Cross-Cultural Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.6

Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2008, Vol.12, No.2

  • 1.

    The Crisis of Imagination: Postcolonial Studies and Migrant Literature

    Eli Park Sorensen | 2008, 12(2) | pp.17~41 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigates the contemporary relationship between postcolonial theory and postcolonial literature, arguing that a problematic “agreement” between criticism and writing in recent years has emerged, which has marginalized and repressed a series of critical issues, thus compromising the utopian and radical potential of postcolonial thought. Tracing the developments of postcolonial criticism and writing, the article argues that whereas postcolonial literature has undergone a change from nationalist-based toward a migrant aesthetic, postcolonial theory was from the beginning orientated toward a cosmopolitan language– precisely because of its opposition to an earlier, nationalist-orientated postcolonial discourse. Postcolonial studies emerged as an academic discipline during a period of disillusionment–as a response to the unfulfilled or broken promises that had been bred by the event of independence. The academic field distanced itself from the dreams and hopes that had flourished–and failed–in the years after independence, by developing an alternative, more theoretical, set of imperatives. The current agreement between theory and literature constitutes an “ideological trap” in the sense that it represses the “original” failure, from which postcolonial studies initially emerged; a failure, the after-effects of which still constitute many of the critical issues crucial to contemporary postcolonial thought. The article finally argues for a critical rethinking of the relationship between criticism and writing, in order to reignite and reaffirm the dialectical tensions between them; and thus continue the radical and utopian potential of postcolonial thought.
  • 2.

    Global Capitalism and Diasporas in the Modern and Postmodern Era

    요춘회 | 2008, 12(2) | pp.43~64 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Temporal and geographical spaces provide conditions for diasporas and capitalism to emerge, spread, thrive, and change. Diasporas have longer history that stretches into ancient times, while global capitalism made its presence commencing only from the fifteenth century. When diasporas and capitalism started to interact with each other, both have been moved along the trajectories with modern and postmodern characteristics. Both diasporas and capitalism have been fostered and constrained by state agendas that address national sovereignty and identity. Market forces havechallenged constantly the extent and scope that the nations should allow its citizens to respond to their ancestral homelands and should open up for foreign migrants and monies. While modern institutions regulate diasporic and capitalism movements, modern technology helps penetrate national boundaries and thus give rises to postmodern features that are more fluid and hybrid.
  • 3.

    The Internal Other: The Uncanny Stranger within and at Nation's Margin

    Sungran Cho | 2008, 12(2) | pp.65~78 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The encounter with the uncanny brings an unsettling recognition of the subject's own strangeness. With the Freudian notion of the unconscious, the involution of the strange in the psyche integrates within the assumed unity of human beings an otherness that is both biological and symbolic and becomes an integral part of the same. And this difficult recognition of the irreconcilable alterity within the self--the internal other--is precisely what enables a non-violent relation to the other outside. In other words, the ethical encounter with the external other in the political arena--with the foreigner and the stranger--is inconceivable without the acknowledgement of alterity inscribed already within the most intimate interiority of the self. Although the uncanny is not equivalent to ethics, therefore, in so far as it reconciles us with the irreconcilable within ourselves, it opens the possibility of ethics, ethical being with the other.
  • 4.

