The Journal of Chinese Cultural Studies 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.24

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pISSN : 1598-8503 / eISSN : 2714-0067
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2018, Vol., No.41

  • 1.

    A Study on the Documentary Value of “Rui Liang FU Bi” of Tsinghua Bamboo Slips

    Jungnam Kim | 2018, (41) | pp.1~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Based on prose and verse, most of the excavated documents discovered since the 1970s consisted of prose. Unusually, there are some materials composed of verse among the recently excavated materials. It consists of a part of the material in the form of a verse, or the whole of the material consists only of poetry. Although many opinions have been raised about the nature of such materials, they are regarded as the primitive form of the “Shijing” written after the Han Dynasty. Among them, “Rui Liang FU Bi” of Tsinghua Bamboo Slips has a difference in form with the poetry in the “Shijing”. The rhyme and refrain are not strict and emphasize moral duty and practice rather than personal emotional portrayal. The form is strong in the nature of the poetical style, but the content is similar to “zhougao(周誥)” of “Shangshu”. In the standard of verse and prose, it is difficult to belong to one side and it should be defined as ‘毖’ which is the middle form. The “Shangshu” emphasizes “sky” and the harmony of “morals” and “punishment”. And the “Shijing” emphasizes “form” and “choice”. On this basis, “Rui Liang FU Bi” of Tsinghua Bamboo Slips is related to the “Shangshu”. Unlike other excavated materials, rui liang fu bi has significance in that it can track the differences and changes in style. According to the intention of the author, it became possible to find clues that the style changed from verse to prose or from prose to verse. Accurate research on this is necessary to analyze the excavated materials such as “qiye” of Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, “zhougongzhiqinwu” of Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, Through this, it is necessary to analyze in a comprehensive way how the verse in the advanced period changed into the document compiled after the Han Dynasty.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Study of Early Poetics of the East and the West: Focused on Maoshixu in China and Plato’s and Aristotle’s Thoughts on Poetry in Ancient Greece

    Hyun Sohn , JIYOUNG KIM | 2018, (41) | pp.21~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay is a comparative study of early poetics of the East and the West. Poetry here, as defined at that time in both cultures, refers to the rhythmic writing in opposition to the prosaic, including lyric most of all in the East and lyric and epic and drama as well in the West. The earlier poetics of China in the East can be found in 『Maoshixu』, which says crucially: “Poetry is a thing written as led by the mind. What is in the mind is emotion and what is expressed is poetry.” This view of poetry as “expressed emotion” has strongly influenced the later Chinese poetry even up to today. Chinese poetics puts special emphasis on figures of speech as a means to convey emotion effectively. The earlier poetics of the West can be found in Ion and The Republic by Plato and Poetics by Aristotle in the ancient Greece. The core theory common to both of them is that poetry is an imitation of objects. Plato’s and Aristotle’s discussions of poetry are dependent on their philosophies, idealism and realism each. For example, whereas Plato explained poetry to be a sensory imitation of sensory objects and so triple-removed from the true ideality, Aristotle defined it as an imitation of action, which is always true to life. For Aristotle, the best imitation should be of heroic action and so tragedy is the supreme form of poetry. His theories of composition are very detailed and specific, a very original and unique case in the West. Thus we aim to compare the Eastern and the Western poetics in the earlier age in view of theories of origin, utility, and composition.
  • 3.

    The Exemplification of Supplement and Revision for The Collation and Annotation of Gyewonpilgyongjip(『桂苑笔耕集』) Volume 1-3

    Sun Yongjin , Yang, Manki | 2018, (41) | pp.45~68 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Gyewonpilgyongjip(『桂苑笔耕集』), the collected works of Choi Chi-won(崔致遠, 857~?), is the earliest existing individual poetry collection of the Korean Peninsula and a crucial Chinese classic of the ancient East Asian world. The 2007 edition published by Zhonghua Book Company(中华书局) and annotated by Dang Yin-ping(党银平), is an important revision of the classic, but still with many deficiencies to be improved. Focusing on the first three volumes of this edition, this paper exemplifies the lack of emendations and annotations, as well as incorrect annotations in this version. By suggesting possible amendments, it also encourages scholars of both Korean and Chinese academia to work on a more refined version that could provide reference to future generations.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Aspects of Transfiguration in Chinese Classical Literature through Allusions of Xi Jinping

