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2019, Vol., No.44

  • 1.

    A Study on Tang Chuanqi from the Structure of Afterlife

    KIM NAKCHUL | 2019, (44) | pp.1~22 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study was began to clarify the world after death of Tang Chuanqi(唐傳奇) novels by making an abstraction and analysis of their structure. Tang Chuanqi was a form of short story in the classical language which developed in the Tang dynasty. Many Authors of Tang Chuanqi often thought of death, they were afraid of death, they believed in afterlife. So, what did they imagine for that? What did they want to be in rebirth? Afterlife is the belief that an soul continues to manifest after the death of the physical body. According to novelists's ideas about the afterlife, the soul may be reborn into this world and begin the life cycle over again. Such rebirths and deaths may take place over and over again continuously until the individual gains entry to a spiritual realm or otherworld. Therefore, major views on the afterlife derive from religions. Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being starts a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death. It is also called rebirth or transmigration, and is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence. A belief in rebirth metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, etc. Tang Chuanqi novels of that type were formed literally from superstitious atmospheric force of nature theory including Confucianism, Buddihsm, Taoism, and writers mixed four patterns - many types of soul, rebirth, resuscitation and agnosticism - from these religions for attract the interest of many people.
  • 2.

    Reading the Literature of the “Post-Revolution” Era — The Comparison between the “386” and the “Educated Youth” Generation

    Kim Nam Hee | 2019, (44) | pp.23~48 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Karl Mannheim, the sociologist who spent his youth in the midst of war and revolution and started the groundwork for his sociology of knowledge in the early 20th century, highlighted the collective nature of consciousness. According to him, to think is always to participate in or conspire a collective thinking, rather than just anisolated activity of anindividual. As such, thinking acts as criteria of judgement and action for an individual and characterizes one generation as well. The “Educated Youth” is a generation that has common experiences and shares collective mind and thinking. They were Red Guards during the “Cultural Revolution”, then were sent-down to rural areas, and later were brought back to cities as a group. So it is logical to suggest that they as one generation feel a sort of solidarity and have some characteristics in common. It is also not by chance that they got together under the banner of the “Root-seeking Literature.” In order to properly understand the motivation and development of the “Root-seeking Literature” and its seeking roots, it is highly required to consider the writers’ generational characteristics and related narrative characteristics. This approach will be of use in bringing to light the social context and previously unseen dimensions of the literature. Based on this hypothesis, this paper compares two well-known literary groups, the “386 Generation” in Korea and the “Educated Youth” writers in China, exploring how each group’s collective historical experience has shaped the vision of the future respectively and how the vision influenced each group’s literary representation. Firstly, this paper will make a diachronic overview of the “Educated Youth” writers and their literature. Then the case of the “Educated Youth” will be compared to the literary production of the “386 Generation” who is also famous for its unique generational characteristics. In doing so, this paper seeks to cast new and revealing light to each generation’s way of thinking.
  • 3.

    Comparative Study of Xu Kun’s Short Story <Chu Fang> and <Zao Yu Ai Qing>

    Lho,Sung-Sook | 2019, (44) | pp.49~66 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Xu Kun is one of the most prominent new writers of the 90s in Chinese contemporary literature. Since the start of her literature work in 1993, she has created a work that focuses on the survival of intellectual class with a dual identity of scholars and writers. <Zao Yu Ai Qing> take the male character as the main character, describes male-female relationships that are dominated by money in a commercialized Chinese society. She was generally regarded as a scholarly writer, but her short story the <Chu Fang>, created in 1997, is evaluated as a work by a pure feminist writer. Chinese society has been in the 90s, with the development of market economy, the position of intellectuals has been pushed to the periphery of society. Of course, female literature has been pushed around more. This paper is based on the concept of 90s, which is a specific time frame set of space, would like to study how the economic development of China has affected the gender identity of women and men. In this paper, a comparative study of <Chu Fang> and <Zao Yu Ai Qing> was carried out in four parts, in the first chapter, discussed the return of knowledge women to the kitchen. A woman who refuses the kitchen returns to the kitchen for love but eventually is rejected by the men she loves. Through the study of Chapter 2, we can see that the success of women has a contradictory relation with the gender identity of women. In the third chapter, analyzed the relationship between business and true love for divorced middle-age women. In the last chapter, learned about a new group of women who emerged as the background of Chinese society in the 90′s.
  • 4.