    Study on Japanese learning environment -For University Japanese learners -

    Kim Hwal Ran | 2008, 12(2) | pp.81~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The opinions have been surveyed through a questionnaire for learners taking Japanese-related courses in the countrywide 11 universities with 4-year educational system regarding wished visual study materials, preferred Japanese courses, highly effective courses in learning, use of textbooks and study materials, level of satisfaction with facilities and devices for language drills in each university. In order to get the results of the survey, the frequency analysis and cross-check analysis for each category have been performed by means of SPSS program. As a result of the survey, most of the Japanese learners hoped to have more new courses provided than now, such as discussion courses with Japanese students, education courses for Japanese regional characteristics, certificate courses for JPT and JPLT, conversation and discussion courses through Japanese movies and animations, Japanese politics and economy classes, colloquial Japanese speaking classes through J-POP and dramas, as well as classes for business conversation, Japanese trade, current Japanese issues, traditional Japanese culture, NHK news, debate on the Korea-Japan current issues, Japanese kanji, etc. In addition, students preferred more opportunities to watch Japanese TV programs, more Japanese courses to be provided, more visiting chances to discover the Japanese culture, newly-provided curriculums for students to have direct experiences of the Japanese culture, interview classes carried out with Japanese people, etc. The most wished visual study materials among Japanese learners were animations and dramas, and the most preferred method of class and the most highly effective class of learning selected by them was listening to dramas and movies, which ranked 1st. Besides, video was selected as the most preferred textbooks and study materials by the Japanese learners, which means there are many learners who want to take class with learning materials of moving images that provide highly visual effects for learners. Regarding each university's language facilities or devices, the conditions are so bad that 50% of the students, occupying the largest part of the responses, viewed there leaves much more to be desired in those facilities while only 5% of the students thought there are enough facilities provided. Lately, it has been actively carried out to develop foreign language teaching methods by taking advantage of multimedia facilities. Also, there need more active investments in facilities necessary for learning foreign languages in a bid to improve the effects of learning, as well. Besides, considering that the very motive of Japanese learning is the interest in the Japanese pop culture, through which we have to find some methods to maximize the effects of Japanese learning. It is required to expand Japanese education hoped by Japanese learners through active participation of teachers and instructors in the development for Japanese textbook materials and diverse new teaching methods by means of visual images, as well as through re-education of teaching methods for teachers and instructors.
  • 5.

    Is ita a Syntactic Affix?

    이건수 | 2008, 12(2) | pp.107~140 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Based on the required criteria for an analysis of ita construction suggested in Si (2006), this paper aims to show that the seemingly paradoxical properties of ita construction can be accounted for more adequately under the hypothesis that ita is an unaccusative verb which takes a small clause as it's complement (Lee (2002)) than under the hypotheses that ita is a simple verb (Um (1989, 1993)) or that ita is a syntactic affix (Si (1993, 1994, 1995)). Arguments are concentrated on falsifying the widely spread assumption that the word preceding ita is a noun or a noun phrase. And this paper also suggests that the idiosyncratic properties of the stative hata construction can be easily explicated under the hypothesis that stative hata is also an unaccusative verb which takes a small clause its complement.
  • 6.

    Kalmyk's Space in Pushkin's Literature

    Kwon Ki Bae | 2008, 12(2) | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This work studies how the Kalmyk nationality, a symbol of Mongolian-Asians, appears in Russian literature especially in Pushkin's literary works. The European-Asian problem is a big issue that crosses time even in a very enormous and multiracial country such as Russia, where various people have their own traditions and way of life. Especially a minority race, which succeeds from Mongolian blood, with their heart in Russia and in Russian’s territory, where they have lived, have been a matter of interest for the Russian writers. Expressly the Kalmyk Republic, situated near Caucasus, in the capacity as symbolic literary material, was a huge attraction for Pushkin, who was so interested in literary places not only in big cities like Moscow or Petersburg, but in Russian’s provincial literary worlds too. Pushkin, having visited the Kalmyk praries himself, introduces the Kalmyks, the Kalmyks, the descendent of Mongolian as a minoring race handing down the Oriental culture of in Russia. Pushkin’s view on the Kalmyks tends to be fragmentary and deficient, therefore making it guilt difficult to define their identity precise. However, Pushkin successfully introduces Kalmyk’s existence to Russian people, who rarely know about the Kalmyks. Pushkin, in his own literary works of various genres (i.e. “Story about Pugachev,” “A Captain's Daughter,” “Army Trip to Arzrum in 1829” and the poem “To a Kalmyk Woman”), portrays Kalmyk people - people keeping to their own culture, way of life, and religion (Shamanism and Buddhism), despite the fact that they had lived in a Russian territory for more than 2 centuries as peace-loving, simple, genuine and hospitable people - much like a naive woman with “a wild charm.”
  • 7.