    Jung Jin Sun | 2018, (41) | pp.69~90 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Chinese classical literature is transfigurated in the field of cultural politics with focusing on the publishing process and its background of Allusions of Xi Jinping. Until the beginning of the 21st century, the Chinese government began to explore ways to solve various social problems such as the widening gap between rich and poor and widespread corruption among officials, taking the human tradition as ‘now, here’ and encourages individual ethics. It is fully expanded the cultural politics through the classical literature by the Chinese government. I would like to consider a surface that has been used as a mechanism to classic literature to educate the moral consciousness of the people through the Allusions of Xi Jinping. First, I carefully examined the system and its contents of Allusions of Xi Jinping and analyzed the intertextuality between classical literature and political discourse. I have grasped the meaning of constructing a new combination of the method of citing the Xi Jinping classics centering on the heading sentence and speech and the scriptures. The reason why Chinese leaders, as represented by Xi Jinping, enjoys using classical literature in political discourse is that the quotation of the necessary poetry in the text that is “officialized” This is because it is possible to acquire “authority” by presenting that there is a “basis for”. Secondly, we analyzed the way in which the Chinese government uses the classics to inject governance ideology and ethics norms by using them as a mechanism of national personality education and moral education. In order to establish the legitimacy of governance, Xi Jinping introduced a moral model to the bureaucratic group and the public by explaining the humanistic spiritual virtue embodied in the classics at the official seats. Xi Jinping has given a new role to the era by choosing exemplary management from a historical point of view, and It can be understood that there is a willingness to persuade the opposing forces against government policies. Through this study, it will be possible to contribute to the understanding of China by understanding various aspects of cultural politics using the classics of Chinese government.
  • 5.

    The Conflict between the Poetry and the Warrior- A Study on the 『Chinese New Poetry』

    Kim, So-hyun | 2018, (41) | pp.91~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This is the 70th anniversary of the ‘Nine Lives’ school(‘Chinese New Poetry’) activities. Eight poets, except ZhengMin, have died, but they have left a deep footprint in the history of modern Chinese poetry. Its main publications are 『Poetry creation』 and the 『Chinese New Poetry』. They were attacked by opponents as they shared ideas and artistic ideals. It was an unconditional and overall rejection of the liberal tendency to claim the diversity of literary arts. They were excellent in theory and creativity, but their real influence was not great. Their theory insisted on the modernization of poetry, democratic thinking, and pure artistic discussion. But in the face of the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang opposition, genuine debate was impossible. Since the fall of 1945, the Chinese Democratic Alliance has gathered power and has had a significant impact on political negotiations. Their flag was liberalism. The ‘Chinese New Poetry’ school responded to the attack of the left and maintained a moderate stance. The purpose of this article is a brief review of the misfortune of young poets who had to wage a fierce ideological war. They were forcibly forgotten because they were ahead of their time, but fortunately they were not forgotten forever. The publication of the 『Nine Leaves』 in 1980s is a response to the new evaluation of the ‘Chinese New Poetry’ school.
  • 6.

    A Study on The Extinct Words of YiQieJingYinYi

    Hwang, Shin-Ae | 2018, (41) | pp.111~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Buddhism which was introduced to china at the end of DongHan dynasty goes through the WeijnNanBeiChao era and was in its heyday during SuiTang era. The work to translate Buddhist scripture written in Sanscrit into Chinese during SuiTang era was done. During the translation process, “A book of Buddhist phonology and meaning” was published to figure out the accurate phonology and meaning of the terms in the Buddhist books. “A book of Buddhist phonology and meaning” is a dictionary of Buddhist with abundant vocabulary. In the terms of the words in YiQieJingYinYi, we looked at the words that were actively used but are not used any more today, and we looked at the chronological approach to the usage of these words and the causes of the their extinction. The reason why these words were extinct is as follows. First, it was caused by the weakened morpheme of the words. Second, some morphemes of the words in YiQieJingYinYi were often combined with other morphemes. In this case the combined words with other morphemes increased and the words in the YiQieJingYinYi gradually began to be lost. Third, some of the words in YiQieJingYinYi began to be lost by the new words which was competitively coined in modern times. Fourth, some of the words in YiQieJingYinYi remain in literary style in modern Chinese. In the future, we will continue to do historical research on Chinese vocabulary through continuous study on the words in YiQieJingYinYi.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Relation between the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words and the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters

