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pISSN : 1598-8503 / eISSN : 2714-0067

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2020, Vol., No.48

  • 1.

    Socialism Cultural Policy and the Politics of Film Critic in China

    Daegeun Lim | 2020, (48) | pp.1~17 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on the process of change in the perception of Chinese society within the society after the establishment of socialism. As an example, I will examine the phenomenon in Chinese film history and the position and attitude toward a specific film. Specifically, it discusses the establishment and execution of cultural policy in the early period of socialism China and its influence on the film field. In addition to, it presents the Chinese Communist Party had the historical agendas, which means ‘theoretical criticism’ and ‘practical criticism’, while it posed the principal role of criticism in the process of establishing a new state. In the socialist regime, intellectuals were in conflict with the regime. Communist Party(country) had excluded the intellectuals from the field of theoretical and practical criticism. China’s socialist revolution consistently has been configured with ‘politics of negation’ as a new theory and policy by the technocrats in the Communist Party. Through this process, Chinese film transformed and transplanted the tradition of ‘Shanghai film’ as a ‘classic film’, into Hong Kong, and formed a new chapter of socialism film.
  • 2.

    Confucian Appropriation of Self-sacrificing Jakata and the Change in Perception

    Lee Yoo Ra | 2020, (48) | pp.19~41 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Jakata story based on the folk tales of ancient India features Buddha’s distributing charity and perseverance in his previous life. Among them, the self-sacrificing stories show us the extreme sacrifice of one’s body. The Jakata stories about giving someone one’s flesh are a big part of the whole Jakata stories. When it entered in China, in contact with Confucian culture, it created a new and interesting aspect. This paper examined the narrative features of the self-sacrificing jakata tales, and grasped the underlying desire and the nature of human beings, futhermore looked at the process in which Shāma jakata and Sujāti jakata were appropriated in the Confucian context. As a result, the flesh-sacrificing story, through describing a cruelly damaged body and cannibalism, stimulates the original fears as a human being and the desires for violating a taboo on cannibalism. However, because of this feature, the stories attracted attention for its charm as a story, but those elements do not fit with Confucian sentiment, so they change into different forms. The cruel contents are purified, and the ideal relations between father and son are emphasized. In this process 割股 filial piety stories, which is about cutting thigh flesh for curing parents, are produced. As 割股 stories get popular, in reality there are many filial piety to practice 割股, and 割股 soon becomes essential behavior as a filial son. Finally, 割股 pandemic has expanded to the medical field, so human flesh was officially recognized as the best medicine in the Tang dynasty. This series of streams means that the ancient Chinese perception of cannibalism has changed. The cannibal, which was basically savage, naturally transformed into a civilization.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Development of “Chao Yin(朝隐)” Thought in the Wei, Jin, Tang and Song Dynasties

    GUAN MEI | Choi Young Jun | 2020, (48) | pp.43~70 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The contradiction between "Official career" and "Hermit" has always been an eternal topic that plagued ancient literati. The emergence of the "Chao Yin" thought is the result of the conflict between the monarchy and the scholars in the authoritarian system. After Dongfang Shuo put forward the view of "Chao Yin", there were many inherited developments in later generations, and concepts such as "Xin Yin", "Li Yin", "Zhong Yin", and "Jiu Yin" appeared successively. Ruan Ji's "Xin Yin" emphasizes inner peace; Wang Wei's "Li Yin" emphasizes the balance between professionalism and seclusion; Bai Juyi's "Zhongyin" is the neutrality of Da Yin and Xiao Yin; Su Shi's "wine secret" is based on his predecessors to achieve inner transcendence with the help of wine. "Chao Yin", as an alternative way of seizing both "Official career" and "Hermit", During the evolution of later generations, along with the changes in society and the mentality of scholars, the following characteristics have emerged: First, the practice method of "chao yin" thought is more concrete and distinctive; Second, in the "chao-yin" thought, the themes of "chao" and "yin" have changed; Third, the spirit of resistance of the "chao-yin" ideology gradually faded; Fourth, the degree of recognition and acceptance of the "chao-yin" ideology has gradually increased. The evolution of "Chao Yin" thought is an inevitable consequence of the development of social political and cultural thoughts, and is an important part of traditional hermit culture. The rich and splendid hermit culture created during the development and evolution of the "Chao Yin" thought is of positive significance. As a method of behavior, "Chao Yin" is characterized by the choice of a detachment from the absolute opposition between "Official career" and "Hermit", and maintains a sense of normality between 'go forward' and 'give in' It is of practical significance in any era.
  • 4.

