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2019, Vol., No.46

  • 1.

    A Study on the Biographical Text 『Li Hong-Zhang(李鴻章)』 of Liang Qi-Chao

    Choi, Hyeong-Wook | 2019, (46) | pp.1~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Written by Liang Qi-Chao(梁啓超), a representative intellectual of the modern period of China, 『Li Hong-Zhang(李鴻章)』 is a new type of Chinese biographical text that describes and criticizes the changing historical trends of China during that period in accordance to the most important political, military and diplomatic leader of the late 19th century. As we have seen in this study, the value of the biography 『Li Hong-Zhang』 can be summarized in two ways. One is that it is a groundbreaking work in the history of Chinese biographical text that attempts to switch from an old-fashioned series of biographies to a new Western-style critical biography system. Since Sima Qian(司馬遷), Chinese biographies have been both prose and historical records in a special form of writing that closely combines literature with history. 『Li Hong-Zhang』 uses divide into chapters(分章)’s method in terms of narrative structure, contains large quantities of diagrams and related documents, and adopts a multi-dimensional structure, especially one in which descriptions and reviews are freely mixed. In addition, as a newspaper with an enlightening and practical utility in terms of style, it vividly reproduces the life of a character before its readers, and through this, it better understands and responds to the flow of modern Chinese history. The other value is that it is a novel review discussing the turbulent flow of history, focusing on the relationship between Li Hong-Zhang - the most central figure in China's modern history - and various meaningful events of China's modern times. This allowed biographies to perform not only their historical duties, but also their political awakening. In particular, the discussion of the War of the ‘Taiping Heavenly Kingdom’(太平天國) and ‘the forces of Nian’(捻軍), which is the most important issue in Chinese modern history, is key. At the center of this biography, Liang Qi-Chao provided important perspectives on how to understand change by adopting and writing the most important political, military and diplomatic figures as the forerunners in the period of his life and the period of modern transition. The core of Liang Qi-Chao's thought is the Enlightenment, which is summed up as ‘the thought of renewing the people(新民思想)’. His ultimate goal in history and literature, especially in politics, was national enlightenment and modernization. Therefore, the biographical text not only describes the individual main character, but also reviews the historical trend centering on the relationship between the times and main character. The book was written under the concept of modern historical study, which he led, as he intended to present a model of evolution to the day and to the latter. In addition, Liang Qi-Chao thought that biographical texts should be one of proselytizing, and that they should be able to effectively enlighten the public by properly exercising their literary characteristics. As such, the historical and literary orientation of the biographical literature was closely linked with the goal of national enlightenment and modernization. And in the end, political leader Liang Qi-Chao tried to make the Chinese people, who did not know where to go, understand the times in their own ways and even prepare for the future by reading the biographical text.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Psychological Expressions of “Illustrations of Jin Ping Mei” Drawn by Cao Hanmei

    SUNG SEO | HEEAHN KANG | 2019, (46) | pp.33~56 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The 500 pieces of Illustrations of Jin Ping Mei(金甁梅畫集) drawn by Cao Hanmei(曹涵美), in the outstanding achievements of the Chinese classic novel Jin Ping Mei(金甁梅), are especially expressed in terms of the psychological aspects of people and readers, with high added value. People's faces and buildings used traditional depictions, but in many ways, from shapes to spatial composition, he made new attempts to build unique and creative screens. We saw this book as well worth analyzing. Above all, it was confirmed that the artist was superior in psychological expression(心理表現), which is unusual in other figures, especially in terms of how the painter interpreted the novel. Looking at the linear aspect, which is the basic element of vision, the painter expresses the psychology of the person in the novel and the psychology of the reader who sees the image in exposed clothes, and at the same time, directly expresses foot-binding(纏足). The traditional tastes and abnormal psychology were shown. The painter's understanding of the space is also psychologically unique. Unstable psychology is drawn to the extreme perspective, and sometimes people are brought close to each other and the scene is brought up close, creating a feeling that the reader is in the middle of the scene. Above all, by adopting the viewpoint of looking at the painter's line of sight from the height of the person's knee, he showed more psychology than looking at a female person who had the effect of putting the person on the stage. This seems to be a good interpretation of features of the novel Jin Ping Mei. Peeping and eavesdropping are novels, maidens and boots listen and see this, convey their psychology to the reader, have the psychology on both sides by alternately depicting the viewer and the person who sees, and psychology and tension were shown by engrave drawing technique. Psychological expressions in illustrations depicting classic novels were very rare, if any. However, it have made a completely new attempt on the Cao Hanmei’s picture, such as lines, planes, spaces, perspectives, and lines of sight. All these attempts reveal that Jin Ping Mei has been visually reinterpreted in a new and unprecedented creative space. In view of these points, Illustrations of Jin Ping Mei can be an unprecedented achievement in the visualization of novels.
  • 3.