    Yum Jaeung | 2018, (41) | pp.137~162 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to compare the vocabulary generation methods of the ancient Chinese by comparing the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words and the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters. These two types of vocabulary have long been mixed in the concept of the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters in a large category. For this reason, the dictionary containing the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters has been stored in large quantities in the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words. In addition, these two vocabularies, which are similar in characteristics to each other, are judged to be the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters or the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words with the same or similar documentary evidence that emerged during the Ancient Chinese period. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, it is possible to use similar or identical documentary evidence when these vocabularies are identical, since the vocabulary and the sound dative have attributes of different levels of vocabulary use and vocabulary derivation. Therefore, a simple main character and a borrower should be regarded as the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters when there is a simple transitive relation. However, when there is a strict Phonetic and semantic relation between primitive and derivative words, they should not be confused with the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters but as the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words. Second, from the viewpoint of the direction of the development of acceptation, we divided those words into two types: a bi-directional type and a univocal type. In this paper, the examples of bi-directional type are “疑”字: “擬”字, “福”字: “富”字, “直”字: “值”字. the examples of unidirectional type are “之”字: “志”字, “采”字: “菜”字, “直”字: “植”字. Third, the correspondence relationship between the primitive and derivative words in the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words, and the original character and borrowed character in the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters can be divided into two types. In this paper, we just have one type that the primitive word of the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words corresponds to the borrowed character in the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters, and the derivative word of the Chinese Pronunciation-Change Words corresponds to the original character character in the Chinese Phonetic Loan Characters.
  • 8.

    A Discussion on the Belonging of Yunmu ‘iong’ to Cuokou Hu

    Tae Eun Kim , LEE HYUN-SUN | 2018, (41) | pp.163~190 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is about the belonging of yunmu ‘iong’ to cuokou hu, which is one type of the Si Hu. Some scholars argue that yunmu ‘iong’ belongs to cuokou hu, and they present its sound value as /yŋ/, while some show that its sound value is /iuŋ/ or /yuŋ/. However, /yŋ/ is very different from the real sound of yunmu ‘iong’ in Mandarin, so the argument that yunmu ‘iong’ belongs to cuokou hu is a kind of unreasonable analysis. Based on the Hanyu Pinyin Fangan(The Scheme of the Chinese phonetic Alphabet) and Hanyu Fangyin Zihui(The vocabulary of Chinese dialects), we argue that the sound value of yunmu ‘iong’ should be transcribed as /iuŋ/, which can support the opinion that yunmu ‘iong’ belongs to qichi hu. In addition, a survey, which asks Mandarin speakers’ intuition of yunmu ‘iong’, was conducted and the result shows that they feel the [i] in yunmu ‘iong’ has more lip roundness than a usual [i], but the pronunciation is still not [y]. Besides, Duanmu(2007) also presented the sound value of yunmu ‘iong’ as /iuŋ/ on the underlying level and as [iʷ] on the surface level. When we consider all of the materials and research about the current sound of yunmu ‘iong’, it can be concluded that the sound value of yunmu ‘iong’ is /iuŋ/ on the phonemic level, and it has more lip roundness in the real pronunciation. If Si Hu only considers the glide of yunmu, yunmu ‘iong’ can be classified into qichi hu. However, we think that the necessiry of Si Hu in the explanation of Mandarin yunmu is in doubt. Nevertheless, if Si Hu must be used in the explanation of Mandarin yunmu, yunmu ‘iong’ should be treated as a special type of yunmu, which cannot belong to any type of Si Hu.
  • 9.

    The Aspects and Construals of Semantic Extension of the Body-Part Terms, “Abdomen”, between Chinese and Korean