    Direction and Characteristics of Chinese National Reform Discourse

    Jung Soo Kim | 2019, (44) | pp.67~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to analyze the direction and characteristics of the Chinese national reform discourse through the analysis of the heroic narrative of the ‘100 pioneers of reform and Opening-up’. The '100 pioneers of reform and Opening-up' is on the tradition of socialist China's people heroes, considering those who selected and praised the people who contributed to reform and opening up for the 40 years. This paper examines the '100 pioneers of reform and Opening-up' in the context of the tradition of the people hero, and reveals characteristics of future reform discourse that is different from the early period of socialism and reform and opening up. In the socialist period, the 'model workers' were selected to enhance the values ​​of socialist countries such as 'labor', 'self-devotion', 'loyalty to the party', in the reform and opening up era,, the model workers were selected to 'contributing to national development'. And '100 pioneers of reform and Opening-up' are portrayed as people's heroes embodying the values ​​of 'pioneering and exploring spirit', 'self-innovation' and 'quality leap'. The 'pioneering and exploring spirit', 'self-innovation' and 'qualitative leap' that stand out in the '100 pioneers of reform and Opening-up' will constitute core values ​​for the reform of China as a 'stage of high qualitative development' in the future.
  • 5.

    Research on the Image of “Comfort Women” in Contemporary Literature of China

    Han Xiao | 2019, (44) | pp.93~117 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There is a special female image in contemporary literature of China, that is the “comfort women” image from China, Japan and Korea. This paper firstly made an in-depth exploration and analysis of the images of “comfort women” in contemporary literature of China, and then classified them according to nationality, specifically analyzing the images of “comfort women” in China, Japan and Korea. To be specific, when creating the image of Chinese “comfort women”, Chinese writers not only expose the crimes of the aggressors from the standpoint of nationalism and then call on the people to fight for the end of the war, but also explore the oppression of women by gender and patriarchy system to a certain extent. In shaping the “comfort women” from Japan, the writers are based mainly on anti-war stance, with the Japanese people apart from the war initiators—the Japanese warlords and plutocrat, accuse the warlord of their press on women in Japan and call for the world forces that can be united together against Japanese imperialism. When looking at the “comfort women” from Korea, a colony of Japan, they mainly cast a humanitarian view. On the one hand, they expose and strongly condemn the crimes of Japanese imperialism; on the other hand, they also warn the Chinese people to wake up, so as to call for the unity of weak and small ethnic groups. These works project different consciousness and embody different creative purposes. They can not only help us to document history and expose the evil of militarism, but also provide us with some perspective and practical significance to re-examine this issue today.
  • 6.

    Between Barbarian Land and Strange Land: Context and Features of the Writing of Xuanhuafengshi Gaolitujing (宣和奉使高麗圖經)

    KIM HYO-MIN | 2019, (44) | pp.119~149 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    For this thesis, a sort of ‘re-writing’ has been tried in order to address the background and context of Xuanhuafengshi Gaolitujing(宣和奉使高麗圖經), which was a record of official visit in Goryeo by Xu Jing (徐兢, 1091-1153) around the end of the Northern Song Dynasty of China, as well as overall dispositions and features of its writing. In Gaolitujing, Goryeo is re-constructed and arranged from the perspective of the ruling class of the Northern Song Dynasty in order to realize the ideal of ‘Chinese World Order’ in its text and it stipulates the nature of its text. Gaolitujing could be considered the outcome of integration of the reality and spirit of the Northern Song Dynasty while re-producing of the previous knowledge system and values of China. Due to these features, facts about Goryeo and rhetoric of Chinese perspective are weaved together, in turn creating a dualistic perspective about Goryeo: one viewing Goryeo as barbarian land and another as strange land. However, since this dualistic perspective is confined in the frame of oneness, Goryeo gets re-constructed in the text with the China-oriented perspective, dreaming of World Order achieved by China, and used as an important existence, constructing the world in the text, regardless whether this point of view complies with reality or not. That’s how Sinocentrism and Chinese World Order were re-written at the time of the most vulnerable as the unified dynasty and only a few years before its fall. In this regard, Gaolitujing clearly reveals how China, of the tradition time, has been constructed in text and inherited in the inter-textual relationship and conventional manner.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Characteristics of Writing for the Social Networking at JiangNan City — Focusing on Yuanmei’s Literature