    Korean modern poetry and Decadence

    Jae-bok, Lee | 2008, 12(2) | pp.163~188 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The most important trait of the history of Korean modern poetry is the inflow of Western various trends of literary thoughts. At that time in the literary world the movement was developed to get out of the 'compulsion on nationalism and enlightenment' which was leaded by 'Chunwon Lee Kwang-Soo' and 'Yukdang Choi Nam-Seon'. At the same time the important request on forming modern literary was overflown in the history of literary. They needed to find individual subject and search on their own inside to free themselves from the compulsion on nationalism and enlightenment. To find the individual subject and inside is nothing but to find the modern subject. Finding the modern subject, they have formed the style of literary based on the theory through long history. Those Western trends of literary thoughts became the real and practical object over admired one. That is to say this trend of literary thoughts offers opportunity and basis to establish modern esthetics by modern subject over limited and anti-esthetics such as racialism, nationalism, and enlightenment.
  • 8.

    Plagiarism, Description by Othernization - Through the Comparison of <When a Woman Ascends the Stairs> and < When the Night Comes to Myongdong>

    YI HYOIN , KIM JAE SUNG | 2008, 12(2) | pp.189~219 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study compares and analyzes <When a Woman Ascend the Stairs> filmed by Mikio Naruse and its imitation <When the Night Comes to Myongdong> by Lee, Hyung Pyo . The main focus is analyzing the social background, the context of film history, and the mental substance lurking under this plagiarism. Although South Korea of the 1960's had been constantly switched from under cultural influence of Japan to that of America since its independence, it was not fully able to be independent from Japan's cultural domination due to the long colonization. In spite of the prohibition on import of Japanese films to Korea by diplomatic break, Japanese film industry enjoyed their golden age. Korean film makers were trying to learn from Japanese films in order to sufficiently produce movie contents in a short time to catch up the young but brisk film industry. In a negative aspect, the root of Korean motion pictures is not purely restrained to Korea, but beyond that, stretching to Japan and even the West. Bound by these non-film factors, Korean films looked toward the films of Japan and the West to find a solution in depicting their lives. As for <When the Night Comes to Myongdong>, the film practiced plagiarism than simply setting a model, relying on the severance of diplomatic relations which acted as a psychological safeguard, thus portraying oneself and the society through othernization. The consequence, as we can perceive in chapter three, was that <When the Night Comes to Myongdong> could not describe the tension aroused by the chasm between the material and the mental modernization adequately enough compared to how it was expressed in <When a Woman Ascend the Stairs>. In brief, othernization held substantial responsibility in wearing off the original work's motif. To illustrate, Keiko's attitude to live an independent life in the original piece is rather smothered by the disordered amusement street scenes in the imitation film, <When the Night Comes to Myongdong>. Chapter four investigated both failed and successful marriage between topic and style of four each representative scenes to show the faults of straying motifs in mimicries not only occurring in narratives but also in style. It is expected to contribute to the research on Korean film history through the comparison and analysis of this study. Furthermore, by revealing what should have been shown already during Korea and Japan's cultural interchange, it is sincerely hoped for this study to play a role in enabling our country to overcome its cultural solicitude.
  • 9.

    The Comparative Process of the Embodiment of God: From an Organic Perspective in East and West

    SHIN EUNHEE | 2008, 12(2) | pp.221~250 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to engage in an inter-cultural dialogue over the concept of God’s embodiment between Western and Eastern tradition within the category of panentheistic hermeneutics. The idea of panentheism as a functional philosophical vehicle of integration of the East and West that pursues the organic way of thinking as a heuristic device for suggesting a new way of conceiving God’s relation to the world. The major aim of this organic model of God’s embodiment is to recognize the importance of the interconnectedness and interdependence of all existences in this life-destroying context where the divine intimacy with the world is far more required. The panentheistic model of God’s embodiment emphasizes the radical immanence of God as embodied spirit or ki, with a focus on the relational aspect of God and the world. The core idea of this also follows along the lines of the definition of panentheism: God is in all things and all things are in God. God’s involvement with the world is assumed to be realized by its bodies, that it, human and ecological communities. God’s action in the world is supposed to be realized through these; in other words, it is analogous to the way human beings move their bodies in accordance with their minds. This perspective denotes the traditional interpretation of anthropomorphism which views the human being as the prototype for divine action. Therefore, the idea of God’s embodiment reflects a sensitive awareness of the inadequacy of classical concept of God which alienates God from the world. The comprehensive philosophical articulation of a global search for a new spirituality and a more holistic way of looking at the intimate relation between God and the world are highly relevant and significant contributions for our time. The revision of God’s embodiment is believed to be suited to the postmodern situation. In order to achieve these religio-philosophical tasks, using panentheistic hermeneutics, I shall develop the idea of God’s embodiment in a dialogical way between Western and Eastern (Korean in particular) understanding of the Ultimate reality. I shall then bring together the two streams of thought, affirming the organic way of God’s transcendent and immanent spirit or ki as ‘beyond and yet within’ nature which has been drawn out the soteriological and ecological implication for both human and cosmic order.
  • 10.

