The Journal of Chinese Cultural Studies 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.24

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pISSN : 1598-8503 / eISSN : 2714-0067
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2017, Vol., No.38

  • 1.

    A Study on the Similarity of Cultural Industry Promotion Strategies — A Study on the Early Stage Policy of Cultural Industry in Korea and China —

    Kwon Ki Young | 2017, (38) | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The paper looked at the characteristics of cultural industry promotion strategies of Korea and China centering on the similarities between the so-called East Asia Development Model. The key function of the policies pursued by the two governments to foster cultural industries in the early stages of the industry was in the ‘ Entrepreneurship role ’ and provided various institutional mechanisms. Furthermore, the policies of the two countries focused on protecting and nurturing the domestic industries, and the foreign regulatory policies pursued in the early stages of the cultural industry played an important role in improving the competitiveness of domestic industries and expanding healthy markets. And the two countries have tried to strengthen competitiveness of the cultural industry by implementing various support policies such as tax breaks, fostering infrastructure and fostering infrastructure for sustainable development, and fostering the competitiveness of industries to enhance competitiveness of industries. In the meantime, the main policy used by the Korea and China governments was finance and public corporations, which was the most powerful way to swiftly develop strategic industries and take the lead in shaping the direction of industrial development in the future. Also, the Korean and Chinese governments have characterized the emergence of export strategies and cluster strategies in the early stages of cultural industries as the main policy direction. In fact, this policy direction was closely related to the national strategy of not only economic and industrial purposes but also national strategies for regional balanced development and strengthening of soft power in the country. The key features of the cultural industry promoted by Korea and China have been found to be in stark contrast to the characteristics of the economic catch-up pursued by East Asian development countries. This means that Korea and China have applied most of the past successful strategic industries policies to cultural industry policies. And it is clear that Korea and China have managed to capitalize on the rapid growth of the cultural industry at least in quantity.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Narrative News Translation of Chinese Media

    Sujung Kang | 2017, (38) | pp.25~50 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The news text, which is the result of the news action, has used the inverted pyramid style for a long time. The inverted pyramid style symbolized the objectivity and fairness of the news. Recently, however, there is an indication that the inverted pyramid style lowers consumers “reading interest” as news consumption through social media such as SNS increases. As an alternative to this, there is a discussion on narrative style news text in journalism. In this study, I have grasped how news text of recent narrative style is translated in Chinese media. As a result, Chinese media reconstructed news text of narrative style of Korean media in reverse pyramid style. The most significant feature is the addition of ‘lead’, a feature of the inverted pyramid style that disappeared in narrative style news texts. The Chinese media have reconstructed the Korean news in an inverted pyramid style that provides a summary of the text by making ‘lead’ and informs the contents of the text in advance. The headlines were changed to Chinese style, and the articles expressed literally in the text were deleted. The Chinese media have changed all text structures that seem to violate the objectivity of the news symbolized by the inverted pyramid style. This study is a case study on narrative news translation and will be the basis for further discussion in the future.
  • 3.

    Reception and Translation of Russian Literature in Republic of China, 1914-1949: A Case of Nikolay V. Gogol

    Sojung Kim | 2017, (38) | pp.51~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In China, Russian Literature was introduced in earnest after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. Chinese intellectuals regarded the 19th Russian literature as intrinsic force for the revolution. In the early years of the twentieth century, Chinese left-wing intellectuals supported literature for life's sake. They believed that literature has the power to change the social status and miserable life of the lower classes. Under these special historical context, N. V. Gogol's works was introduced and translated into Chinese. This paper explores the reception and translation of N. V. Gogol by three major Chinese translator groups: the Russian translation group focused mainly on N. V. Gogol as a great realist ; the English translation group placed N. V. Gogol among the best English humorists. As a Results, Chinese literary world was able to a new realization of the humor and laughter of N. V. Gogol. Also, they first translated the work of Gogol that held romantic spirits ; the German and Japanese translation group attempted to absorb N. V. Gogol as a whole including his spirit of humor, humanism and poetics of banality. At length, most of stories and plays of N. V. Gogol translated into Chinese in Republic of China, 1912-1949. Realism works of his was estimated highly, but romantic spirits did not receive a fair assessment. Chinese left-wing intellectuals recognized N. V. Gogol overcame limits of his own feudal landlord classes by using realism techniques and became a critical realism writer. N. V. Gogol's works opened a channel for the reception of western critical realism at that time.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Newly Discovered Korean Manuscript “Husyeoyugui”

