also, by examining the tragic consciousness projected through such expressive techniques, this paper attempts to understand the characteristics of Liangfuyin more deeply.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Frame Conversion of Korean into Chinese Translation News

    Sujung Kang | 2017, (35) | pp.265~301 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    News translation is very different from literary or technical translation. The most important feature of news translation is that the original text is rarely translated because of limitations in time or space. In many cases, news is reconstructed in a way that is suitable for readers to read and use to influence and target audience linguists, and in this process, the original text has changed. In this study, it is assumed that this text is related to the social customs, structured values, and ‘frame’ setting based on the reader ’s perception that can be communicated in the target language. The media are physically constrained to report on the diverse and complex reality. Therefore, the frame is not a process of conveying reality as it is, but a process of acquiring the reader’s perception by emphasizing, reducing, or excluding a specific part in the course of news transmission. Especially in international news related to national interests, frame is more useful. In this study, I observed how the change of vocabulary leads to the change of frame in the news that the Chinese official media ‘CANKAOXIAOXI’ translated Korean news into Chinese. As a result, ‘CANKAOXIAOXI’ mainly used the transediting method when translating news of Korean media. The translated news mostly attempted to change the frame through the headline. And changed the frame of the translation news using ‘delete’, and ‘display of special question or expression of negative using double quotes’.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Substantiality of Economical Language Use in Ancient Chinese ― Centering around 《MNEGZI》

    LEE SO DONG | 2017, (35) | pp.303~325 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Economical language use in Ancient Chinese is caused by the omission and connotation of words. The omission and connotation of words can occur in four fields: syntactic field, lexical field, pragmatic field, rhetorical field. First, the omission of the syntactic field mainly occurs in the relational verbs and existence verbs, auxiliary verb, preposition, conjunctions, dependent noun ‘所’, ‘者’ and so on. What these words have in common is that they have a little lexical meaning. The connotation of lexical field mainly occurs in noun at the predicate position. These nouns themselves includes time-meaning, sequence-meaning, process meaning. The omission of the pragmatic field, same as modern Chinese, occurs in subject, predicate, object position. The omission of the rhetorical field mainly occurs in an antithesis-expression in one clause or two clause.
  • 13.

    The Meaning of the Chinese Characters Shaped by the Chinese Culture Review

    LEE JOO EUN | 2017, (35) | pp.327~348 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    I thought that it is very important to look up the origins of Chinese characters through ancient texts such as 甲骨文字 and 金文. Many parts of the kanji that I use now are interpreted differently from the original meaning, and it seems that many cases have been hardened. Therefore, it is not only academic value to recognize the origin of Hanja and to look at the meaning and meaning more clearly by referring to the ancient literature, but also to ruminate our image of living in prefecture, There is a big advantage that it can be. I hope that further research will be possible with the number of sincerity in consideration of the meaning of one character and one character, as if the contents of this article are the spots.
  • 14.

    The Semantic Orientation Analysis of Chinese And Korean Class Word “眼/目”

    박화염 | Han, Yong Su | 2017, (35) | pp.349~369 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The basic starting point for human beings to contact the whole world lies in the physical experience of human themselves. From the perspective of cognitive linguistics, the physical experience of human beings is the foundation, the starting point and also the tool that leads them to perceive the world. They extend their physical acknowledge to the cognitive world by metaphors or other cognitive schema which is to be formed as conceptual system. In short, the basic physical experience of human beings plays a vital role in the cognitive process. Human beings observe and distinguish objects by their eyes in daily life, while at the same time, complete the silent communication between one and another by their eyes too. Their eyes are the window of their soul. Not only language, but also the eyes, which belongs to one of the five sense organs, allow human beings to communicate with each other. “眼/目” is the most frequently used word in both Modern Chinese and Modern Korean. In this case, it is called the basic vocabulary. The research object of this article is “眼c/目c” and “눈k/안k” and the article mainly analyzes the semantic image reflected by their single-morpheme words and compound words. On the basis of the class word “眼/目”in both Chinese and Korean dictionary, and with combined theories of cognitive linguistics and comparative linguistics, this article studied the structural meaning and the function meaning which are referred to the two main features of their semantic image. The structural meaning not only refers to the formation of the position and appearance of the eyes, but also refers to the body structure of human beings and animals which reflected by the position of their eyes. By analyzing the linguistic common points and differences between the meaning of Chinese“眼/目”and the meaning of Korean “眼/目”,the article aims at providing practical evidence for teaching Chinese as a foreign language, teaching Korean as a foreign language, the body vocabulary ofboth Chinese and Korean, and Chinese-Korean translation as well.