    A Study on Meidingzuo’s Qingnilianhuaji

    JeongSook Park | 2020, (48) | pp.71~99 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay is the study of Qingnilianyuaji(靑泥蓮花記) that Meidingzuo(梅鼎祚) had compiled during a Wanli(萬曆) year of the Ming(明) Dynasty. It contains the record for 216 'jinü(妓女)' from the Han Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty. There have been reported numeros studies on jinü till now. There have been a lot of study results. But, the in-depth study of literatures on jinü have never been many. Qingnilianyuaji contains biographies of jinü andwill be widely used to study on jinü. Qingnilianyuaji consisted of intrinsic side and extrinsic side. In the intrinsic side, Each jinü classified by illumination of jinü’s life on the basis of virtue of Buddhism, Toism and Confucianism. In the extrinsic side, It illuminates jinü’s literary talent and individual personality. The writer have classifed like this because jinü’s moral character has been highlighted first than looks and talents. Also it has been highlighted first virtue of Buddhism and Toism than Confucianism because of my compilation standard. Meidingzuo was absorbed in Buddhism. But more importand thing is because of an expression of discontent about reality of politics on Ming Dynasty. Consequently it has praised the jinü achieved enlightenment religiously of Buddhism and Toism and got away from jinü’s immoral life theirselves. The virtue of Confucianism are loyalty, fidelity, filial duty, integrity, chastity, marriage. It emphasizes loyalty and fidelity than chastity and so on is especially worthy of notice. Chastity is the common virtue of jinü. By the way, it places emphasis on loyalty and fidelity of jinü. It is a criticism of the nobility loosed loyalty and fidelity compare unfavorably with jinü. Also, the compiler have fundamental solution to be completely out of jinü’s promiscuous life. jinü’s life written on this essay is a model of general jinü’s life. As we've seen, this study is to find out how the wirter looked at 'jinü(妓女)' through the system of compilation and classification of Qingnilianhuaji. And I could clearly understand why Meidingzuo came to compile the book by examining the background of its compilation. In particular, it pointed out that the culture of evaluating gisaeng based on the Ming Dynasty's perception of celebrated 'jinü(妓女)' is based on its foundation.
  • 5.

    A comparison of the types of Male homosexuality in novels of Ming and Qing Dynasties

    CHOI YOONJU | 2020, (48) | pp.101~141 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Homosexuality had existed for a long time, and became an important cultural phenomenon in Ming and Qing Dynasties. This trend affects the creation of novels, most of which reflect homosexuality. In the 20th century, there were more and more researches on literary works, so some researchers got remarkable achievements. Based on the previous research results, this paper analyze the types of homosexual stories in Ming and Qing novels. Through this research method, four types of stories are made, including literary style novels in Ming Dynasty, spoken language novels in Ming Dynasty, literary style novels in Qing Dynasty and spoken language novels in Qing Dynasty. In order to analyze the relationship between active characters and passive characters, compare and analyze various types of tables. The types of homosexuality in the literary style novels of Ming Dynasty showed the situation that the mainstream class liked beautiful teenagers at that time. The type of homosexuality in the spoken language novels of Ming Dynasty shows the relationship between Dalaoguan[大老官] and Xiaoguan[小官]. The type of homosexuality in literary style novels of Qing Dynasty shows the ideal love relationship of literati at that time. The types of homosexuality in spoken language novels are different from literary style novels in Qing Dynasty. In a word, through the analysis of homosexual types, can see that homosexual relationship at that time was dominated by active characters, top-down, unilateral and unfair sexual play.
  • 6.

    An Analysis of the Biographical Story of “River Float” in the 100-Chapter Journey to the West

    Min Hsun | Hsieh | 2020, (48) | pp.143~163 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article looks into the related controversial issues around the story of “River Float” (Jiangliuer江流兒) in the 100-chapter Journey to the West. It will approach these issues mainly from three aspects: ① The process how stories from previous historical documents formed and how fetching Buddhist scripts from India stories have been transformed and deified. ② How literary treatments of the events of “Taizong of Tang descending into the Hades” (太宗入冥記) and “the biographical background of Tripitaka(Xuan Zang)” (唐僧出身來歷) have been employed by the author(s). ③ Analyzing how the stories of “River Float” and “10-generations reincarnation” intermingled and merged. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the possible biographical background of Tripitaka and see how it is so different from the biographical stories of other characters in the novel. Regarding the controversial old problem of the “Jiangliuer” story, if it can be approached from the perspective of the origin of the novel, the literary creator and the narrative structure of the novel, it may be a research strategy to unravel this “Journey to the West” literary case.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Dramatic Characteristics of Huang-E’s San-Qu