    Jae-Yeon Park | 2017, (38) | pp.75~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study presents the recently unearthed Korean translated version of Husyeoyu gui. The paper examines the entrance route of Houxiyouji後西遊記 during the Joseon Dynasty and the reception of the Korean translated version Husyeoyugui among the people at the time, as well as related bibliographies and characteristics of the resources. Based on Jungguksoseolhoemobon中國小說繪模本 and Yun Deok-hee(尹德熙)’s Soseolgyeongnamja小說經覽者, both written in 1762, it is assumed that Houxiyouji entered Korea before the mid-18th century, and was read in the royal court and by the aristocratic class. Therefore, the Chinese version of Houxiyouji read by Yun Deok-hee dates further back than its oldest known woodblock-printed version published in 1793 as a Jinchang-Shuyetang-Kanben金閶書業堂刊本, which indicates a now missing older woodblock-printed edition. The existence of the Korean translated version was confirmed later in the bibliographies of Chaeknyeolmyeongnok and Eonmunchaekmoknok, bibliographic resources written in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. However, no actual copy has yet been discovered. Historical value can be attached to the Korean manuscript of Husyeoyugui presented in this paper, because it is unique and indicates the existence of the Korean translated version of Houxiyouji. Of the 11 books containing 20 volumes of the Korean manuscript Husyeoyugui, 9 books have been preserved, while books 1 and 5 are missing. The books are written in a refined half-cursive calligraphic style, and display numerous traces of correction throughout the length of the copy. From this, it is inferred that the copy is the original translated script. The translation is faithful to the original book without any changes in the storyline, with a few exceptions. For example, the chapter titles are identical to those of the Chinese woodblock-printed version, except for one or two characters, and the original name of the hero Son So-seong孫小聖 is translated as Syon Yi-sil, not Son Yi-jin孫履眞. This allows the assumption that the present Korean manuscript Husyeoyugui was translated from a copy of a version other than the preserved woodblock-printed one. Other noteworthy features are the frequent use of slang and loanwords faithful to the colloquial style of the original novel reflective of modern Chinese, especially Wu吳 dialects. However, from the quasi-absence of archaic words, the time of this Korean translation of Houxiyouji is estimated to be around the end of the 19th century.
  • 5.

    A Sociolinguistic Study on Chinese Northeast Dialect — Centering on the City of Siping

    Na, Min Gu , CUI XIANGLAN | 2017, (38) | pp.99~122 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article tried to grasp the real usage of Chinese Northeast dialect vocabulary through survey study of. the its use and furthermore aims at predicting the developmental direction of the vocabulary. As a result of the survey centering on the city of Siping, the home and base of Manchu people, conducted by means of age group classification - youth, middle and old age - we’ve come to a conclusion as follows. First, the research subjects in Siping showed much lower usage rate than their recognition rate toward the equivalent vocabulary, which can be the result of Mandarin dissemination policy by the government since Chinese economic reform. Secondly, according to the study of the subjects’ attitude to the dialect, young and old people had very high self-esteem about the dialect and answered that they would make steady use of it. On the other hand, middle-aged people who lead society avoided using the dialect vocabulary at work or outside the house, which explains the big gap between the usage and recognition rate of the vocabulary. Third, the outcome of the categorization study - one-syllable, two-syllable, multiple-syllable words, and borrowed words – makes us predict that most of the Chinese Northeast Dialect vocabulary will disappear or be replaced with Mandarin vocabulary, except some one-syllable words with negative colors.
  • 6.