    LI NAN , Han, Yong Su | 2018, (41) | pp.191~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The abdomen belongs to a part of the body of the human body, and its related body-part terms can be regarded as “visible, felt” in vitro words; on the other hand, the abdomen includes abdominal wall, abdominal cavity and visceral organs, and it is related to the body words that are “invisible and unable to touch”. Therefore, the body-part terms related to the abdomen are both concrete and abstract. Heine et al.(1991)points out: “the conceptual domain has certain directivity.” This is the shift from the concrete “person” domain to the abstract “quality” domain. On the basis of the conceptual domain of Heine, the semantic extension of the Korean and Chinese body-part terms, “abdomen / belly”, is investigated in the order of person > animal > object > space > quantity > abstract concept domain. Its main contents are as follows. The semantic extension of the Korean body-part term “abdomen” is from the process of person > animal > object > space > quantity > abstract. The Chinese “abdomen” is in accordance with the process of person > animal > object > space > abstract process, and the extension meaning of Korean body word “abdomen” and Chinese body word “abdomen” is greater than difference. In addition to the meaning of “animal production times”, the extended meaning of Korean “abdomen” can be found in Chinese body words containing “abdomen”. However, the semantic extension of Chinese “abdomen” is more abundant in person and abstract domains. In the person domain, the “abdomen” can refer to “the protruding part of the finger or the calf”, and the “abdomen” can be combined with the “heart” for the person that can be trusted because of its functional importance, and the “belly” is able to borrow a pregnant person and a protruding person in the abdomen because of its appearance. In the spatial domain, the position of the abdomen in the body can also refer to “the front” and “the center”. In the process of semantic extension of Korean and Chinese body-part term, the main source of image is its structure, form, position and function. Structural features are more semantically transferred in the human domain itself based on metonymic mechanism of the whole generation. The direct perception of the morphological features is the strongest. It is the most easy to leave the mental image of the form and picture, and it is also the most likely to attract the attention of human to the appearance of other things. But there is no further meaning in terms of morphological characteristics. This is because the features of the morphology are characterized by a very high representational character. The more concrete, the greater the limitation of the development of the word meaning. “position” features like “morphologies” features, with strong intuitive perception, but “positional” features reflect a higher level of abstraction than “morphologies”. The expansion of the abdomen to the spatial domain is precisely because “location” is the spatial relationship between objects. The human abdomen is an important part of the trunk, including the stomach, the intestines, the kidney, the uterus and other visceral organs. Therefore, the human abdomen has the functions of digestion, excretion, and pregnancy, and the abdomen is closely related to the other parts of the body, such as “heart”, to develop into a more advanced abstract domain during the cognitive process. Extend the meaning of heart, idea, emotion, and so on.
  • 10.

    A Study on Chinese Language and Character Policy, and Culture Politics through the Chinese Character Competition Program

    MOON JOON HYE | 2018, (41) | pp.213~232 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to identify the changes of Chinese language and character policy through the Chinese language contest TV program and to understand it in the context of Chinese culture politics. The current trend of the Chinese character contest TV program, which is currently being broadcasted in China, is based on the social phenomenon that people can not accurately utilize Chinese characters. However, the contest program seems to contribute to the purpose beyond the educational level of simply writing letters correctly.Chinese government presented in December 2012, “National medium and long-term language enterprise reform and development plan (2012-2020, national long-term language literacy reform program),” as the main task. Strengthening Chinese writing ability is to cultivate the ability to read the recorded classics(古典), and Classics is the basis of traditional Chinese culture, which is presented as the basis of the claim when the chinese premier,Xi Jinping, makes a speech. Hanja is a powerful adhesion that unifies Chinese people who are divided into economic status, regions, and ethnic group; This unification is the ground of Chinese classical culture emphasized by the Xi Jinping government. In this respect, the trend of Chinese writing contest is closely relevant to the Chinese language and literary policies, moreover, should be understood in the context of cultural politics.
  • 11.

    A Study on Application of Cohesion and Coherence to Subject Appearing and Disappearing in Chinese Writing Text by Koreans

    Yun, yu-jeong | 2018, (41) | pp.233~272 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to study the using patterns of coherence devices to secure the cohesion of texts in relation to the appearing and disappearing of subject in Chinese writing texts by Koreans have advanced Chinese level. This paper divided the coherence devices into five kinds such as ‘Reference, Substitution, Ellipsis, Conjunction, Lexical Coherence’. Lexical Coherence is classified as homotype reiteration, partial homotype reiteration, synonym and generic term. The results of the analysis are as follows: First, in Chinese writing text, Koreans mainly use lexical coherence such as homotype reiteration, partial homotype reiteration with respect to subject appearance, and occasionally use reference and substitution. Second, in Chinese writing text, Koreans mainly use progressive ellipsis or author ellipsis in relation to the disappearance of subject, occasionally use general ellipsis or dialogic ellipsis, and rarely use regressive ellipsis. Third, the most prevalent principle of appearing subject in writing text is the meaning response of subject and predicate. If the subject of a predicate in a sentence is different from that of a predicate in other sentence, if the subject of the predicate is different from the subject of the nested clause, if the subject of the predicate is different from that of a predicate in a complex sentence, the subject must appear. However, Koreans often fail to make proper use of the subject corresponding to each predicate. Fourth, even though the subject of the predicate in the front and back sentences is the same and has already appeared in the context, if there is a distance between them and there are other interference terms in the middle, communication with the reader may not be smooth, so it is preferable to make the subject appear.
  • 12.

