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2009, Vol.13, No.2

  • 1.

    The French Symbolist pets through Greek mythical images

    KWAK Minseok | 2009, 13(2) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the characteristics of French symbolism in the themes of Greek mythology. This is because, in general, between myth and poetry exist many common elements, which will lead us to highlight some faces of the symbolist poets. First, Baudelaire is a poet who continued to try to return to the so-called "primitive"(in other words "eternal"). As shows his poem "L'Albatros", the poet is an exile who could never leave the ground, despite of his intuitive aspiration to heaven. In this sense, the poet tries in vain to overcome his obstacles. But he should, although eventually fall, go back to heaven with his great wings, like Icarus who is a symbol of defiance despite of the incessant eventual downfall. Then, in his literary world, Verlaine has shown his poetics of "musicality", "nuances" and "simplicity". These traits are very closely related to the poet's life: for example, his childhood trauma, relationship with Rimbaud, etc. In this sense, Verlaine's face is very similar to that of Orpheus, in the sense that both, after the loss of their eternal love, lost artistic aspiration, and had no capacity to accommodate to reality because of their psychological imbalance and mental weakness. By being a "Voyant"(Seer), Rimbaud tried to discover the "unknown" poetic world through his literary universe; such an ideal results from the denial of the horrible reality where he lives. By then, the poet must strive to go beyond reality to fly into the unknown, and he tried to reach the unknown by the revolt against anything that condemns men to the limited conditions. This adventure explores new method of sensation in the "derangement of all senses." But this adventure ends with the failure to face "the harsh reality to embrace". In other words, the poet could not change the world with the attitude of demiurge, that of Orpheus, but he must "work", "study" and "cultivate his soul; that is the attitude of Prometheus. Finally, Mallarme is a poet who was devoted to poetry as a martyr. For him, the "pursuit of the ideal and the absolute" is particularly important in his poetic because it shows in his work the poetic continuity. Mallarme wanted to seek the essence of the ideal. Thus, he tried to discover the absolute beauty in the experience of "Néant"(nothingness). For him, the absolute beauty means no longer the celestial world that was once sought, but the new ideal world that could be achieved by the process of consciousness. It is just by the pursuit of the absolute that the contemporary poetry will turn into a kind of religion; that's the hopeless future of contemporary poetry. This means that the poetry of today confronts an inevitable reality of "itself" (eg, the problem of poetic language), like Narcissus gazing at his face reflected on the water.
  • 2.

    Futurist Utopian World in V. Khlevnikov's <Radomir>

    kimsungil | 2009, 13(2) | pp.33~64 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the utopian ideas presented in Russian Futurist poet, V. Khlevnikov and analyzes his most representative poema <Radomir>. As is well known, the poet occupies an exceptional place throughout the history of Russian modernist utopian world. What Khlevnikov seeks for, especially his temporal feature yearns for the overcoming of cleavage between the reality and utopia itself, rather neither relying on the idealized past nor the future. As Khlevnikov went through the First World War and the October Revolution of 1917, the poet's poetic world turned into messianic cosmology, one that is based on his early 'historico-philosophic' utopia as well as the collective identity. The poema, <Radomir> reaches its peak in the poet's much more mature utopian world mentioned above. As an ideal model standing for utopian space, the Radomir itself provides the reader a united world of contradictory features such as between history and cosmos, time and permanence, and the human beings and supersuman, etc. The poema's basic plot runs through destroy of the old world and creation of new ideal cosmos via a world-wide "Sacred Explosion." Yet, this revolutionary explosion does not mean not just dimension of October ideology; rather it represents an apocaplytic one that encompasses all of creatures such as a new heaven and movement into the new space. Through this explosion and emergence of a totally new space, the common linear time process becomes dismantle and thereby appearing a new utopian world, "The Nation of Time" (Государство Времени), which was the dreamy world cherished by the poet. Conceivably enough, this explosion of Radomir is reminiscent of <12> by A. Blok. At the same time one thing should be noted that Blokian revolution has to do with an ethical level and the figure of Jesus Christ in the poem downgrades as the front-guard leading the revolutionaries, while the revolution Khlevnikov has in mind is closer to the cosmic and philosophical dimension. The poet-creator as collective I (in Russian "Ia") not only destroys the ole world, transforms it by means of language, and finally become the status "we" (in Russian "My") in the universal utopian new world. Specifically, after the Sacred Revolution, this new utopian world is described a space in which people put seeds onto the heaven, opulent milk and honey are elsewhere, the equal rights among the human beings and the animals respectively are out there; in addition, it turns to Lobachevkian space of no alienation-of-labor.
  • 3.