    Hong, Hye-Jin | 2019, (44) | pp.151~189 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Yuanmei was a poet who worked in the social space of Jiangnan city, for example a garden, a courtesanhouse, an academy書院, a poetry club and his Suiyuan. The people who took part in the social space formed horizontal exchanged ideas through discussion, criticism, and conversation. They pursued pursuing culture, knowledge, literary culture, and self-development. He paid attention to the contemporaries and explored the demands of the times. He realized that the value of the personal living in the current should be established. So he emphasized the writing with the reflection of personal temperament, induced the expression of one's inner desires and feelings, and expanded the subject which was closely connected with ordinary life. He also provided practical knowledge such as versification and encyclopedic knowledge and interesting stories for the demand for knowledge, culture and entertainment. Further, in order to expand the network of social spaces, he actively used three combining forms, first 「Suiyuanyajitu」 and poet, second biography’anecdote, poet and criticism, third exhibit of lanterns and poet. As a result Yuanmei created the symbol of Suiyuan, he was able to be the leader. Participants in the social space belonged to a literary community in which Yuanmei was central, and wrote a poem that reflected the poetic theory that he claimed. Using flexible thinking and subjective judgment, they could use it as an opportunity to discover and grow themselves.
  • 8.

    Co-occurrence Restriction of Modal Expressions in Ancient Chinese: Based on the Aspectual Type of Verbs and Adverbs

    YOONSOONIL | 2019, (44) | pp.191~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the semantic constraints that arise between verbs and modal expressions or adverbs and modal expressions that appear in ≪左傳≫. As a result of the analysis, the following conclusions were drawn: First, in ancient Chinese, if a polysemous modal word is combined with a static verb, it is interpreted as a epistemic modailty. Second, in ancient Chinese, dynamic verbs is used freely with both epistemic and non-epistemic expression. Third, in ancient Chinese, epistemic modal words could only used in already happened incident. Fourth, in ancient Chinese, ‘既’, ‘已’ can represent ‘perfective’. ‘嘗’, ‘曾’ can represent ‘experiential’. They could not be used with epistemic modal expressions. Fifth, in ancient Chinese, ‘將’, ‘且’, ‘且’, ‘方1’ can represent ‘prediction’. They could be used overlaid with each other. Sixth, in ancient Chinese, ‘初’, ‘始’, ‘新’ can represent ‘inchoate’. They could be used only with epistemic modal expressions. Seventh, in ancient Chinese, ‘尚’ and ‘猶’ can represent ‘duration’. They could be combined with epistemic modals if it appears with a static verb. Eighth, ‘尚’ and ‘猶’ representing duration can be combined with the episdemic modals if it appears with a static verb.
  • 9.

    Analysis of the Implications of NP and VP Types of the 『LAOZI(老子)』 Opposition Structure

    Sodong Lee | 2019, (44) | pp.213~237 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we divided the 『LAOZI』 opposition structure into 7 types of NP and VP, examined the relationship between the eight types of implications. Seven kinds of parallel structure, modifier-head structure, verb-object structure, subject-predicate structure, adverb-head structure, union structure, including other structures, showed eight implications according to their structural characteristics. The appearance frequency of parallel structure, modifier-head structure, verb-object structure is relatively low. subject-predicate structure is mostly in the form of a judgment statement or a description form, which shows the contradictory perceptions and results of '道'`s attributes or temporal events. Adverb-head structure also indicates the appearance frequency and similarity with subject-predicate structure. The union structure occupies a much higher appearance frequency among the seven types, the reason for this is that the union structure that expresses the distich form and the adversative structure, is most suitable for showing opposition structure. The union structure shows all 7 implications. Among them, the contradictory perceptions and results of '道'`s attributes and the ‘去彼取此’ opposition structure appear at a relatively high frequency.
  • 10.