    Cheong MinKyung | 2020, (48) | pp.165~189 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Huang-E, a female writer in the middle of Ming Dynasty is very good at San-Qu and occupies an important position in Ming Dynasty’s San-Qu history. She’s San-Qu is closely related to her life, and her husband, Yang-Shen, was also a famous San-Qu writer. Huang-E, who writes poetry well, had a happy newly married life after she married Yang-Shen. However, after Yang-shen was punished by the court and driven to Yun-Nan, she leads a lonely life. So Huang-E’s San-Qu expressed her Yearning and resentment for her husband. Huang-E was good at both Nan-Qu and Bei-Qu under the influence of Yang-Shen, was better at the Bei-Qu. She described the character, incident and background through the Bei-Qu, became a woman of noble birth, a prostitute, and a male figure in a San-Qu. Through the dramatic characteristics of Huang-E’s San-Qu, we can see that her San-Qu was singing various contents and tried various expressions. The content and formal analysis of Huang-E’s San-Qu could look at Huang-E’s naive, frankness, cheerful and freeness with Huang-E’s San-Qu, away from the way she had so far evaluated Huang-E’s work only in the shadow of her husband Yang-Shen. In the late Ming Dynasty after Huang-E, a large number of female San-Qu writers appear around the southern region. Huang-E’s talent and virtue have influenced female San-Qu writers a lot, also had a profound impact on Chinese women’s literature.
  • 8.

    Study on the Meaning of Ancient Oviparity (卵生) by the Analysis of the Ancient Letter ‘Egg (卵)’

    PARK SEONGWOO | Moon, Chi-Ung | 2020, (48) | pp.191~210 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We recognize many myths about the founding of ancient times or the birth of kings in Korea and in China history literature. A brief definition of myth is more of an imaginary or mysterious story. We cannot understand myths as any historical event that has actually occurred. It is unscientific and impractical that humans are born from eggs. This paper is the basic work of understanding the oviparity myth among the various myths recorded in the historical literature of Korea and China. We examined the various meanings of oviparity in various ways through the analysis of the contents of ancient Korea and China literature. In addition, examples of use of egg used in the records of the literature on a particular person were analyzed to examine the use of oviparity by focusing on its meaning and extended meaning changes along with the flow of time. Various literature analyses have shown that egg has been used to refer to male genitals and to mean egg. It gradually developed into a symbolic egg that represented the nest before the birth of life. Furthermore, the meaning was extended to the expression of metaphor to indicate the birth of a great person or king by taking good care of a particular person. People cannot be born from an egg. The oviparity story about certain person being told is unscientific and unrealistic. This is the result of a lack of literal understanding of the egg. Therefore, oviparity about a person is a metaphorical expression that emphasizes the birth or emergence of a great person and the content of the relevant kings expressed in the literature should be understood from a historical perspective, not a myth.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Diachronic Evolution of Verbs Relevant to Sleep

    Yu Hyun a | 2020, (48) | pp.213~232 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Common words are the core of lexical system. They play an important role in ensuring the continuity of language and providing the basis for the creation of new words. In a certain sense, the change of the common words is the deep, essential change of the whole lexical system. The history of Chinese lexemes is the science of studying the diachronic change of Chinese lexemes. It should make research into the changes of the important common words in the lexical system. Without researching into the history of common words, one could not have an outlook of the lexis of the period. Precisely, he will lose the scientific evidence for the lexis history of different periods. Verbs are the most abundant and most complex words in Chinese. The most important of them is common verbs. The study of common verbs allows us to better understand verbs and Chinese. This study selects five commonly used verbs meaning ‘睡(shui)’, ‘寐(mei)’, ‘臥(wo)’, ‘寢’(qin), ‘眠’(mian) as the research objects. Verbs signifying sleep has the closest relationship with the people’s daily life. Ever since the appearance of the human being in the world, sleep is an essential inactivity and basic part of their life. The replacement of the verbs signifying sleep profiled among the changes of lexis. Every glosseme of the verb signifying sleep experienced a course of changing. In light of the historical documents, the paper makes an investigation on the changes of the verbs signifying sleep throughout the historical periods, and analyses the features and the causes of these changes.
  • 10.

    A Study of Shima(是嗎) in Chinese Interaction: Focus on the Uses in TV Talk Show Qiangqiang san ren xing(鏘鏘三人行)

    Park, Chan Wook | 2020, (48) | pp.233~264 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine the various aspects of the use of language found in practice through quantitative analysis of frequency and distribution, and qualitative analysis of discourse function as an analysis target for ‘是嗎’ used in the interaction process. To this end, this paper first presents quantitative results aggregated from the analysis target, and then interprets the meaning of each aggregated value. Then, after analyzing the discourse function of ‘是嗎’, we discuss the meaning of it in the interaction process. In quantitative analysis, ‘是嗎’ appeared at four different frequencies at four different locations, and responded to various responses. Besides, in the quantitative relationship with social variables, the frequency of use of ‘是嗎’ by the host overwhelmed that of the guest. This shows that the use of language can be different depending on the type of interaction and the role assigned to it. As a qualitative analysis, the discourse function of ‘是嗎’ includes (1) a request for confirmation of the proposition, (2) a request for confirmation of the discourse contents, (3) a request for agreement from the listener, (4) recognition of the listener’s opinion and ease of conflict, (5) demand for continuation of speech and specificity of information, (6) coordination and coordination of listener opinion, and (7) appeal for attention. This paper implies the importance of Chinese language research based on natural discourse and observation of social variables in language use research.