    A Study on Tonina, a Maya Community of Classical Period in Mexico

    김우중 | 2009, 13(2) | pp.65~86 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the earlier period, 'Po' was one of many Mayan communities that had been subordinate to Palenque. In later classic period, Tonina wrest the leadership away from Palenque, and took the initiative in the northwestern region of Usumacinta River. And then its original name 'Po' got changed into 'Tonina' that means 'House of stone' in Tzeltal, one of the Mayan language family members. Palenque and Tonina vied with each other for the leading position, and finally Tonina took the victory to Palenque after lengthy struggles and battles. But thereafter they also fought continuously against several neighboring tribes that had a feeling of uneasiness about the rapid growth of Tonina. Added to this, Tonina was culturally an immature group. Therefore, Tonina stepped up various efforts to expend their presence and to retain domination there, such as building construction using slope of mountains, erecting huge 'estelas' and stone monuments, stucco type murals and manufactures reflecting mythological elements etc. Tonina continued to take the iniciative and to compete for the leading power from various angle and over many sides. But, in shortly after, Tonina was conquered by the 'Mexican' tribes, who invaded easily Tonina from Tabasco area because its geopolitical characteristics adjacent to the northwest of the Maya region and not far from the Gulf of Mexico). Herewith in 909 A.D. (from an estela documenting this last year of Tonina's histoy), Tonina's hegemony ended. At that time, the tribes which were producing 'fine paste ceramics' occupied Tonina and for the 'Mexican' invaders this place became a starting point to expand and spred their power over other Mayan tribes.
  • 4.

    A comparative study between the translation of the Bible in Korean and French

    Parkhaesook | 2009, 13(2) | pp.87~115 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is a comparison between the Korean and French translation of the Bible. The comparison has three points: 1. Verbal expression 2. Cultural context 3. Hermeneutic questions Concerning the verbal expression, for example, we compare the two ways of addressing to God in studying the difference in the personal pronoun. In Korean, God is the object of respect and fear whereas in French, we interact with God in a friendly relation which is revealed in the use of the personal pronoun 'tu'. Through this difference of language, we can notice the two different concept of God. We can equally face the problem of "word to word" in the simplified translation of the Bible in Chinese which the Korean translation is founded in reference to, and the use of chinese words that is no longer used in the Korean language. In the cultural domain, we analysis the way of interpreting "sin" in the Korean culture where the notion of "original sin" does not exist. It is not possible to distinguish "sin" and "crime", and in addition, to access a god comprehension of the biblical concept. In the hermeneutic questions, we compare the translation of the expression "I am" and the word Today in the two Bibles. In the Korean One, it is difficult to emphesize the symbolic importance of the two expressions with the absence of punctuation and paranthesis.
  • 5.