    A Research on Consumer-oriented Development Direction of Advanced Chinese Textbooks

    Kim, Jeong-eun , Kim, Nan-Mi | 2018, (41) | pp.273~296 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This current study surveys teachers and learners of advanced Chinese to explore the perception on learning advanced Chinese, and analyzes advanced Chinese textbooks in Korea. Based on this investigation, this current study suggests practical contents required for the learner in categories of conversation, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar to explore an effective textbook development direction for advanced Chinese to satisfy the demands at the advanced learning level. Major findings are as follows. First, to fulfill the high demand in listening and speaking, textbooks should provide sufficient practice in listening and speaking based on texts that allow the learner to understand the context of the Chinese culture. Second, to alleviate the vague fear from dialog with a native speaker, the textbook should provide dialogs and interviews conducted by native speakers as much close as real situations, with practice sessions at different speeds. Third, vocabulary at the advanced Chinese level should be included in texts to allow comprehensive understanding together with the context, and frequently used words should be selected allowing practice to their usage and expansion. Forth, to satisfy the high demand in systematic vocabulary grammar education, the textbook should provide natural education and practice of grammar and actual dialog. Providing practice of the contextual feature will enhance the learner‘s Chinese language ability. Fifth, many learners find the necessity of pronunciation practice even at the advanced level, however the majority of advanced Chinese textbooks do not weigh on pronunciation practice, leaving the learner with insufficient practice in intonation, accent, or natural pronunciation. Therefore, the textbook should provide reading sessions allowing the learner to practice tone, accent, modality, pause, and stress. This current study is expected to be reference in developing advanced Chinese textbooks.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Improvement of Cooperative Educational Training System between Korean Teachers and Chinese Teachers - A Study on the Analysis of CPIK Projects

    Kim min young | 2018, (41) | pp.297~318 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, focused on problems that appeared in the course of cooperation classes between Chinese and Korean teachers invited through the CPIK project. Chinese language classes run by Korean teachers and Chinese teachers co-teaching can affect the quality of the performance of the lessons. Therefore, teacher training needs to be systematically conducted in order to effectively operate collaborative classes. It is proposed to improve the existing single-operated training programs and systematically operate them. The author proposes a system of Link training program contents, Feedback through maintenance training and intermediate inspection, Support for research activities to enhance teachers’ professionalism. The system is expected to be used in many ways to enhance educational performance, improve the quality of education, and enhance the professional ability of Chinese language education. The ‘Korean and Chinese teachers Collaborative Education System’ presented in this paper proposed that the training program be systematized into a series of courses. Therefore, research on the future direction of program construction and teacher cooperation education and research activities at each stage should be continuously discussed.
  • 14.

    A Study On the Trend of Patriotism Movie in China - Centering on <Wolf Warrior II>(2017), <Operation Red Sea>(2018)

    Kang Nae Young | 2018, (41) | pp.319~352 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore the trend of patriotism movie in China. For this study, analyzed <Wolf Warrior II>(2017) and <Operation Red Sea>(2018) which accomplish the highest box office record in Chinese film history, And explored features of his esthetics, thematic consciousness, the contextual meanings. In this study, firstly analyzed cinematic trait by way of concrete text critics, And analyzed main cause of fashion and social means by way of context critics. As a result, find the main cause of trend in film industry, film policy, thematic consciousness, esthetics. First of all, according to the rapid development of film industry and market, appear big box office movies. Secondly, after Chinese president Xi era, the more government regulate about film, the more filmdom cooperate with each other. <Wolf Warrior II> and <Operation Red Sea> accept the national ideology of ‘Renaissance of Great China and Chinese Dream’ by government. Thirdly, in thematic consciousness, the chinese wish of ‘Global Great China’ led to be successful in box office. ‘Global Great China’ represent chinese collective desire. Fourthly, in esthetics, receive cheer by the audience in terms of ‘Pseudo-Hollywood strategy’ which include ‘easy and interesting narrative’, ‘well-made by high technology and VFX’, ‘spectacle scenes’, ‘casting stars’, etc. Therefore, latest trend of patriotism movie <Wolf WarriorII>, <Operation Red Sea> in China represent the spirit of the ‘Chinese president Xi’ age, and as a result of collective interaction in ‘government, film industry, movies, audience’.
  • 15.