    Cultural Perception of Ancient Chinese as Reflected on Chinese Characters Related with Ancestral Rites Accompanying ‘示’ — Focused on ‘神’ ‘祇’ ‘社’ ‘祖’ Representing the Gods of Heaven, Earth, People —

    Lee In Kyung | 2017, (38) | pp.123~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined ancestral rite culture of ancient China, and ‘示’ as the root of Chinese characters accompanying ‘示’ as well as ‘祭’, ‘祀’ and conducted analysis of Chinese characters that could be main objective of ancestral rites: ‘神’, ‘祇’ gods of heaven and earth symbolic of nature; ‘社’ god of earth; ‘祖’ representing god of humans. By doing so, the study sought to understand ancestral rite culture of the ancient Chinese and their cultural way of thinking. Worship and respect of heaven and earth, god of nature among the ancient humans was materialized by ancestral rites for heaven and earth in the mainly agricultural ancient Chinese society. Wishes of the ancient people for prosperity and peace of their tribes were connected to worship for their family ancestors and for the progenitor and a number of other ancestors. Therefore, we can say that ancestral rite culture of ancient China, centered on heaven and earth, and ancestral god, affected structure and formation of Chinese characters. ‘示’, figuratively expressing a stone embedded with spirits of god in the ancient characters, was a symbolic sign representing gods and could be an ancestral tablet, giving birth to 神. Heaven that governs all the astronomical phenomena, and earth that embraces all the things were worshipped as gods governing all the things in the universe and continued to become the main object of ancestral rites from the ancient time. Cultural way of thinking of the ancient Chinese as such was reflected on ‘神’ and ‘祇’. ‘社’, a compound of ‘土 and ‘示’, symbolizes god of earth as well as ancestral rite for the same god. Ancestral rites for god of earth - god governing natural products in the vast span of earth - found its expression by ‘社’ that added 示 on 土. This might be the result of reflection of cultural way of thinking among the ancient Chinese who expressed gratitude for natural products and wished for the abundance. Culture in worship for raising of patriarchal line - derived from phallic worship for survival and prosperity of the family - shifted to worship for prosperity of descendants and worship for ancestors. This cognitive change might be reflected on ‘祖’, which has the meaning of ancestors or ancestral rites for them as a result.
  • 7.

    An Analysis on the Characteristics and Development of the Serial Verb Construction with Object Shown in “Shi Ji”

    Sa Wiguk , LEE,WOO-CHEOL | 2017, (38) | pp.155~180 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The direct source of the modern Verb-Complement-Object Structure is the Serial Verb Construction with “action-result” meaning relation in Archaic Chinese Period. There are a lot of Serial Verb Constructions which have historical features in Shi Ji. So this paper researches V₁V₂O, V₁OV₂ and V₁O₁V₂O₂ structures with “action-result” meaning relation in Shi Ji from the semantic relations and the syntactic structures. The result of this research shows that not only the Serial Verb Structure V₁V₂O and V₁OV₂ with “action-result” semantic relation, but also the Serial Verb Structure V₁O₁V₂O₂ with “action-result” semantic meaning relation has an important historical evolution relation to the Verb-Complement-Object Structure. Although the semantic feature of the V₂ is different, and the composition relation between V₂ and O is different, the final development direction of the different Serial Verb Structures is the same, they develop towards the Verb-Complement-Object Structure. But if the semantic relation between V₂ and O is different, the development process shown by the Serial Verb Structures is different too. In a Serial Verb Construction, besides the V₁, V₂, O, there also have some another elements which can enter between V₁ and V₂. The inserted elements indicate that the semantic relation and the syntactic relation between V₁ and V₂ are still not close, the Serial Verb Construction in Shi Ji is till a developing structure.
  • 8.