    H. Marcuse - Sein ästhetisches Projekt zur humanistischen Emanzipation

    Byeun, Sang-Chul | 2009, 13(2) | pp.117~142 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist zu zeigen, dass das ästhetische Projekt der humanistischen Emanzipation von Herbert Marcuse noch aktuelle Bedeutung hat. Marcuse hat die fortgeschrittene(hochentwickelte) Industriegesellschaft als eine eindimensionale Gesellschaft bezeichnet. Jene Gesellschaft sei nur eine Gesellschaft ohne Opposition und bringe ein eindimensionales Denken hervor. Das eindimensionale Denken mache wiedrum den Menschen eindimensional. Daraus befestige sich das unterdrückende System der Gesellschaft, und hier sei gar keinen Ausweg aus dem verstrickten Zustand zu finden. Von diesem Gesichtspunkt aus apelliert Marcuse an uns, ein neues Empfinden zu haben. Neues Empfinden bedeutet die Ersetzung der falschen Bedürfnisse durch wahre und den Verzicht auf repressive Befriedigung. Die meisten der herrschenden Bedürfnisse ―sich im Einklang mit der Reklame zu entspannen (dem Diktat der Reklame zu gehorchen), zu vergnügen, zu benehmen und zu konsumieren, zu hassen und zu lieben, was andere hassen und lieben― gehören zur Kategorie der falschen Bedürfnisse. Um eine schöne Welt aufzubauen, sucht Marcuse nach neuen Subjekten, zu denen nicht nur die Intellektuellen, sondern auch die ausgebeuteten und verarmten Randgruppen gehören. Indessen blickt Marcuse mißtrauisch auf die bestehenden Arbeiterorganisationen. Sie neigen sich, so Marcuse, zu einer konservativen Haltung, weil Ihre Bedürfnisse stark nach der Lebenssicherung gerichtet sind. Meiner Ansicht nach faßt Marcuses Emanzipaionstheorie zwei Ziele ins Auge: Das eine ist in Bezug darauf, daß man neues anderes Empfinden als das beherrschende haben müßte. Und das andere ist die Ästhetisierung der Welt. Die Ästhetisierung der Welt bedeutet das optimale Ziel seines Projekts zur humanistischen Emanzipation. Die Möglichkeit der Verwirklichung solches Traums ist leider noch offen für uns alle.
  • 6.

    An observation on the Franquist repression against the defeated around Carlos Fonseca's Las trece rosas rojas and Martínez Lázaro's Las trece rosas

    Sunki, Song | 2009, 13(2) | pp.143~168 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this work is to contribute to throw light upon one of the saddest and most dramatic chapters of the Franquist repression after the Spanish Civil War. Following the occupation by the Franquist Army, the communist leaders tried to build an underground organization called JSU to fight against Franco's regime. Nevertheless the members of this organization, 43 men and 13 women, were arrested and later sentenced to death under the accusation of ‘adhesión a la rebelión’ (supporting the rebellion). The execution of those thirteen JSU young militants left an indelible mark on the history of Spain, despite that the facts were silenced and remained unknown until recent years. This tragic post-war event has been reflected recently by journalists, novelists and movie directors through their works, reconstructing the story of those women. Among them stand out the works of journalist and moviemaker Martínez Lázaro. Through our study, we reach to the following conclusions. First, we can define Fonseca's work as a factual testimonial novel, in the sense of that Fonseca reinforce its verisimilitude through interviews with the bereaved families and testimonies of the survivors. Second, through a comparative analysis between Fonseca's novel and Martínez Lázaro's movie, we have reached to the conclusion that there are not essential differences. The only noticeable difference is that Martínez Lázaro tells the story from an objective viewpoint, although a bit sentimental, in contrast with the mentioned characteristics of Fonseca's work. Third, 'Las trece rosas' knew well what they were doing, and they took the streets not out of a momentary sentimentalism but with great courage and strong ideological conviction, to fight against Franco's regime and to defend the Spanish Second Republic.
  • 7.

    Modernity and Post-modernity of modern Japanese poetry -Mainly on poetry of Hakusyu Kitahara

