The Journal of Chinese Cultural Studies 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.24

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pISSN : 1598-8503 / eISSN : 2714-0067
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2018, Vol., No.39

  • 1.

    Exploration of the Present Meaning of East Asian Classics — For the Status of East Asian Culture and Human Dignity

    Wee Hangbok | 2018, (39) | pp.1~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Classics are made by the evaluation of later generations and maintain their values through continuous reinterpretation and discovery of the new meanings over times and regions. For this reason, ‘Worshiping’ or ‘Absolutization’ can rather annihilate the Classics, and sometimes even suppress humans, or turn them into the ways to making money. Korea and China have experienced “Modernization” in a passive way, hence should always keep in mind the mission of overcoming Orientalism, as well as restoring the status of East Asian culture. Overcoming the western-oriented view of the world can contribute not only to the excellence of East Asian cultural tradition, but also to the universally applicable value to human society. Studies on Classics and traditional culture should also pay attention to the economic influence of Cultural Industry. In the era of Popular Culture, culture is closely integrated with industry, and Cultural Industry is becoming a significant factor in terms of international competitiveness. The development of East Asian Cultural Industry is necessary in order to overcome Orientalism. The Research on Classics ought to pay most attention to the filed of Humanities; the most fundamental field of defending and raising status of the human dignity. The Humanities in East Asia has been pursued the aesthetics of ‘harmony’ and ‘coexistence’. Therefore, the cultural tradition of East Asia is capable to contribute on building ‘social safety net’, as well as the protection of human dignity.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Path-Dependent in Korea and China’s Early Cultural Industry Policy

    Kwon Ki Young | 2018, (39) | pp.21~46 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to discover what factors have affected the formation of cultural industry policies in China and Korea. And I stressed that the two countries’ cultural industry policies were formed in the frame of the ideologies and institutions of past cultural policies and strategic industry policies. In terms of cultural policy ideology, China continues to have the ideologies established by Mao Zedong, such as philosophical awareness of culture, national development and relationship with culture, the main agents of cultural policy, purpose, and means, until the 21st century. On the other hand, the successful democratization of Korea served as an opportunity to establish the independence of cultural policies from the public-driven cultural policies of past development-led dictatorships. And this transformation was shaped into an elimination of the laws and regulations for each species in the 1990s. In terms of the cultural policy system, Korea’s shift from public information to cultural center, regulation to promotion, and extension of the cultural ministry’s external extension (integration of culture, media, tourism, and physical education) are represented. China, on the other hand, shows a characteristic of continuing without a big change in terms of its culture, administrative organization and legal system. This ideological and institutional background in cultural policy will have a strong influence on the two countries ’ development of cultural industry policies. ‘Path-dependent’ is more noticeable in the formation of cultural industry policies, especially in relation to the two countries’ strategic industry policies. The way in which Korea promoted its cultural industry strategy was very similar to the policies for fostering heavy and chemical industries or the policies for fostering the information and communication industries. And China’s strategy for fostering the cultural industry is quite similar to its policy on fostering the information industry of the past. This shows that both Korea and China have established cultural industry policies through learning about past successful strategic industry policies. Such similar forms of Korea and China’s cultural industry policies to those of East Asian Development Model, such as the development of heavy chemical industries and the development of the information and communication industries, are seen as the absolute effects of the industry policies that these countries have had in the past.
  • 3.

    A Study on Ripple Effects of Chinese Cultural Industry by Using Input-output Analysis

    Shi, Huimin , Hong-Yul Jeong , Lee, Yun-Soo | 2018, (39) | pp.47~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The cultural industry is not only an important part of the national soft power, but also an important component of the national comprehensive strength. With the development of the economy and the improvement of the material living standard, the demand for cultural products has been increasing continuously. Recent years, China’s cultural industry has been fast development, the total scale of the cultural industry has steadily increased. This paper used China’s 2012 Input-output table to analyse the Chinese cultural industry by dividing the Chinese cultural industry into cultural services and cultural services. The results of the analysis are shown below: first, the other industries in the national economy have very low input coefficients for the culture industry, but the need for the second industry is the highest. Second, In production inducement coefficients, the cultural industry has the highest production inducement effect for itself. Third, the coefficient of influence of cultural manufacturing is higher than the average level of the whole industry, and that means the production demand and ripple effects of other industries are strong in the national economy. Forth, the sensitivity coefficient of cultural manufacturing industry and cultural service industry is smaller than the average level of the whole industry, the production of other industries is weak in promoting the development of cultural industry, the cultural industry is not limited to other industries. Fifth, the production inducement coefficient of the cultural manufacturing industry and cultural service industry is the highest, followed by the value added induction coefficient and import inducement coefficient are the lowest. In addition, cultural products have the highest dependence on exports, and cultural services have the highest dependence on consumption. In the final product of cultural manufacturing and cultural services industry, the production induction coefficient is higher than added value induced coefficient, the Induction coefficient is smallest. At the same time, the dependence of cultural manufacturing on exports is the highest, and the dependence of cultural services on consumption is the highest. The last part of this paper lists some recommendations for development of Chinese cultural industries.
  • 4.