    A Study of North Korean Literature Translation during the “17-Years” Period in China

    Sun, Ji | Jungeun Roh | 2019, (46) | pp.57~85 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The "17-Years" period after founding of the People's Republic of China is a very important period in the history of Chinese contemporary literature and even the translation of foreign literature. The foreign literature translation activities during this period are not as blank as most scholars think, but can be regarded as the golden age in the history of Chinese translation literature. During the "17-Years" period of translation, there were a large number of Korean literary works. Studying these works is of great significance for understanding China’s perception of Korea at the time. But due to the special historical environment of this period, the translation and translation of these literary works was seriously affected by the national ideology. On the one hand, North Korea literary works in the same ideological camp were translated into large numbers. On the contrary, South Korea literary works in the hostile ideological camp were completely banned. In addition, compared with the phenomenon of a large number of translations in the Korean literature translation activities before the founding of the People's Republic of China, during this period, the translator can directly translate the Korean texts, which undoubtedly greatly improved the accuracy of translation and avoided Influenced by literary discourse in other translation countries. But under such strong ideological intervention, what kind of tendency does the translator have in translating Korean literary works, and how this translational tendency will affect the translation of literary works. This article will reorganize the status of translation of Korean literary works during the "17-Years" period, and attempt to analyze the specific ways of translation and translation activities during this period.
  • 4.

    A study on『Hu You Za Ji(Miscellaneous notes on visiting Shanghai)』

    JEONJIN MOON | 2019, (46) | pp.87~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    『Hu You Za Ji』 is the first "city guide" book published in Chinese on Shanghai. In terms of visible structural aspects, this book looks like that it can not make it a usable guide to go around the city. However, the narrative of 『Hu You Za Ji』 makes travelers form a covert but systematic perspective on Shanghai as a modern city by Chinese literati. This is one of the main mechanisms for readers to form his or her own selective viewpoint of modern Shanghai. And in 1876,『Hu You Za Ji』 begins to construct a special image of someone about Shanghai. After the opening of port, Shanghai was being composed by new cultures and products that categorizes as engineering technology today. The author Ge Yuanxu(葛元煦) was an insider who had lived in Shanghai for 15 years, and at the same time he was an outsider who had moved from another region, HangZhou. He focused on the administration, infrastructure, transportation, lifestyle and entertainment of the concession, a foreign settlement in Shanghai.
  • 5.

    Hong Kong Lennon Wall, Post-it, and Politics of Affect: Focused on Umbrella Movement and Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement

    Yun Youngdo | 2019, (46) | pp.107~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The 2019 ‘Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill (Anti-ELAB) Movement’, which is also called Hong Kong protests against Extradition Bill, is an ongoing series of demonstrations in Hong Kong which began with the aim to oppose the introduction of the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill proposed by the Hong Kong government. For half a year from March 31, when was initiated in Hong Kong, one of the most important cultural practices that has emerged uniquely in the protest is the citizen's bulletin board movement, decorated with a post-it, called the Lennon Wall. In this paper, considering the similarities and differences with the various forms of politics of affect in other regions, at first, I discuss what the Lennon wall is, how it emerged in the recent Hong Kong protests, and what its characteristics are. Next, I examine the roles as a medium and the implications of these cultural practices in terms of politics of affect. The intense resistance movements and political conflicts that are taking place not only in Hong Kong, but also recently in each countries of East Asia (and all over the world), are driven by the politics of affect before the cognitive phases. These phenomena raise the need for new attention on the politics of affect. Behind these movements is the resistant politics of affect by the people who have nothing to operate through various media and practices against power or mainstream society. The politics of affect of resistance that works in our daily lives can sometimes generate great political waves and changes, such as candles protests and yellow ribbons practices in Korea, as well as Lennon walls in Hong Kong.
  • 6.