    안노마사히데 | 2009, 13(2) | pp.169~190 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis reviewed about modernity and post-modernity, which was appeared in modern Japanese poem, centering on poem of Hakushu Kitahara, who is called as ‘people's poet’ one time among modern poets in Japan. Hakushu had affected big impacts in establishment of spoken language free poem in early period of Japanese modern time and had played a pivotal role in almost all phoneme genres of modern time of Japan ranging up to folk song, children's song, popular song including poem and short poem. In particular, his works of popular songs are loved by people until now through education and broadcasting media. He was a poet who was gradually inclined to expression of oriental aestheticism among wide spread of westernization in early time of Japanese modern period by burning his youth. In Korea, with regard to Hakushu, it is being discussed in comparison literature of relationship impacts with Yo-Han Joo or Ji-Yong Chung and is evaluated as a poet who had provided biggest impacts on Korean modern poems. In this thesis, I have tried to analyze modernity Hakushu had depicted and to discuss about possibility of establishment of poetic world of post-moderni쇼 instead of such relationship of impacts.  As the result of analyzing poem collection in early time of Hakushu, it was found out that colonial aspects were included and I have focused on that. In other words, Poetic speakers stood at position looking down ‘primitive people’ from modern position who insisted realization of synchronization with western culture. Modernity to Hakushu was acquisition of glance of embellishment of the end of western century in concurrent time and it includes colonial viewpoint to bind others as ‘primitive people’ within oneself unconsciously. The world found out in such poems, it coincides with the facts that it conceals aspects of absence of others which suppress others and do not regard others as beings with personality while liberating oneself when we regard modernism as strength of self liberation.  After middle time of poems of Hakushu, modern aspects disappeared to the background as he included oriental ideology in his poem and as he started to show obedience to and harmony (Identification) with nature, he began to show traditional original attitude as a Japanese and expression of aestheticism in his words and explanation. Such world of poem is supported by extremely oriental viewpoint about people and nature which is totally opposite to viewpoint of world of the west believing in one GOD. Like this, there was transformation of paradigm from western way off thinking to oriental way of thinking. We may find out possibility of post-moderni쇼 in his middle period of Hakushu or in oriental or buddhist symbolism. The author tried to find out this as an experiment of getting post-modernity by a poet who felt blocking through excessive modernization.  In collection of poems in late part of Hakushu, he symbolized Ainu tribe people, who are indigenous people of Hokkaido, as "primitive" with background of rapid urbanization after a great earthquake of Guangdong. (1923) In this aspect, we can point out the nature of post-modernity which can be ‘relativity of culture.’ However, even in here, speaker of poems did not plunge a scalpel into cancer part that ‘self=modern time of Japan.’ That is, there is no consciousness asking a question, “why Ainu tribe is disappearing?” In addition, glance of discovering one period of oneself (Own race) within others (Other race) is also colonialistic glance. On the other hand, in his poem Hakushu wrote from a viewpoint of the earth seen from the moon, it attracts attention as an element of‘globalism,’which is an index of post-modernity, appears.  It becomes clear that modernity of the west and Japan was established based on colonialistic and sacrifices of others. In other words, modern period was only a liberation of self centered on one's own country and it was reveled that it was a system of ruling and subordination while suppressing others. Through examination of this thesis, it was possible to prove that colonial system, which was not discussed in researches until now, is also inherent inside of poems of Hakushu. In addition, looking from this viewpoint, in studies of Hakushu in Japan, until now, his works in early period were evaluated as the best but it may be possible to suggest an axle of evaluation that group of his works in middle period had the most unique forms rooted in tradition with impacts of oriental traditional ideology which was not evaluated the least.
  • 8.

    A study on pliability and inflexibility of character about Gaema-Highland

    ohtaeho | 2009, 13(2) | pp.191~214 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    A Gaema-Highland represents delicate psychological scenery of characters who animated in the literary work just before North Korea literature change to the only ideas as 'Kim Il Sung Doctrine'. The scenery is important meaninig because every characters don't act up to their conviction that follows the party by rote. The characters don't act in the way of a leader enlighten and party decide. The work shows private desires in the concrete despite the Liberation Period's confusion and the Korean War's trial. The Gaema-Highland by Hwang-geon is not to be only evaluated in literary history of North Korea. Because it proves that characters had polyphony and polyhedric mind in the North Korea literature in the 1950s. Since the 'Kim Il Sung(≒Kim Jung Il) Doctrine' times, North Korea literature has advocated 'The only leader literature', 'The anti-Japanese revolution literature' and 'The fore-military revolution literature'. North Korea literature has excluded polyphony and polyhedric mind. But we should consider polyphony and polyhedric mind in the North Korea literature. This point of view is able to regard North Korea literature as identical national literature though North Korea is the other political system. Therefore we can find humanity in North Korea literature.
  • 9.