    The Design Stage Performing Arts on Drama Creation Theory of LI Yu

    Park sung hun | 2018, (39) | pp.75~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Li Yu was an important drama theorist and writer in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. As a scholar as well as a merchant, he entertained and at the same time enlightened the readers by discussing the structure and many other aspects of drama in his drama theory. Learning from the experience of his predecessors and combining it with his own writing experience, his drama theory has it unique features, and its depth and completeness are beyond the reach of his forerunners. The premise of his theory surpassing his predecessors in various and systematic aspects lies in his familiarity to his audience, and the emphasis on studying them. Li Yu’s study in audience psychology is also indispensable to his success in entertaining audience. From the aspects of audiences influence, composition and psychology, this article explores the explicit audience orientation and many audience theory ideas reflected from Li Yu’s opera theory and writing practice. There has been controversy on understanding of the two concepts: structure and mastermind in Li Yu’s dramatic structure theory. The thinking in LI Yu’s theory of “structure first” embodies the relationship of three principles about plot. They are all based on the idea of skills of making story structure. Generally the thinking reflects the relation between the total and the part, but not of juxtaposition. “Setting up the main idea” is the core principle, which is a further interpretation of the principle of “unusual event leading up to remarkable piece of writing” in the whole theory. The author tries to explain his view on the questions in dispute, and from a new perspective, illustrates Li Yu’s theory. The author holds that the core of Li Yu’s dramatics criticism is the audience importance.
  • 5.

    Tan Xin Pei’s World of Performances and Artistic Accomplishments as the King of Beijing Opera

    Mi-Kyung Cha | 2018, (39) | pp.105~124 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of the present study is to investigate through what process Tan Xin Pei (譚鑫培) has learned to form his own fashion and what implications it might have. At the same time, this study is also aimed at highlighting his position as an actor in Chinese drama by examining the significance of his artistic achievements in Beijing opera. Tan Xin Pei invested his passion for the art of Beijing opera to deal with his difficult environments and shortcomings, studying constantly the essence of senior actors’ plays, transforming them into his own style, that is Tan fashion (譚派), and obtaining ultimately the status of grand master who has pioneered a new way by acting an old man in the plays of Beijing opera. He learned a lot from excellent performances of the senior actors in Beijing opera, particularly those of heroine Qing Yi (靑衣) and character actor Hua Lian (花臉), imitating their tone and technique of the beat to deeply reveal the inner feelings of the characters in the plays, and succeeded finally in dignifying the soft, fresh, mild, elegant grace of his own Tan fashion. Moreover, he added martial art to the category of an old man role, extending by thus its scope widely. In addition, he reorganized past performances to create a vivid new character in the drama. Thanks to these artistic accomplishments, he became eventually a representative grand master as the actor playing an old man role in Beijing opera. Therefore, in the field of Beijing Opera has been called as the King of the opera.
  • 6.

    Guoziyi, the Icon of Happiness and Comfort: From the Story of Taiping-guangji Guoziyi to the Painting of ‘Punyangwang Haengnakto’ and Kwak Punyang-jon in Chosŏn Dynasty

    Jin-A Choi | 2018, (39) | pp.125~148 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I examine the popularity and characteristics of Korean adaptations of the Guo Ziyi 郭子儀 story from Tang China, focusing on three distinct cases in fiction, painting, and education. First, my discussion of the fictional narrative adaptation called Kwak Punyang-jon 郭汾陽傳. In Taiping-guangji(太平廣記) of China, Guoziyi appears as loyal general and in his latter years he lived in splendor. In this paper, I show how a Chinese story grew anew within the landscape of Chosŏn Korean fiction, in which the Korean Guo Ziyi—unlike his Chinese counterpart, who remains merely a loyal general—develops into a hero shaped by Confucian and Daoist elements. I then examine the representation of Guo Ziyi in the widely circulated Chosŏn painting called “Punyangwang Haengnakto” 汾陽王行樂圖, illuminating how Guo’s image as a symbol of happiness and comfort, popular in China, was also widely accepted among Koreans. Finally, by introducing the Chosŏn queen Hyoŭi孝懿, who encouraged the translation into Korean of the biography of Guo Ziyi from the New Book of Tang(新唐書郭子儀列傳) and used the story to educate her relatives, This is Konjeonepil(坤殿御筆). I demonstrate how the story and image of Guo Ziyi were perceived and integrated into the everyday lives of Koreans during the Chosŏn era. Cosequently, these examples directly show that character Guoziyi has deeply culturally transformed in Chosŏn. The three cases this study presents all reveal the depth of Koreans’ engagement with the story of Guo Ziyi and their attachment to the values of loyalty, happiness, and comfort with which he is associated.
  • 7.