    A Comparative study of <Lu fan Yanshi> and <Coming home>

    Choi, Jaeyong | 2019, (46) | pp.131~151 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The study compares and analyzes the movie <Gui lai>(Coming home) with the novel <Lu fan Yanshi>(Lu Yanshi the criminal), and through the comparison I tried to reveal what gets hidden and what gets revealed in the 'translation' process. And ultimately, I wanted to discuss about the limitations and possibilities of the medium of contemporary Chinese cinema. As the novel gets translated into the movie, I believe two important things were either deleted or covered up by the director, Zhang Yimou. The first thing is women. The film excludes or shrinks the role of two main female characters of the novel, Feng Danjue(daughter) and Feng Yifang(Lu's Stepmother), so that Lu Yanshi can be portrayed as the perfect husband, father and patriarch. The second thing I want to talk about is a drastic cut in historic/political content of the novel, and many people have already pointed this out. Compared to novel, the movie is a typical melodrama devoid of any obvious political message. But no matter how Zhang tries to hide the violence of Cultural revolution, some things cannot be completely wiped out. I will call this things 'trace evidence'. These traces sometimes are left out there consciously, sometimes unconsciously. By collecting and analysing these traces and debris, I believe it is possible to politically re-read the text of Chinese cinema. The movie tries to give us the illusion of love and reconciliation, but once we see beyond the cover-ups and face the movie itself, we might be able to find the possibilities to re-politicize the cultural contents of contemporary China.
  • 7.

    Elements Missed From Stephen Chow Films - Differences Among Original Cantonese Dialogue, Dubbed Mandarin Dialogue, and Korean Subtitle of The God of Cookery (1996)

    LU CHEN | Daegeun Lim | 2019, (46) | pp.153~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to provide solutions based on the linguistical and cultural analysis of why Stephen Chow films have not been recognized in Korea unlike in Hong Kong and China. After analyzing The God of Cookery (1996), one of the best Stephen Chow films, and comparing its original Cantonese dialogue, dubbed Mandarin dialogue, and Korean subtitles created using the Cantonese and Mandarin dialogue, this paper concluded as follows: the subtitles hindering the understanding of audience are created because of the errors in translation of language and signs as well as the lack of understanding in social, cultural, and historical backgrounds. While the translation errors can be solved through the use of appropriate language and strategic change of signs, the background knowledge is the biggest and toughest problem requiring the cooperation between translators and researchers. Unlike many previous studies, this paper analyzed the comparison between Mandarin and Korean, a language comparison that has been rarely discussed. Also, this paper provided solutions for the errors appeared in the subtitle of The God of Cookery, denied the conclusions of the many studies indicating the impossibility of overcoming the language barrier between Mandarin and Korean, and argued that dialogues from movies were also important research materials reflecting society and showing minds of members of the public. This paper will give Korean audience and researchers a chance to get closer to texts and contexts of Stephen Chow films as well as to Hong Kong and Chinese societies through historical and cultural analysis and interpretation of dialogue, scenes, and subtitles of the films.
  • 8.

    "The Wandering Earth" wandering in the space of patriotism

    Kim Nam Hee | 2019, (46) | pp.185~204 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Released during the lunar New Year season of 2019, “the Wandering Earth” hit great success, jumping to the second place in the box office for all films ever screened on the Chinese mainland. Regarding the film’s achievements, domestic critics highly appreciate its comparatively mature storytelling and overall verisimilar effects, regarding it as the true beginning of the Chinese SF genre. At the same time, some voiced genuine concerns about the tendency of nationalism and patriotism that recent Chinese blockbuster films seem to promote. Against this backdrop, this article explores the meaning of so-called the first Chinese SF film by looking at how discourses have been evolving on the film’s massive success. “The Wandering Earth” is set in the far future, where the solar system is in danger and all the countries get united in rescuing it under the leadership of China. The film describes the world as a cooperating whole by making the USA invisible. But in reality, “the Wandering Earth” barely excluded the existence of the USA from its production to distribution. In fact, the USA’s invisibility in the film, which comes from the China’s sense of rivalry with it, reflects the American influence in an ironic way. For example, the film connects the situation of moving the earth with China’s agrarian civilization, and this is strikingly remindful of the 1980s’ binary thinking of China’s agrarian civilization vs. Western marine civilization. Once used to criticize the backwardness and passiveness of China, this binarism is now being re-adopted to highlight the Chinese greatness and its difference with the western culture. One point that claims our attention is that this binary discourse is being reinforced in school through the curriculum. Since “the Wandering Earth” has been very popular and was included by the Chinese education ministry in the list of recommended films for elementary and middle school students, questions on the film are being asked in the school exams and ‘the exemplary answer’ is widely adopted as the only right way to view the film. In the process, without the space for plural interpretations of the China’s first SF film, its meaning is reduced simply to a text that shows well the value of Chinese traditions.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Additional Meaning of ‘正’ and ‘奇’ in『LAOZI(老子)』