    Framing Afghanistan Women After 9-11 and Khaled Hosseini's A Thousand Splendid Suns.

    Haeook Jeong | 2009, 13(2) | pp.215~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and emphasize, diagnose and interpret them from a particular perspective. In the daily usages, you can easily find the meaning of “framing” as producing false evidence against an innocent person so that people think he or she is guilty. A frame can be said to editorialize realities in a certain way. According to Judith Butler, “to call the frame into question is to show that the frame never quite contained the scene it was meant to limn, that something was already outside, which made the very sense of the inside possible recognizable.” But unlike such a concept as representation and reproduction, the frame cannot hide its own vulnerability and fictionality perfectly, so never quite determine precisely what it is we see, think, and recognize. Accordingly I try to show how the images of Afghanistan women have been framed and reframed after 9/11 in mainstream media, and explore the lack or excess of framing through reading Khaled Hosseini's A Thousand Splendid Suns, which both reinforces and breaks down the stereotypical views of the veiled Afghan women.
  • 10.

    Notes on the translation of Blok's lyrics : Experience and Problems of Korean Translation of Russian Symbolist Poetry

    Choi Jong Sul | 2009, 13(2) | pp.235~262 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on problems of korean translation of russian symbolist poetry on the basis of my recent translation of Blok's lyrics. "Resettlement" of poetry on other cultural soil is a difficult task. It is not simply a problem of linguistics (semiotics). As S. Marshak, a famous russian poet and translator of the XX-th century, has told, in translation activity "it is the most important to transfer original shape of the translated poet, his time, a nationality, his will, soul, character, temperament". Two episodes, connected with difficulties of transfer of language images and poetic thoughts of the poet-symbolist, have arisen at aspiration to an adequate translation. The first episode is from practice of transfer of the poem "Unknown lady". The problem is the equivocality of image "в вине". Similar to the given episode forces the translator of symbolist poetry to pay attention on the equivocality of poetic motives and images in the context of the given poet and poetic culture in general. The second episode is connected not only with a context of the individual poetic world and art school as a whole. Here the context of national culture is important also. It is a question about transfer of the poem "О, весна без конца и без краю...". Special difficulties have arisen while translating the word "колодцы", that seems particular, but all the same important from the point of view of culturology. In the final part of this article importance of transfer as channel of cultural dialogue is underlined. In this aspect problems of the translation of poetry are inseparable from problems of comparative literary criticism and culturology. It is a problem of the future researches.
  • 11.

    Yuri Lotman's iconic rhetoric and the problem of semiotic prototype

    홍택규 | 2009, 13(2) | pp.263~285 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This work is dedicated to the problematics of 'semiotic prototype', which is concerned with relation between reality and sign. For this purpose, I will study the concept of 'Iconic Rhetoric', which was proposed by Russia's semiotician Yu. M. Lotman. In our opinion, Lotman's 'Iconic Rhetoric' is one of the most important key concepts in investigating this relation between reality and sign. Reality and sign correspond to the categories, which are connected in the form of 'text in text', not the categories, which are ontologically, topologically mutual-exclusively located. In this respect we can think about the model of Möbius strip. This relation can be examined by a device of double representation in the pictorial history of Renaissance, an attitude of the Russian aristocracy toward daily behaviors, and, finally, peculiar types of verbal expressions. By this we can abstract the concept of semiotic prototype.
  • 12.