    Indie Eyes on “Comfort Women” in China - The Case of Independent Documentary Twenty Two

    linze xie | 2018, (41) | pp.353~374 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Independent documentary Twenty Two(2015) is about the current situation of survived comfort women in China. This is the first documentary on “comfort women” issue that has ever been screened publicly in China. It not only provides a new channel through which the Chinese audience can know “comfort women” issue more objectively and throughly, but also sets a new landmark for Chinese oral historical documentaries. The words “comfort women” incorporate specific “political connotation” as well as “gender sensitivity”. However, media representation and social discourse are inclined to stereotyping them as “symbols of ethnical oppression” or “victims of sexual violence”, ignoring the “individual subjectivity” of each of them. Besides, although oral historical documentaries exert considerable influence in the West as well as in Third World Countries, they’ve been staying out of the major Chinese audience perspective for quite a long time. In view of these two aspects, Twenty Two collects the oral histories provided by comfort women survivors, questions mainstream discourse on comfort women issue, and makes more people realized that oral historical documentaries excel in reserving the truth of the past. Following the analysis of some interview scripts extracted from Twenty Two, this research points out that certain patriarchal contextual factors that rooted in domestic society are reflected in the interviews. These factors not only make women more vulnerable to sexual violence, but also make it difficult for them to return to the position of normal women after the injury. When Twenty Two is reconstructing the individual subjectivities of “comfort women”, it encourages the audience to cast reflexive perspective on “comfort women” discourse that has long located in the frame of nationalism. Such way of challenging the mainstream ideology is moderate but powerful. While demonstrating such viewpoint, this paper attempts to argue a previous study’s conclusion that asserted that “there’s no real independent cinema in China that challenges the mainstream”.
  • 16.

    Chinese TV Drama Production Mechanism and Mainstream Drama

    Ko Yoonsil | 2018, (41) | pp.375~396 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    After China’s economic reform, in order to meet the needs of the times, that is, promotion of economic recovery and modernization, the West that had been the enemy was changed to the object of learning and imitating, and thus the necessity of ideological security came to the fore. In addition, in order to adjust the various contradictions in the national policies, institutional arrangements came to be made. After the basis of China’s establishment, its socialism ideology and economic reform, the censorship regulation was formed in the middle of conflicts and contradictions between modernization and market ideology as well as various political and structural competences including maintenance of social orders and ideological security. Especially, in this age of post-socialism when it is certain that revolution idealism would vanish, the censorship regulation is working as the mechanism of regulations and prohibitions to conceal the ideological vacuum of drama contents, establish ideological security, and maintain social orders. The drama censorship regulation is at the core of the drama production system in China. As the influence of capital increased in the period of economic transition, Chinese officials have tried to protect mainstream ideology and give ideological identity to cultural contents. The formation and enhancement of the censorship regulation could be considered to be an ideological reaction against the fact that market ideology would dominate mainstream ideology in the period of economic transition. All the drama contents in China are adjusted by Chinese officials’ ideology through this censorship regulation. Particularly, as the example of standardization in the period of economic transition, mainstream dramas started to suggest the ideological standard of drama contents depending on the censorship regulation. Since the decline of revolution idealism, mainstream dramas have played the role of producing ‘universal ideology’ to conceal ideological vacuum, establish ideological security, and maintain social orders. The purpose of this study is, targeting the 1980s when the drama system started to be organized in earnest, to examine the process of the formation of the censorship regulation and grasp the ideological strained relations depending on the political and social changes in the contemporary society of China. Then, this study tries to analyze the narrations of typical mainstream dramas to examine how mainstream ideology would change and operate, because mainstream dramas are important in grasping the ideological effects and operating ways as they are important means of propagating ideology and are typically influenced by the regulatory mechanism of the censorship regulation in the whole stages of planning and production. Lastly, this study intends to examine how mainstream dramas would function ideologically. Although mainstream dramas are producing universal ideology for maintenance of social orders, they are also clearly concealing the functional vacuum of mainstream ideology, simultaneously.
  • 17.

    Editorial Planning and Space Arrangement Method of the Illustration of The Flat Dialect of the Three Kingdoms

    SUNG SEO | 2018, (41) | pp.397~422 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    『The Flat Talk of the Three Kingdoms』(三國志平話) has great significance in that it is the first version of the existing “Three Kingdoms illustrations”(三國畵). In addition, the quality of the achievement is not inferior to the later, so it is necessary to review and search at various angles. In this paper, we examined the basic editing planning of 70 illustrations, how to operate the spaces in the illustrations, furthermore the limits and problems. In this thesis I wondered whether to post a picture in the text from the viewpoint of the editor who publishes 『The Flat Talk of the Three Kingdoms』 and some associations. The illustrator (or publisher) summarizes the scrivener by picture-title, selects the scene from his point of view, emphasizes the theme, and arranges the battle scene and the non-combat scene to a certain degree. When interpreting a scrivener in the image of artwork, it basically treats the episode of developing “topic - sub topic" horizontally, develops these episodes, develops these, frequently operates double spaces, And also attempted to represent the part containing several causal relationships in a complex spatial manner. And also on the limits of artwork, I explained the reason why the person was strongly divided, the point where the castle wall was drawn small, the point where the person was omitted, the point where there was almost no indoor scene, etc., Solution or influence briefly stated. In this article, I gave a new opinion on the features and values ​​of the illustration 『The Flat Talk of the Three Kingdoms』 which have not discussed in domestic and foreign academic societies. Especially, approaching from the viewpoint of the operation of the space to decipher the figure, to what extent convincing results were derived. It goes without saying that such success of the illustrations book has had a great influence on the planning and drawing of the illustration book afterwards 『The Romance of the Three Kingdoms』 illustration book. Then, a comprehensive project that supplements artwork and literary story, emphasizes the theme, and presents interpretation from another viewpoint persisted ‘story picture’ got a richer experience. I think that this paper has a certain significance in that it helps understanding book illustrations as well as understanding of works.
  • 18.