    Neo-Liberalism or Capitalism in Diasporic Aspect Today

    Shin, Hangsik | 2008, 12(2) | pp.251~275 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The main purposes of this study is to investigate the meaning of the relation between the Jewish people and their capital flow today. Follow this purpose, I discussed on the double concept of “diaspora capital” and “diaspora people” which takes a universality of the world situation. The hometown concept of the Jewish people is changed and emphasized on the cultural value to the capital one today. What I want to comprehend through this investigation is point out limitations of traditional logic of history and stress on the result that the Jewish people have gave down for world history. The Jewish people made the modern man to ignore the existence of human solidarity of community by substituting a need of capital in their mind. Having refused to get some mental integration with other people, the Jewish rejected this solidarity but got their own interest by spreading a capitalism of capital, financial system of the society. This typical jewish problem dominated the capitalism society and made it ti fit to their materialist mind all over the world from 19's century. This kind of inclination to the capital diaspora, named neo-liberalism, has acculturated another country to vacant the industrial continuity, social mind and the capitalism itself in all over the world of each regions. I called it the catastrophe of industrial and capital history. of the world continued from 300 years.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Women's Sexuality and the Change of Marriage/Family System

    Yoo, Jin-Wol | 2008, 12(2) | pp.277~299 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study is on the movies which deal with married women's prohibited loves and the representation styles. The represented styles of women's sexuality and marriage and family system say about the Korean society in nowadays. Of course, the movies express more sensationally and more progressively than real society. <Marriage, is mad deed> shows a ridicule on the monogamy and old marriage system and <Birth of family> chooses not blood relation but intimate human relations. <Secret love> shoss the extreme expression of women's sexuality. <A good lawyer's wife> shows breaking of family. Eventually in Korean society, family system may break away and reorganize as we saw in the movies. Therefore the family system in the future must changed into democratic relation between members to satisfy the emotional and personal desire.
  • 12.

    The Paradoxes of Digital Photographic Image and the Aura

    Lee kyoung Ryul | 2008, 12(2) | pp.301~325 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Digital revolution in the late 20th century brought about fundamental change in the process of image generation to create ultra-realism with pixels which human eyes can not sense, and the change keeps going on with new technologies. As a result of development of such digital technologies in presentation, synthesis, copying, simulation and 3D composition, we can not tell an original copy from a duplicate with our eyes. But a downside of digital technology is "death of photograph", which means that such amazing development of digital technology has shaken the foundation of our belief in conventional analogue images such as photographs, movies, TV and video as methods of "recording reality". Development of digital technology has raised an issue of credibility of original copy, and authentic record and fabrication, loss of aura of originals caused by unlimited capacity of duplication of digital technology, and disappearance of artists and their originality and conventional meaning and conditions of arts. However, development of digital technology does not mean the end of arts or death of photographs. Digital imaging, as a means for a photographer to make images by straightforward way or synthetic way, may open a new horizon to conventional photography. And aura of Benjamin is not an object itself but a production of relationship between a subject and audience, and such shift of point of view to the relation between a subject and audience is the essence of the theory of photo-index which is one of the most important discourses of our time. Because a starting point of modern photography is not an analysis of an image but the fact that, analogue or digital, photograph is a direct index of reality. After all, digital image is a means of reproduction for a certain purpose. An important thing here is credibility(ça a été) which stimulates imagination of audience, in other words, photographic realism (analogue) which makes audience believe existence of such situation.
  • 13.