    An analysis on actual usages of the emotive adjective 'ureshii (glad, delightful, happy)'  

    김정화 | 2009, 13(2) | pp.287~312 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis aimed to investigate the tendency of society and culture through a feeling of 'gladness (delight, happiness)' that people felt after contacting objects or experiencing events. Gladness was expressed by non-verbal aspects such as facial expressions and gestures or verbal expressions. Verbal expressions were the most advanced way of expressing various and delicate human emotions. Among them, adjectives expressed feelings directly. Therefore, they provided the most effective way to study expressions of feelings. 'Ureshii' was selected as an object of the analysis in order to study actual usages of expressions of gladness. It was because 'ureshii' was the most representative word that expressed gladness in Japanese. Example sentences were extracted from 'Yahoo! Knowledge' in 'a balanced corpus of the modern Japanese written language (2009)' which was provided by 'The National Institute for Japanese Language'. They were used to examine basic usages, how reasons and contents of gladness were expressed in sentences, which area of gladness they were included. Also, actual usages were analysed through giving and receiving expressions that appeared together with "ureshii" in order to understand one side of Japanese people's sense of gladness.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Teaching Environment for Middle-School Japanese Teachers - A Case Study of Training Course Participants in the Summer 1stClassforMiddleSchoolTeachers-

    Kim Hwal Ran | 2009, 13(2) | pp.313~342 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    For this research, I conducted a survey on training course participants in the summer 1stclassformiddleschoolteachersinKyung-ki province in 2009 in order to explore these participants’ opinions about the training program and Japanese-language-teaching related meetings, their satisfaction with the current textbook and class environment, an alternative textbook they wish to use, and ideas about education on Japanese culture. According to this survey, these teachers regard films and television dramas as their students’ primary areas of interest. The teachers also demonstrate their preference for listening practices using films, dramas, and animations. Television dramas are regarded as the media-text that they wish to utilize the most due to the fact that their students are frequent computer users who are able to watch Japanese dramas via subscription to various Internet sites. The teachers observe that their students’ interests in particular dramas and their actors often inspire their desire to learn Japanese language. On the issue of Japanese culture, the teachers offer opinions about how difficult it is to teach courses on understanding authentic Japanese culture given the current education environment as well as the impossibility of providing courses on Japanese culture because of the school policies that focus on entrance exams. Their opinions include the lack of time to discuss Japanese culture because of the college-entrance-exam-focused class structure, the necessity for the improvement of the classroom environment (e.g., large number of students, lack of multi-media facilities), and the hope for the availability of videos related to publications and images on Japanese culture vis-à-vis the relatively easy access to photographs through the Internet search. They also comment on the need for an organization that provides and loans educational manuals and resources. Teacher training programs aim at changing and improving the on-the-spot school education. Yet, the existing training programs for teachers are ineffective due to their lecture-oriented, cramming system, which results in little relevance to actual class environment. The survey includes a limited number of teachers who have received Japanese-language-teaching training, some of whom state that the language teaching training was not very helpful. The majority of these teachers provide opinions about the need to expand overseas training opportunities and the necessity for periodical training programs to develop pedagogy that can be applied to an actual class environment. Furthermore, what is needed is a training program through which new teachers and more experienced teachers can exchange their know-how and useful information as well as teachers’ society such as Internet cafés for the purpose of sharing information. In addition, training programs for the incorporation of multimedia use, development of texts and resources utilizing ICT, diverse teaching strategies such as a game play that provides entertaining learning experience even in a small classroom. A stronger interconnection between training programs and actual teaching environment is necessary in order to support effective classroom teaching. Therefore, it is required to develop a variety of teacher training systems that include tasks, discussions and debates, presentations on case studies, and collaborative learning in an effort to satisfy the teachers desire for diverse training courses.
  • 14.

    Analysis on Chinese conversation textbooks by “adjacency pairs”: Focused on “Compliment―Response”

    Park, Chan Wook | 2009, 13(2) | pp.343~364 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analysis “compliment―response” construction on Chinese conversation textbooks(edited by the native Chinese) in terms of “adjacency pairs” and also to investigate how far the editing is from convention of Chinese conversation. While a response for compliment is needed in Chinese routinely, the compliment adjacency pairs on textbooks do not correspond with convention of the native Chinese, especially on compliment responses―44.2% in the data of this study do not have response. This means that the textbooks don’t reflect the real life of the Chinese and also may have the learner be on a wrong way to acquire Chinese. This may be attributed to lack of editor’s understanding the features on conversation, that is to say, 1)a lot of editors think that the constructing conversation in terms of “expression” is important, but not “(social)act”; 2)they also arrange a long turn(or many contents) for one speaker, such as the long a length of text is, the high a level of learner is, while the real conversation among the Chinese actually is organized by some acts made of short expressions. To overcome these shortages, it is suggested that we have to 1)keep studying the outcomes of researches; 2)keep conducting a survey about the natural(real) conversation itself; 3)apply the research method of the Conversation Analysis to the analysis and the arrangement of textbook.
  • 15.