    Knowledge Production Mechanism and Acceptance of Western Learning in the Time of Dissemination of Western Learning to the Orient: Centered on Activities and Persons of ‘Essay Test of Western Learning(Kaoke)’ at Shanghai Gezhi Academy

    YoungSoon Park | 2018, (41) | pp.423~450 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In modern times, the Western Learning flowed into China with expansion of the Western Powers. In the times, the government and intellectuals made efforts to cultivate people of talent in the Western Learning and diffuse it through academies, schools and translation institutes. In the course, people got to show their perception, receiving attitude and point of view in various western learnings. Thus, what is the perception, receiving attitude and point of view of the Chinese intellectuals on the Western Learning should be the keyword in understanding of the changes in Chinese society and Chinese knowledge system. Shanghai Gezhi Academy was one of the schools those had taken an important part the late Qing Dynasty in diffusion of Western Learning and cultivating people of talent. As a school established by cooperation between Chinese people and foreigners, Gezhi Academy carried out an important function in diffusion of Western Learning the late Qing Dynasty. Especially, during year 1886-1894, the test (an exam, called as考课in Chinese, i.e., an essay test of Western Learning) was applied as one of scholarly activities in Gezhi Academy for spread and receiving of Western Learning (Especially, the science of principle and knowledge, i.e., Gezhi). The exam questions were mostly concerning Western Learning while the examiners were intellectuals from the ‘Westernization’ group and the examinees general intellectuals. The tests carried out by Gezhi Academy would be a typical object of study in understanding the response, recognition and attitude for the Western knowledge of general intellectuals since dissemination of Western Learning to the Orient. Looking at the establishment, system and intellectual activity (test) of Gezhi Academy, it’s can be seen that the Chinese people and foreigners, government officials and civilians, representative intellectuals and general intellectuals collaborated each other to promote self-reliance and making the country rich through spreading and receiving of Western Learning, and further to intend to change the traditional knowledge system of China. The studies up to now on diffusion and receiving of Western Learning for the period of dissemination of Western Learning to the Orient have been centered on a few well-known intellectuals such as Wang Tao(王韬), Zheng GuanYing(郑观应), Kang YouWei(康有为), Liang QiChao(梁启超), and major media such as ShenBao(『申報』), ShiWuBao(『時務報』) and WanGuoGongBao(『萬國公報』), while that on perception and receiving attitude of general intellectuals to Western Learning appear lacking. Therefore, this article is intended to make Gezhi Academy that made efforts on spread of Western Learning and the essay test carried out as the academic activities there as the object of study under the category roughly of organization, characters, knowledge and discussion, to look into the aspects of acceptance of Western Learning by the people through the establishment and system of Gezhi Academy. Especially, this article tries to make an analysis on the details such as perception and attitude to Western Learning contained or reflected on the examinees, examiners, questions and the content with the essay tests. Through above process, we would have a look into that how the intellectuals of ‘Westernization’ group and general intellectuals received the knowledge of Western Learning at the time and tried to change traditional knowledge system, and what is the perception, attitude and point of view to Western Learning shown in the period.
  • 19.