    Sodong Lee | 2019, (46) | pp.205~223 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ‘正’ is used in several meanings in 『LAOZI(老子)』. ‘正’ originally means ‘punish’, and is often seen in the Oracle-Bone Inscriptions , but since then it is mainly used as a derivation meaning of ‘get right’, ‘comfort’, ‘stabilize’, and ‘politics’. In『LAOZI(老子)』, besides this derivation meaning, there is also an additional meaning of the textual character of『LAOZI(老子)』. The meanings of the seven ‘正’ characters in『LAOZI(老子)』 can be summarized as follows: 1) politics 正善治(Chapter8) 2) Absolute righteousness, truth 淸靜爲天下正(Chapter5)/ 我好靜而民自正(Chapter57) /正言若反(Chapter75) 3) Relative righteousness, truth 以正治國(Chapter57)/ 其無正(Chapter58)/ 正復爲奇(Chapter58) ‘正’ is used interchangeably with ‘政’, except that there are two main categories: absolute ‘正’ and relative ‘正’. The former is ‘正’ at the angle of TAO(道), meaning ‘淸靜’, ‘無爲’. The latter refers to various laws, regulations, etc., which were made to be truth in the temporal angle. The latter is the act of ‘有爲’, which causes side effects, ‘奇’. It appears in the oppositional structure of ‘正’ and ‘奇’. ‘奇’ appears four times in 『LAOZI(老子)』. Appears alone or in a confrontation with ‘正’, both do not deviate much from its original meaning. The additional meaning in the opposition structure is a side effect of ‘正’, which can be seen as a social evil caused by the act of ‘有爲’ such as various laws and norms, and the remedies for it.
  • 10.

    A Study on the New Chinese Characters Appeared on the Internet in China

    Park, Seok Hong | 2019, (46) | pp.225~263 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Looking at the whole process of the occurrence and change of Chinese characters, new Chinese characters were constantly created in accordance with the change and development of society and the development of people's perception of the classification of objects. The gradual increase in the number of letters related to animals, plants and objects illustrate of this fact. In particular, from the early 20th century to the 1960s, the formation of new cultures and the introduction of new objects served as a momentum for the increase in demand related to the production of large numbers of new characters. The most representative example is the increase in the number of Chinese characters that represent the symbol of the chemical element. It is rare in the history of Chinese characters to see such a large increase in such a short period of time. Recently in China, new "characters" have been created by Chinese Internet users at online space, or existing characters have been used in entirely new way. These new "characters" have emerged as the background of modern Chinese society and culture, and these unique characters can be called “New Chinese Characters on the Internet in China”. This paper just analyzed the shape and structure features of these new “characters”, and also analyzed the social and cultural factors of the production and distribution of these “New Chinese Characters on the Internet in China”.
  • 11.

    Cross-level Coordination Movement in Languages: A Case Study of Retroflex Suffixation in the Dialects to the East of Beijing

    Ai, Yifang | 2019, (46) | pp.265~288 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies the special performances of the retroflex suffixation in the dialects to the east of Beijing. According to the coordination theory proposed by Chen Baoya (1990 & 2015), the study found that there is a strong connection between the special retroflex suffixation and the phonological structure of the dialects of that area. Then it is proved that languages are under coordination movements through different levels, like the phonological and the morphemic levels. So this study complemented new materials and viewpoints to the cross-level coordination theory. And in the dialects of this area, two waves of morpheme function changes are involved in their retroflex suffixation, which makes the most special points of the phenomenon under discussion. It showed great correlations between language structure and language change.
  • 12.

    The influence of simplified Chinese characters on the pronunciation of place names -- a case study of Yulin and Yunan

    Lo, Infat | 2019, (46) | pp.289~298 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The simplification movement of Chinese characters in the last century has a principle of "homophonic substitution", which is to combine some Chinese characters with the same pronunciation in mandarin to reduce the total number of characters in modern Chinese characters. Further, the same treatment was done on place names, replacing place names containing difficult characters with homophonic words in mandarin and fewer strokes in Chinese characters. For example, "ABC" is homophonic in mandarin. The simplified way of Chinese characters is to cancel the traditional "C" and let "B" accept all the meanings of "C". Finally, only "AB" is left in the simplified character. In this case "ABC" is "玉郁鬱[y51". Based on the above method, “C” county in Yunfu city, Guangdong province and “C” city in Guangxi province were changed into “A” county and “B” city. However, the policy makers did not consult the local people. The language in those two cities is the cantonese dialect of Chinese, and the three words "ABC" are pronounced totally differently in the cantonese dialect ([juk55 juk22 wat55]). In retrospect, it is not advisable to combine characters with unrelated meanings in order to reduce the total number of characters. Moreover, according to the principle of "name follows owner", if words (such as "ABC") are read in different places, they should not be combined reluctantly.