    The Knowing System of Fate in <Okjojeongjinkyeong>

    leemyungjae | 2017, (38) | pp.181~204 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is for closely analyzes the knowing system of The heaven’s decrees in ancient Mingli philosopy focusing on <Okjojeongjinkyeong>. The original script of 『Okjojeongjinkyeong』 can be seen as the first the knowing system of fate in literature. The knowing system of fate in <Okjojeongjinkyeong> consists of three fatal, the four pillars and the fortune based on Ganji signs. The fortune consists of three fortune, the big fortune, the small fortune and the year fortune. The main agent can be seen as the year pillar agents system that makes each main agent. The six providence was assessed through Shengke relation of wuxing and Nayinwuxing with each main agent. The balance of three fatal with the four pillars is regarded important. In which was involved the discrimination between literary and martial arts, and it proves that the society was aristocracy centered on civil servants. The knowing system of fate of <Okjojeongjinkyeong> can be said to be fatalism that has three fatal, the four pillars and the fortune as basic components, analyzes Shengke relation of wuxing and Nayinwuxing with three fatal as each main agent, judges wealth and honors or poverty and lowliness and demands of one's whole life, analyzes the mutual relation between the big fortune, the small fortune and the year fortune, again, and anticipates good or ill luck and fortune or misfortune of each time period. When it's examined from the viewpoint of the relation between the heaven and humans, it's close to that centered on the heaven in the respect that Three fatal and the four pillars given at birth were emphasized more than the fortune.
  • 9.

    A Study on Periodical Meaning of Geography, Race, and Gender — Immigrants' Ethnic Culture of Wei-Jin(魏晉) Era Based on an Analysis into『 Shishuo-ShinYu(世說新語)』

    Youngsuk Lee | 2017, (38) | pp.205~238 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This is a study to trace the meaning of Geography, Race, and Gender in the era of “Wei-Jin” based on an analysis into 『Shishuo-ShinYu(世說新語)』 which is the optimal text to reflect unique traces of civilizations, cultural exchanges and convergence between the races of Wei-Jin(魏晉) era. The rationale behind this study is that there are more than 700 people from various countries including the nobles, monks, scholars, women, maidens, and ethnic groups of about 200 years from the end of East Han Dynasty to the end of East Jin in 『Shishuo-ShinYu(世說新語)』. Thus, through this book I can find out the valuable resources of similarities and differences of gender language, customs and lifestyle between Han and ethnic in Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties. This study considers the various materials of the ethnic immigrants variously projected in the 『Shishuo-ShinYu(世說新語)』 into three parts: “distribution of exotic goods and globalization of market, breakdown of language barriers and expansion of world view, change of male and female appearance and reorganization of gender order”. The ethnic material of the immigrants in this era was valuable as a symbol of political power, social status and economic wealth, and its practicality and simplicity also meant spiritual and physical freedom to loosen the standard of tradition and discipline. The collapse of language barriers and the breakthrough of the exclusive world view have led to the cultural achievement of the expansion of cognitive horizons. The exciting weather and active vitality of the Northern ethnic female, excellent in survival and adaptation, gave life and vitality to women of Han race who were restricted to societies and socially isolated in Central districts of China. Through the contacts with ethnic immigrants in the era of Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties, the heritage of vertical collectivism, bondage, and traditional culture, which are products of the Han community, gave place to pragmatism, openness and equality consciousness. Therefore, the coexistence of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Civilization of the Han race in the era of Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties was the root cause of unstable state of confrontation, conflict, tensions in politics, however, ultimately it turned into the fact that it fueled the development of material civilization and expansion of values and consciousness.
  • 10.