    The Study on 「Journey to the West」 Drama of Yuan Zaju — About Image of Character of Tang Seng XuanZang

    KwangYoungKim | 2018, (39) | pp.149~172 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    XuanZang who was monk of Tang dynasty was very famous person. In 7th century XuanZang went to the west to bring Buddihist scripture to the china. He went around over one hundred countries for seventeen years. His miraculous story carried down for long time. Yuan Zaju 「Journey to the West」 was created at these foundation. Tang Seng is hero in Yuan Zaju 「Journey to the West」. In this drama Tang Seng play double roles. One is mythical and heroic character. The other is humouros and common character. In this drama birth of Tang Seng is very mythical. Tang Seng in one month is swept away in river. He is saved by another monk. Because of this the image of Tang Seng is filled with myth and hero. On the other hand in this drama Tang Seng has humorous and common character. In this drama one common country woman sneer Tang Seng. In this point Tang Seng is target of ridicule and satire. Also Tang Seng way to the west is kidnaped by monster. In this point Tang Seng is an incompetent man. In this drama Tang Seng play double roles. Double roles conflict each other. what element produced these opposed two characters? This is antinomy. Unity of Three Religion is significant element. At that time Unity of Three Religion is general tendency. Yuan Zaju 「Journey to the West」 is influenced by the Unity of Three Religion. Addedly the writer of Yuan Zaju 「Journey to the West」 concerned in stage effect.
  • 8.

    The Research on the Value of China’s Square Culture — As the Rules for Healthy Keeping

    Choi, Saeyoon | 2018, (39) | pp.173~200 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    To understand a country or city, often say to visit the plaza. The plaza is primarily located in the center of the transportation center of the city, primarily in the middle of the city. So citizens and visitors can easily approach and visit the square. The square is freely frequented by many citizens, including men, women and children do what they want to do. Through these activities, they can get enjoyment and health. The plaza has a characteristic of public, inclusive, and spontaneity. Therefore, the plaza is the face of the country and the representative face. One can also guess the values of the values pursued by the state and society through the Plaza culture. Traditional Chinese Square culture originated from folk art and traditional physical activities. For a long time, however, China’s square has been used for political purposes to promote and consolidate the system. Then, as Reform and Openness began, the China’s square began to transform itself. For example, large-scale assemblies, celebrations, and celebrations were held, thereby limiting cultural events. More and more cultural activities are being undertaken in the Chinese cities in the 1990s due to the improvements in living conditions and the desire to improve the quality of living and the quality of living of the Chinese, and the maturity of the Chinese people. As a result, China’s square culture, as a leisure activities have become more and more luxurious than ever before. We can understand Chinese culture through the plaza’s activities in China.
  • 9.

    Dual Cities, Dual Modernities

    Kim,NamHee | 2018, (39) | pp.201~220 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study intends to discover and appreciate multiple modernities by comparing Incheon (仁川) in Korea and Dalian (大連) in China. Both cities were open ports under the rule of Japanese imperialism and, according to the ruler’s urban planning, were built dually to separate the residences of the colonizer and the colonized. The borderlines that were drawn to divide different ethnicities, soon became socio-economic borderlines. As the cities kept developing, the social gaps between the separated residences became obvious. Since 1990s, both in Incheon and Dalian, efforts have been made to reflect their own histories as open ports and it turns out that the socio-economic borderlines from the past still remain unchanged. While present literature frequently deals with the dual structure of Incheon or Dalian or focuses on how to preserve specific modern historical places in the cities, this study explores the possibilities of restoring modernity from within as well as from outside by properly preserving and utilizing the remaining duel places. Both located near to the open ports, Baedari in Incheon and Xiaogangzi (小崗子) in Dalian were residences of low-income people who were providing manpower for each colonized society. These two areas are meaningful in that they not only accepted the influence from outside also developed autonomous modernity by maintaining national identity and internal motivation. However, the reality is that at present, they are just old and rundown areas which are almost forgotten, waiting to be redeveloped. With the rise of consciousness about the significance of modern history, more people tend to prefer restoration to removal of historical places. Still it requires more judicious approaches to restoring local history. Approaching the unvarnished history in specific and elaborated ways will make the meaning of modernity in the colonized cities richer and deeper. We should be careful that the recent new interest in the histories of the two cities doesn’t end in degenerating those historical sites, such as Baedari and Xiaogangzi, into commercialized nostalgic areas or in creating extra burden by failing to incorporate the renewed historical sites into the original local communities.
  • 10.