    Research on Strategies Implemented to Expand Cultural Contents of Korea and China Overseas - Centered around the Role of the Government -

    Kim Minwoo | 2018, (41) | pp.451~472 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article focuses on the fact that from a governmental perspective Korea and China are striving to propel their cultural contents abroad, and it assesses the purpose of the overseas expansion of cultural contents by both governments. It also examines the attributes of the cultural contents in both countries and what contents are actually being distributed overseas. China has continued to exert influence over the world by spreading its traditional culture and values within the international community and has endeavored to improve its national image and reputation by expanding its cultural contents overseas. Contrastingly, Korea, unlike China, did not encourage the Korean government to spread its cultural contents overseas from the beginning. Rather, the Korean government only discovered the possibility of expansion overseas after the international boom of Korean culture (the Korean wave) and helped to expand the scope of the Korean wave by providing active support. The Chinese government aspires for cultural contents including Chinese values to be developed overseas to apply China’s impact in the global community and enhance its national image. Although classical historical dramas and Kung Fu action material based on traditional culture and history were depicted in movies and television dramas that were exported overseas, the volume of export were much lower than expected. In the case of Korea, the Korean government was deeply dissatisfied that the exposure of cultural contents overseas was primarily based on modern Korean dramas and dance music and not traditional culture. However, since the mid-2000s, with the increasing prevalence of non-traditional ‘mixed nature’ based cultural contents, the government’s role has shifted so that it was to give respect and provide support and not to interfere with it. In order to dismiss concerns about China’s nationalization in the international community, the Chinese government aims to spread cultural contents containing the essence of Chinese people overseas. However, this strategy carries an inherent risk of creating another “Chinese threat” from other countries’ perspectives. Just as China tried to prevent the invasion of Western culture to ensure national cultural stability and after joining the WTO, it is equally possible for other countries to develop their own judgement of China’s cultural stability. Numerous Korean studies published in China regard the “Korean wave” policy developed by the Korean government as a successful example of its attempt to expand cultural contents overseas, and China also insists that the government should strengthen its capacities and responsibilities. However, it is necessary for China to recognize the role of the Korean government it not to interfere with the autonomy of the industry and the market, but to respect and it provide active support.
  • 20.

    A Study on the Pattern of Tibetan Coins

    Lee Junghuan | 2018, (41) | pp.473~512 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about the pattern on the Tibetan coins. Tibetan coins have gold coins, silver coins, copper coins. Among them, gold coins are very few, most of them are silver and copper coins. In Tibet, the use of silver coins was more common than copper coins. The silver coin that was first used in Tibet was Moha silver made in Nepal, and it was in the 18th century that Tibet began to produce its own silver coins. ‘Tam ka’ silver coins and silver coins of the ‘cig sums’ series were made at this time, and its shape and engraved patterns were different from those of Nepal, which was also applied to the later copper coins. The pattern on the Tibetan coins include sun, moon, mountain, cloud, lion, mandala, ‘nor bu’, ‘bkra shis rtags brgyad’. The sun, moon, mountain, cloud, and lion are associated with pre-Buddhist Tibetan traditional beliefs(Bon). Nor bu means "treasure", and is used in the name of the precious object. In a coin, it appears alone in the center. Mandala is found in most of the coins and is a good representation of Tibetan world view. ‘bkra shis rtags bygyad’ is the Tibetan lucky symbol composed of 8 kinds of gter gyi bum pa, vkhor lo, gdugs, gser nya, rgyal mtshan, pad ma, dung g'yas vkhyil and dpal bevu. This symbol has a very close relationship with Buddhism. Of these, the wheel(vkhor lo) is related to the first turning of the wheel of the Dharma, which have been used ever since the early coins. In this study, we tried to see what kind of symbol have on some coins and what their meanings are. As a result, we could see that the pattern on the Tibetan coins contains the history, culture, religion and ideology of Tibet.
  • 21.

    A Study on the ‘National Style’ Music Popularization the New Period of China ― Centering on the Song of “xinjiangfeng” by guangnan-shi

    CHOI MYUNG SOOK | 2018, (41) | pp.513~533 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    After the Cultural Revolution, popular music from Hong Kong and Taiwan was introduced to the mainland through various media outlets and developed with an absolute impact on the industrialization, diversification, and commodification of native music. Moreover, with the introduction of a market economy and a political upheaval, the creation of music by mainland China, which had been suppressed for a long time, resumed again, bringing about new developments in the way music was created and the quality of music. In this issue, we will study the first generation composer, the people’s musician, and the singer of the time. Since the opening of the reform, it can be said that shiguangnan’s creative music has represented the achievements of the continental lyricism of the early New Year and the trend of the times. Most of his songs have the simple and intimate characteristics of private houses because they have been artistically processed by finding and applying the visitors of rich and beautiful minorities from various parts of China. In this study, the musical creation of shi-guangnan focuses on the musical characteristics of the “Minjufeng”, the most important phenomenon of Chinese culture, and on the folk music of Chinese minority Uighur people. It will also focus on looking at lyricism, which was popular in the mainland during the new era, and the phenomenon of nationalism in early days of pop music.