    A Study on the World of the Dead through FaYuanZhuLin-JiSiPian

    Kang, Jong-Im | 2017, (38) | pp.239~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    <法苑珠林⋅祭祀篇> emphasizes the importance of the ceremony through Uranbunjae (fifteenth day of the seventh moon by the lunar calendar). It is the celebration for dead ancestors that may be in pain in Hell by showing gratitude for their benevolence so that they could reach salvation. This is completed with a logic that the virtue made by offering celebration can extinguish the sin of the dead and relieve them from Hell. This is now settled as 49jae in order to pass away the dead to a better place and let them in peace. As seen in the similarity of the after life stories in MuLian Saving His Mother(目連救母) is that the dead are judged by his sin and the severity of the sin leads to different destination. It is the popular perspective. The afterlife in fantasy novels containing Buddhism portrays the happenings of 49 days the soul experiences. Additionally 49 day funeral is a ceremony of the living for the dead to have a better afterlife. It is not49 day only a religious ceremony but also the time for the remnant to get used to the loss and prepare for the farewell. Also that this view of the afterlife leads people to become comtemplative and to reflect is not to be overlooked. Afterlife stories are a extension of temporal life. Through 49 days of journey the good and bad unvails and by the story of being dragged to hell shows us the difficultness of the good even though it is highly recommended. The temporal life and the after one is clearly the world with different time and space. However the stories of the afterlife can be seen as a want and a projection of the life we live to be more fair and just.
  • 11.

    A Study on Tang Chuanqi from the Perspective of New Age

    KIM NAKCHUL | 2017, (38) | pp.263~288 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Tang Chuanqi(唐傳奇) was a form of short story in the classical language which developed in the Tang dynasty. Many stories in Tang Chuanqi consisted of anecdotes, jokes, legends, and tales involving mystical, fantastical or legendary elements throughout the Chinese cultures. They went so far as to credit specific people as authorities for the story, however fantastic, and give particular times and places as settings. In particular mysterious contents of Tang Chuanqi have a long, complex relationship with the dead, ghosts, monsters and spirits have haunted the Chinese psyche for thousands of years. The New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. It's a multi-focused, multi-faceted synthesis, in varying degrees, of the Far Eastern, mystical religions, mainly Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Western Occultism, adapted to and influenced by Western, materialistic culture. The New Age phenomenon has proved difficult to define, with much scholarly disagreement as to its scope. It sometimes appears in secularized forms. In fact, The New Age Movement is a modern revival of very ancient, divergent, religious traditions and practices. Especially The New Age places strong emphasis on the idea that the individual and their own experiences are the primary source of authority on spiritual matters. So, according to metaphysical world view, there is a link between Tang Chuanqi and New Age. The purpose of this paper is about dividing five types of the New Age's ideological issues - Pantheism, Reincarnation, Spiritual awakening, Surrealism, Religious integration shown up in Tang Chuanqi, and about finding out the meaning of their identical similarities.
  • 12.

    A Study on Changing from the Genealogy to the Taste — Focusing on Yuanmei’s 「不飮酒二十首」

    Hong, Hye-Jin | 2017, (38) | pp.289~318 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Yuanmei袁枚 was a representative person in the middle of Qing Dynasty. He retired from a mayor of 江寧 town at the age of 33 years(1748) and spent as a full time writer for the remainder of his life in Gangnam City. Instead of being bound by tradition, he left a lot of individual work which had a influence on the literary world’s change of the 18th century. In the case of this example, I examined a poem - 「陶淵明有飮酒二十首余天性不飮故反之作不飮酒二十首」 closely. The poem was wrote at the his age of 44, which he was actively engaged in literary work, and faithfully implemented his literary view. This pome that refused to drink was strange and outrageous, and it was wrote largely for two purposes. First, the poem made human being’s values such as value of one’s identity more important and more independent through personal temperament性靈. Second, the poem was parted from the evils of the long-held tradition of blindly imitating Taoyuanming陶淵明 alcohol and his drinking poem. Yuanmei drew a boundary between him and alcohol by asserting its own nature and taste. The symbol of this negativity indicated his identity. The poem showed a self-centered concern to preserve himself and a sense of self-satisfaction about his life. This attitude became a milestone in the creation of progressive and courageous for beginners and writers. And we could look at the process of how the a demand for something new emerged in the 18th century’s poem.
  • 13.