    A Diachronic Study of Modal Momentum Quantifier Phrases in Modern Chinese and the Period of the Republic of China

    Sung Ki Eun | Yongjoong Kang | 2019, (44) | pp.239~261 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The modern Chinese 'Yi tong' is mainly combined with a negative meaning verb, indicating the meaning of this act and behavior, such as 'act in disorder', and 'The degree of act and behavior is very high'. This function is very unique, but so far there has been little research into its origins. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to identify the formation process of 'Yi tong' and through diachronic investigation, we will grasp the establishment process of 'Yi tong'. As a result of examining the operation pattern of 'Yi tong' 'in modern Chinese (from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty) and Republican China,, it is confirmed that there is no fundamental difference between the ancient Chinese 'Yi tong' and the operation of modern Chinese 'Yi tong'. The first significant change occurred in the Ming Dynasty. It was founded one case of 'quan jie le yi tong(勸解 了一通)' in corpus of Ming dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty, the verbs that combine with 'Tong' are more diversified and combined with verbs such as 'shuo(說)ㆍkan(看)ㆍsou jian(搜r檢)ㆍtang lan(蕩瀾)ㆍkouj ue(口角)'. In Republican China, significant changes have occurred in comparison with modern Chinese. First, 'Yi tong' is a combination of passive verbs such as 'he chi ze ma(呵斥責罵)ㆍhe chi(喝斥)ㆍchi ze(斥責)' This is in full agreement with the usage of contemporary Chinese 'Yi tong'. Second, when the verb of neutral meaning such as 'mouhua(謀劃)ㆍchi(吃)ㆍhe(喝)' is combined with 'Yi tong', it has the function of forming negative meaning. Through these Investigations, this study concluded that The usage of "Yitong" in today began to develop in the Qing Dynasty, activated in the Republic of China and completed in contemporary Chinese.
  • 11.

    A Study on Analyzing of Pragmatic Function of Positive Presuppositional Non-Neutral Questions in Chinese and Korean— Focusing on Shi bu Shi Questions and Negative Yes-No Questions

    LEE EUN KYOUNG | 2019, (44) | pp.265~291 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper compared Positive Presuppositional Non-Neutral Questions in Chinese(‘shibushi’questions), Negative Questions(‘bu/meiVPma’), ‘bushi……ma’ Rhetorical Questions and Korean(Negative yes-no questions) What is different from the results of previous studies is that the study comprehensively explained shi bu shi Questions(shibushi NP/VP)and ‘bushi...ma’ rhetorical Questions’(bushiNP/VPma). In addition, the meaning of negative questions in Korean was divided into five categories. That includes the meaning of common negative questions, the meaning of positive assumption, the meaning of ‘-chan-’(잖), and the meaning of rhetorical uses of negative Questions. and we discussed the corresponding relation between ‘shibushiVP’ and ‘-chi an-’ and ‘kut ani’ negative questions in korean. They were relatively clearly identified in terms of whether they were initiated, whether they were focused, and whether the causes or reasons were presented. And the difference between tone and action request was explained. We hope that such questions and research from this paper will provide a new perspective and contribute to the study of the contrast between Korean and Chinese learners' language acquisition and Chinese-Korean corresponding forms.
  • 12.

    A Study on Gramaticalization of “在望” and Lexicoiosation of Two-syllable Word “在X”

    ZHANGBIN | Heungsoo Park | 2019, (44) | pp.293~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ‘在望’ used to describe ‘physical nearness’ became vocabulary in Song(宋) and Jin(金) Period, while first appearance of ‘在望’ used to describe ‘chronological nearness’ seems to be near Minguo(民國) Period or after Minguo(民國)Period. In modern Chinese ‘在望’ is more frequently used to describe ‘chronological nearness’ than ‘physical nearness’. When it is used to depict ‘chronological nearness’ it has substance of substantive or predicative in its front. The vocabulary that is used in such cases are ‘豐收, 勝利’. When used to describe ‘physical nearness’, it has substance of substantive in its front which refers to ‘location’. Based on process of ‘Metaphorical transition’, 在望 used to depict physical nearness can also refer to chronological nearness through grammaticalization. In such case, the latter can be considered auxiliary word used in aspect and can be interpreted as ‘就要~了’.