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2009, Vol.13, No.1

  • 1.

    The Comparative Studies of 「Madman's Diary」 and 「The Overcoat」

    김문황 | 2009, 13(1) | pp.5~28 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to draw out the symbolic theme of 「 Madman's Diary」through the careful textual examinations and some comparative researches with 「The Overcoat」. During the 19th century many critics of Realism including Vissarion Belinskij have considered Gogol's 「The Overcoat」and 「Madman's Dair y」as excellent Russian Realism works, even though they contain some fantastic and romantic elements such as demon, ghost, madman's fantastic thoughts. As a reaction of Realists' assertion, from the beginning of the 20th century Андрей Белый, Валерий Брюсов, Дмитрий Мер жковский, Василий Гиппиус, Вячеслав Иванов, Иван Еремаков, Г. А. Гуковский, Владимир Набоков, and В.И. Еремина, who have shed the light on innumerable unexplored aspects of Gogol's art, have insisted that it is hardly founded any realistic elements in the both works. As I have researched 「The Overcoat」and 「Madman's Dairy」, there is a big difference between both protagonists ― Акакий Акакиевич Ба шмачкин and Аксентий Иванович Поприщин. They are same age(42 years old) and the 9th rank officer of the government office at Petersburg. However their attitudes towards the outer world are quite different. Башмачкин's reaction is passive to them, otherwise Поприщи н's is active and aggressive toward them. Especially the latter puts himself into the fantastic world, then he believe himself that he could achieve his aims through it. In both works Gogol used his own literary device so-called 'the elimination of the limit in between reality and dream'. In the course of the driving Поприщин refuses his identity and even recreates a new identity for himself. However he does not know the fact that he drives himself into the destruction. In the long run his lust and sexual desire have crushed himself.
  • 2.

    Asymmetry among ‘qian, hou, shang, xia’

    박민수 | 2009, 13(1) | pp.29~40 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study represents deep consideration of semantic asymmetry in Chinese Direction words ‘qian, hou’,‘shang, xia’. In the first step, a space has been divided into two different concepts of 3-D space and linear 3-D space. In the second step, each space has been divided into Substance Interior Direction and Substance Exterior Direction respectively, according to the direction each space is directing.
  • 3.

    The New Continent, shadow of the desire for the West - focusing on the images through films

    Chongwook Park | 2009, 13(1) | pp.41~73 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Historical accident survives by the memories of the descendents and coming ages. And its reconstructions get new meanings through the interpretations of them. The Discovery of America has been interpretated differently with passing eras. There have been many interpretations about this historical fact, but most of them are reflecting the perspectives of the westerners. Between the westerners and american indians or latin americans there is no objective perspective to evaluate the Discovery of America. In this case, objectivism is not a fixed form, but a flexible one through times. Now we, the contemporaries are living the world where the visual images and cultural codes are full everywhere. Therefore the films and documentaries are available to interpretate the modern meanings, reconstructing the historial accidents with visual images and cultural codes, with which the modern people think and cognize the world where they live. In this investigation we've planned to analyze the necessity and advantage of using the films and documentaries to know how the contemporaries recognize the Discovery of America and evaluate it. To realize this investigation we've analyzed some films and documentaries such as [1492, Conquest of Paradise], [El Dorado], [Mission], [Soy Cuba], [Historia de España: La noche de los tiempos. Vol. XIV El descubrimiento de América], [Nueva historia de España -10 El descubrimiento de América], comparing with the historical documents, essays and books like Diario de a bordo, Venas abiertas, Primer viaje alrededor del mundo, etc. Columbus described the America as a Paradise in [Diario de a bordo],but [Historia de España: La noche de los tiempos. Vol. XIV El descubrimiento de América] considers America as mine of gold, silver, and natural resources, alluding that the westerners deserve the Discovery of America as a reward. At least, [Nueva historia de España -10 El descubrimiento de América] recognizes the cultures and civilizations of the american indians and latin americans, even though the documentary rationalizes partially the cruel and violent behaviors of the westerners in the process of Conquest and Exploitation. [1492, Conquest of Paradise] emphasizes how warm-hearted person was Columbus with everyone including even indians who practically had died of violence and exploitation as mentioned in the book, Venas abiertas of Eduardo Galeano. [El Dorado] tells us how greedy the explorers for worldly riches in America, but Carlos Saura emphasizes more on the weakness of the human being. [Mission] shows how the desire and ambition for the geographical expansion of Spain and Portugal destroyed the happiness of the guarani who inevitably sacrificed the missionaries. Mikhail Kalatozov accuses Columbus and the westerners in America of the violent exploitation in [Soy Cuba], considering the Discovery of America as tragic reencounter between two Continents, while Jan Elliott accuses Columbus as historically most cruel murderer, judging him as person responsible for the genocide of the indians. Now in the 21st century films and documentaries have the advantage of reflecting the mind and thoughts of the contemporaries. Therefore we've focused on how the films and documentaries reconstruct the history in the mind and thoughts of the people. The meanings of the Discovery of America always can be re-interpretated by the new perspectives of descendents, coming ages and others.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Construction of the Space and the Consciousness of the Other in Park Bong-u's Poems