    Taiwanese Film “Paradise in service”: The Space of “Special Tea House” and the Politics of Women Reproduction

    Shin-dongsoon | 2018, (39) | pp.221~240 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The film rebuilds the historical consciousness through the expression of the military paradise and women, and re-interweaves the history of “Special Tea House”. The film reproduces the space and women of “Special Tea House”. War and violence replaced by Paradise in Service. The film shows that women here are liberated from the ideology of state and masculinity. These emancipation is not real liberation, but fake liberation. People portray the history of women in ‘Special Tea House’, but differ from each other. Some think they came voluntarily, and some think that the system and ideology have forced them, suppressed them and cheated them. The film rationalizes and legitimates these spaces and women through the reproduction of space and women. Although women’s violence and military violence are shown, A central figure for the dissolution of this violence is the male and the State system. Ending subtitles are as follows. “In 1951, the army set up a ‘special tea house’ in the army to address the physiological needs of hundreds of thousands of soldiers. Also known as “Paradise in Service” or 831. With the improvement of bilateral relations in 1990, Taiwan reduced its military power and the legislature considered it a violation of the human rights of women. Ministry of Defense decided to withdraw ‘Special Tea House’.” The government officially identified these spaces as violating women’s human rights. But, The director defines the women there as ‘sex workers’. These views have hidden the history of women in ‘Special tea House’ and even politically removed the ‘comfort women’ history of Japanese colonialism.
  • 11.

    A Study of Yang Mu’s Late Poems: Focusing on Their Aesthetic Characteristics

    Woo Kwang Jung | 2018, (39) | pp.241~268 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the aesthetic characteristics of Yang Mu’s 楊牧(1940~ ) late poems, especially focusing on his post-1968 works. Although he adopted the pen name Yang Mu in 1972, his fourth collection of poems The Legends 傳說, which was published in 1971, was a turning point in his poetry both in thematic devices and in stylistic endeavors. In comparison with his pre-1966 poems, the poems in The Legends display more than somewhat epiclike qualities with the use of not only dramatic monologue but also weaving a narrative, even in the short poetry. At the same time, the aesthetic characteristics appeared in The Legends has continued to affect his later poems up until his fourteenth collection of poems, Songs Long and Short 長短歌行(2013). This study contains four parts, together with introduction and conclusion. Part One brings out the question how we classify Yang Mu’s whole poetry according to period. Generally, literary critics classify his poetry in two periods: the early period and the later period. And what distinguishes the early period from the later period? Part Two examines his fourth collection of poetry The Legends and revaluates his distinctive aesthetic qualities with two poems “Jizi of Yanling Hangs Up His Sword延陵季子掛劍” and “Screen屏風 .” Part Three analyzes his two famous poems “Solitude孤獨”(1976) and “Someone Asks Me about Justice and Righteousness有人問我公理和正義的問題”(1984), especially focusing on his best known style of nostalgia with the existential(in the case of “Solitude”) and his political engagement that was seen as an allusion to the Kuomintang’s entrenched discrimination against the native Taiwanese(in the case of “Someone Asks Me about Justice and Righteousness”). Part Four concludes that his brilliant poetic achievement with classical Chinese imagination and literal tone as well as experiments of Western poetic techniques is superb and has a special significance in that his poems will be served as a useful guide for his successors.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words in Han Dynasty

    Yum Jaeung | 2018, (39) | pp.269~297 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research studied the source and formation process of the variant of ancient Chinese words. This research tried to supplement the weaknesses that did not utilize the old character data in the previous research. And it was analyzed whether or not the differentiation of the Old Chinese character shape and the semantics had an effect on the variant of ancient Chinese words. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, the case that the differentiation of the Old Chinese character shape and the semantics had an effect on the variant of ancient Chinese words: “正:正(征)”, “黝:幽”, “陰:陰(蔭)”, “布:布(抪)”, “胥:胥(諝, 壻, 婿, 偦)”. In this examples, the phonetic and semantic analysis relation between the variant of ancient Chinese was reflected in the Old Chinese character shape and the semantics, and we can deduce that source. Second, the case that the differentiation of the Old Chinese character shape and the semantics did not have an effect on the variant of ancient Chinese words: “田:田(佃/甸)”, “采:采(菜)”, “星:星(腥)”. In this examples, the phonetic and semantic analysis relation between the variant of ancient Chinese was not reflected in the Old Chinese character shape and the semantics, and it is hard to deduce that source. This study also attempted a new interpretation about the relation of phonetic and semantic analysis using annotations of Confucius Scholars of Han dynasty such as “讀爲”, “讀如”, “讀若”, “聲之誤”.