    Characteristics of Illustrations and Effects of Expressions in the “Romance of the West Chamber” Yueke-version

    SUNG SEO , cho sung chun | 2017, (38) | pp.319~344 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The narrative illustrations such as novels and dramas of the Ming and Qing period are ‘story picture’, which have undergone a process of extending the space and time for a long time in the long history from before. Especially in the Ming Dynasty the expansion of the space-time began in earnest, and it became a factor bringing cultural diversity in association with the tide affirmed by individual's desire. In view of the relationship between characters and the screen, the illustration version of Ming Dynasty can witness the phenomenon that the screen increases vertically and horizontally, the illustration exceeds the basic information and expands its own expression area. Among them, the “Romance of the West Chamber” Yueke-version is an excellent example of actively adopting the scroll format and expanding the area of ​​illustration versions. In this paper, first of all we analyze the scroll format of 『 Romance of the West Chamber』 Yueke-version, the situation and characteristics of long and short round trip of picture title, the structural features such as relation between character and image as a Singing script. Subsequently, the overall expression effect of the unique illustration version is summarized as lyricity, temporal, and metaphoricity. Through consideration of the above two directions, Yueke-version was revealed more clearly, and it was confirmed that it is an excellent work with originality and readability. In addition, in the point that the illustration was able to fully reflect the lyrics and poetic features of the “Romance of the West Chamber” drama on a long screen, it occupies a high rank in history “Romance of the West Chamber” illustration version. It could be put a lot of emotions in a figure spreading like feathers, and It was able to smoothly express the lyrical nature of an narrative. As a result, the space in the illustration was greatly expanded beyond the previous narrow face. This paper approaches from the two aspects of the composition of the illustration version and effects of illustration in the “Romance of the West Chamber” Yueke-version which had not been presented by academia, and now present a new idea. It also points out that it has an effect of mutual ascending with the literary characteristics and supplementing the narrative contents. I think that these points have certain significance in terms of understanding not only works but also useful for understanding the illustration of the Ming Qing Dynasty as an excellent example that appeared in the development of ‘story picture’.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Origin of Taiwan Contemporary Literature— Focused on Chun-Mu Hsieh(謝春木)

    Hwang SunMi | 2017, (38) | pp.345~364 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It is somewhat unfamiliar that the modern new literature movement was developed in Taiwan during the Imperial Japan occupation. From whom did the new literature movement of Taiwan originate? That's right Chun-Mu Hsieh(1902-1969). Chun-Mu Hsieh grew up in Taiwan New Literature infancy, and He is an important figure who opened modern Taiwan literature, a leader of the anti Japanese movement in the Imperialist Japanese period, and a philosopher. Since 1921, Chun-Mu Hsieh started his creative activities under the pseudonym Zhui feng (追風), and he in earnest began writing in 1922. In July 1922, he published serially the first novel of Taiwan new literature, “Where is she to the young sister who is struggling(彼女は何処へ—苦悩若い姉妹)” in the magazine 『Taiwan(臺灣)』 (No.4~No.7 issues), which was launched in Tokyo, Japan. He did not stay in the creation of novels, and in April 1924, he published Taiwan's first short poem, “Imitation of poems(詩の眞似する)” in 『Taiwan』 (Volume 1, the 5th year). Chun-Mu Hsieh continued replacement of his identity in writers, cultural activists, journalists, commentator and political figures. There is a close relationship between the time of Chun-Mu Hsieh's literary creation and the formation of Taiwan's new literature. Thus, through Chun-Mu Hsieh, it is possible to look at the prototype of the new literature movement of Taiwan, and furthermore, it will be an opportunity to view the development and destruction of the modern new literature movement in East Asia such as neighboring Korea, China, and Japan from a multifaceted perspective.