    신진숙 | 2009, 13(1) | pp.75~100 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    There is an interaction between the construction of the space and the consciousness of the other in Park Bong-u's poems. It has been thought that Park Bong-u’s consciousness of the the-post-war(6·25) was as a start point of his poems. Therefore, the discussion on his poems is related to the nationalism and the inter-Korean relations. Because of that reason, this discussion is also limited and oversimplified on his works. For now, more various study on Park's Works is necessary. In the first period, Park Bong-u was interested in the Korean war and the inter-Korean relations. The important thing was that the images of the space he got was abstracted from the image of the border area, the 38 line. He presented his emotion from the inter-Korean relations as a 'butterfly'. The image of the butterfly symbolized the deterritorialization of the thought. He thought the image of the butterfly as what is transcend the limits of the real space which is the inter-Korean relations. He replaced the tragedy of the war with a mythological space. Then, he constructed the poemric subject that he regarded as the same way of the Other. Later, many things were changed. The image of the mythological space was gone. A new image came. Image of a city that had a pitiable scene. Then he interested in a sad life of the people. But his poems seemed to lose a aesthetic tension force. His poems had a instability. Sometimes, in fact, he had a dissociation of consciousness. I think that this process of his poems is symbolized of the literature of the post-war.
  • 5.

    A Compative Study on the Folk Play between Kumadori in Opera Kabuki and Facial make-up in Peking Opera - The Function of Make-up Color

    Hyunsoon An | 2009, 13(1) | pp.101~124 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on the folk play between Kumadori in Kabuki Opera and facial make-up in Peking Opera, the function of make-up color. Kauki which is one of the representative playing Operas in contemporary Japan has been grown up to get a world-wide fame in the peculiar environment and soil of Japan. Kabuki is a complexe Opera mixing with songs, dances and artistic accomplishments, has been originated from the dancing performances which were displayed by Okuni, a female sharman dressed like a man, cherishing the memory of her late husband died in the war, on the Kyoto riverside makeshift stage. The make-up design Kumadori is a pelliculiar technique which is able to show the audience the personality, age and social rank of the character at a glance, and for instance, the reckless style has a white ground, skin color hands, black eyebrows and pink lip. Peking Opera actors and actresses adopt unique make-up schemes, of which the make-up for jing role(painted faces) is the most intricate and representative. Each jing actor or actress will paint their face with oil and brushes according to certain designs. It is one of the basic skills that needs to be mastered by a jing performer. Various jing roles have different make-up schemes, with designs dictated by rules of cultural tradition. The function of make-up is to express different traits, qualities and social status. Variety in character is achieved mainly through the use of different colors and designs. Certain colors symbolize set character traits. Red usually means loyalty, black is for integrity; white represents a conspiratorial character, and yellow a bold man. Blue and green indicate cruelty, and gold and silver are for ghosts and immortals. Peking Opera, by absorbing make-up from different local operas, gradually developed its own special make-up regimen.
  • 6.

    Woman's repressed desire and the politics of overthrow

    Yoo, Jin-Wol | 2009, 13(1) | pp.125~149 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The women characters express women's repressed desire by divided selves in reality and fantasy and they challenge the fixed idea of women to try overthrow it in <Faceless Beauty> and <The Red Shoes>. JiSoo in <Faceless Beauty> expresses women's sexuality by women writing and comes back from the repressed. <The Red Shoes> is the important seeing on the women's body and expression of women's desire. Women say about themselves by the body which was regulated as dirty and inferior body. Women express to connect the repressed selves between the real and fantasy and hysteria with their body and language repressed for a long time and liberate themselves. Hysteria which is so complicated province of women can expresses the change of rising and falling. This women's crazy, anger and hysteria are strategy of overthrow to JiSoo and SunJae in <The Red Shoes>. Women open space of the probability as subject when they go inner and outer of patriarchy by hysteria. They are in discord with maternity. The body of JiSoo to reject to pregnant is to be the uncanny space of repressed. The maternity is confused and the relation of mother and daughter is conflicted and breaks the fixed idea to women. JiSoo's broken body and faceless body means the denial to body shape the patriarchy fixed. The desire of SunJae to have red shoes and the punishment to the person to stole it mean the resistance to the role of mother and overthrow on the desire and anger repressed for a long time. The men's desire to restruct women with their style is weaken by resistance of JiSoo and SunJae and their relationship is overthrown men subject/women object.
  • 7.