    The Significance of Classical Myths in the Velázquez’s Paintings

    Minhyun Cho | 2008, 12(2) | pp.327~346 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The topics about the modern epistemology and esthetics were represented in the Velázquez’s paintings. He introduced some painting techniques such as the perspective and the chiaroscuro in order to capture the vivid human realities based on the human experiences. These perspectives have influenced on the interpretation of his paintings. However, why Velázquez selected classical myths as unusual materials to depict the vivid human realities? As an answer to this question, we can focus on some of the Velázquez’s paintings such as <Vulcan’s Forge>, <The Spinners>, and <The Triumph of Bacchus> which were painted in his heyday and based on the classical myths. Because Velázquez paid attention to the vivid human realities, his paintings did have immediate correlation with the human lives in general. Based on the mythical materials, what kind of messages did his paintings aim to give us? This article investigates that how the classical myths could be reinterpreted in the Velázquez’s paintings considering the interaction between the Velázquez’s artistic viewpoint and the Spanish background in the 17th century. In order to achieve this goal, this article reviews the significance of the Velázquez’s painting techniques at that time and analyzes the Velázquez’s works based on the classical myths.
  • 14.

    A study on the modern cinematography of Central Asia

    Hong Sang Woo | 2008, 12(2) | pp.347~367 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    If at the beginning of the 1990's, the moment of the fall of the Soviet Union, the countries of Central Asia were approximately in the same situation economically and one ideology dominated the whole region, then during the ten years of independence there were many changes, and the destinies of these neighboring countries unfolded differently. Since the Soviet myths were discarded the cinematographers of Central Asia turned their heads to the archetypes of their cultures. The nomadic culture was re-approached by the Kazakhs, Kyrgyzs, and Turkmens, while the Uzbeks reconsidered the settled culture and the Tajiks - the mountainous culture. For instance, in Kazakhstan film « Together with the father » Karim lives together with his son in the small room of hostel. Their life is uncomfortable, and the all-male world knows neither compliments nor emotion. Not everything in their relationship runs as smoothly as it should, and woman's gentle hand is obviously absent from this unlived space. But all sorrows and problems are forgotten when the father's shoulder is there to lean on, and the son's hand rests in the father's large hand. In Kergyzstan film « The unknown route » a group of villager returns home on the bus. During the conversation the true motives for the heroes' behaviour gradually emerge. Arguments about religion, about everyday and political themes, and about relationships lead to unpredictable consequences. The rebellious passengers, indignant about the driver's impudent behaviour, chuck him out of the bus halfway along the journey. The question of another driver arises. Then something unforeseen happens: the bus is half-suspended on the verge of an abyss, in danger of losing the balance and tumbling into a ravine. An unknown younf man, whom nobody had taken seriously before. Comes to their aid. Kazakhstan's « In the town of A » is a full-length feature film, which consists of five short novellas that are connected through the heroes, neighbours in a five-story house. As a matter of fact, the film represents a certain slice of life in our time. It tells about modern life, about people living in today's Kazakhstan. The stories are recognizable and clear for every spectator.
  • 15.

    Korean Immigration to Paraguay: Looking Forward the Pioneers

    Zulma Espinola | 2008, 12(2) | pp.369~380 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the role of the first Korean immigrants to Paraguay. There is clear evidence that these pioneers made a considerable impact to the Paraguayan standard of living. To that purpose, the first section introduces the main thoughts about international migration. In the second part, it is narrated briefly the advent of the first generation of Korean migrants to Paraguay. Next, it is illustrated two main microeconomic impacts that were considered as a structural feature of the Paraguayan in the 70s. Furthermore, in the last section, it advocates three main features of the Korean community. Drawing on the evidence we can illustrate some conclusions about the impact and we can see that Koreans play a key role during the 70s, mainly in the welfare implications of Paraguayan poor and middle-class families