    On the "Total installation" of Ilya Kabakov - The dream of avantgarde art and the art of Soviet everyday life

    이지연 | 2009, 13(1) | pp.151~181 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigates an ambivalent post-Soviet consciousness in the total installation works of Ilya Kabakov - his vector to the Russian Avant-garde culture and coexisting with it nostalgia for the memory of Soviet everyday life. First of all in this article the author surveys the evolutionary process of his works from his early period album genre to the total installations of recent times and highlights the mechanism of signification, in the course of which things from the Soviet everyday life are converted to meaningful artistic signs. In the first chapter of this article along with biography of the artist there is introduced the interrelation of Avant-garde aesthetics and Soviet official aesthetic policies. Especially it is analysed based on the understanding of continuity from Russian Avant-garde culture to the Socialist realism and Soviet underground unofficial culture. In the second chapter the semiotic aspects of his installation works are investigated and they are analyses in the context of Moscow Conceptualism. At this time the narrativeness, the most prominent characteristics of Kabakov is also highlighted through the problem of new paradigm of representation and his philosophy of presence. In the third chapter of this article the paradox of two isomorphic and at the same time confronting utopias - Soviet idealism and repressed by it aesthetic utopism of avant-garde artist - is revealed through the analysis of the contents and structure of his representative work 10 Characters. In the last fourth chapter one of the main themes for Kabakov's work, the motif of garbages and ruins are investigated. The garbages, which are not usual artistic object at all in the Kabakov's works obtain new important meanings, For Kabakov the ruin and garbages, not only becoming the sign of the culture of contemporary Russia, but also alluding his nostalgia for the disappeared Soviet Empire, reveal the immanent in his own works ontological poetics and the problem of presence within the Art space.
  • 8.

    A Study on Objectivity of Art Photography - From Post Expressionism and Modern Photography -

    조영준 | 2009, 13(1) | pp.183~200 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the value and present effectiveness of objectivity on art photography focusing on Post Expressionism and modern photography. The objectivity on art photography has been the essential value itself ever since photography was invented. The aesthetics of photography was achieved through object selection in the beginning. The representation of an object is definitely a unique and core part of photography which no other art can have, although modern photography was positioned as a new level of an art form in a mixture with different diverse media. Even in this digital age when many people use a digital camera and take a picture, the purpose of digital photography is still to reveal the fundamental features and social characteristics of an object. Historically, important discussions on objectivity of art photography were appeared in post-1920’s German Post Expressionism paintings. Post Expressionism paintings expressed the outside world in a subjective art form based on concrete concepts and instinctive interpretations and led German photographers to New Objectivity. Modern American Photography also continued to consider the photographic representation of an object as one of the most critical characteristics of photography. The aesthetic of New Objectivity plays a very important role in modern art photography. The theme of photography can be changed depending on an object and concept, but the direct impression from an object and extreme reality of photography go beyond existence itself and provide artistic uniqueness. Therefore, the New Objectivity which provides the possibility of diverse interpretations of the real universe shows the magic of existence. Especially in this digital age which creates virtual worlds like the Internet, the artistic uniqueness of photography will become stronger as an art form itself and a media form recording our continuously changing world.
  • 9.

    A Comparative Study of the Culture of Paraguay and Korea

    Sara Torres | 2009, 13(1) | pp.201~228 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Korea and Paraguay are two very different nations, each with rich culture and traditions. Each has its own history and way of seeing and comprehending reality. If we were to make comparisons of the peoples of these two countries, cultural differences would arise very openly, since here we come face to face with two worlds that function in different ways. As human beings that they are there are many traits that identify both societies, of course, but there is bound to be an enormous amount of cultural aspects that make them interestingly different. Those differences can motivate very easy and quick opinions, such as “They’re so lazy!” or “They don’t know how to enjoy life!”, one group judging the other just by what it is seen and without taking into consideration the numerous factors that shape the mind and actions of the other group and make that particular society be the way it is. It is only within a spirit of cultural empathy that the most striking differences can be accepted and tolerated, when each group tries to put itself in the place of the other and experience life from the other’s perspective. Key
  • 10.

    Written Corrective Feedback on College English Writing

    Xiaoxiang Chen | Huina Li | 2009, 13(1) | pp.229~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies the effects of written corrective feedback on non‐ English majors’ English writing at college in China. The experiment lasted 8 weeks and involved 45 students, divided into three groups: the direct feedback, the indirect feedback and the control group according to their pretest scores and the types of feedback they received. Each group was composed of 15 subjects. Based on an analysis of the experimental and control group data, the current study showed that the students who received form‐focused written corrective feedback over 8 weeks reduced linguistic errors greatly in their subsequent writings and the students who got indirect feedback did better than those who had direct feedback. In addition, it was found that content‐focused written corrective feedback can significantly enhance the content of students’ writing whether the feedback was given in a detailed way or general way.