    A Study of word extension rules of “Shuowenjiezi Note" the 12th volume

    유현아 | 2009, 13(2) | pp.365~377 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the "Shuowen"(说文) research, Duan Yucai has explained a lot of word extension and then summarizes the corresponding theory and rules. According to the word extension mould summarized by Mr. Song Yongpei, the words in “Shuowen Duan Note"(说文段注) the 12th volume concerning “word extension” are found in this article. This preliminary study discuss which do they implied. Before studying the extension of a word , the original meaning of the word should be confirmed. In the area of research of word extension, Duan Yucai’s research is the most outstanding. In his "Shuowenjiezi Note"(说文解字注), he list the examples first, and then summarizes the derivation and extension rules. In his "ShuoWen Duan Note", there are six preliminary summary of the law of the ancient Chinese word extension as following: static-dynamic shift extension, object-subject shift extension, causal relationship shift extension, positive-negative transfer extension, concrete-abstract derivation and specific-general extension. This article is to discuss solely the 100 cases of words tagged by “word extension”, to examine the extension rules implied. Therefore, the analysis of those words’ meaning changes and extended way according their elements need to be further studied.
  • 16.

    Chinese education as the cultural education for the high school student

    Jung, Yousun | 2009, 13(2) | pp.379~394 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Although there are various kinds of teaching method for a foreign language class, we have mainly focused on grammar and translation. But recently culture-related education is beginning to make its appearance. This study aims to find out the effective ways of cultural education in teaching and learning Chinese. For this study, some hige school student who are studying Chinese were given question on the environment of Chinese class and the comprehension Chinese culture. These ways of cultural education need to be accompanied by constant concerns and efforts from our goverment society, school and home, teachers and sudents. In conclusion, I expect this study to be helpful to Chinese education so than we can strengthen international competitiveness.
  • 17.

    Greeting in Korean culture

    JeeWon Hahn | 2009, 13(2) | pp.395~413 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Greeting in Korean culture. Cultural diversity is reflected in speech activities. This study highlights greetings in Korean culture to explore issues such as what is said and how a greeting is replied during the beginning of a social encounter. As one type of linguistic politeness, greetings are analyzed in relation with two aspects: greeting types and exchange structure. For types, three categories are identified depending on what is said within Laver (1981)’s framework: self-oriented, other-oriented, and neutral category. Among others, other-oriented category is the most preferred as being motivated to express concern toward the other. Recognition of the other is primary in Korean. For structure, this study reveals the interface between exchange structure and social factors. Deeper understanding of language use is not simply limited to utterances; it needs to be considered from discourse level. The choice of replies indicates types of social relationships between the two speakers. For methodology, greetings are viewed as naturally-occurring in diverse aspects of context. Observational data contribute to reflect the contemporary use of language. Keywords: politeness, greetings, Korean, social status, culture
  • 18.

    A comparative study in bilingual speech of Persian/English and Korean/English code-switching and light verb constructions

    Lan Kim | Fereshteh Rezaeian | 2009, 13(2) | pp.415~434 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study shows that in Persian/English and Korean/English code-switching bilingual speakers of Persian/English or Korean/English follow similar patterns when code-switching, especially in light verb constructions. The code switching data used in this study were collected from separate spontaneous conversations involving five Iranian-Canadian and five Korean-Canadian undergraduate students living in Canada. A one-hour conversation for each group was recorded and was transcribed by a native Persian and a native Korean speaker for further analyses. In particular, we examine the pattern of code-switching in light verb constructions within the context of other relevant constraints that apply in code-switching situations between each language (Persian and Korean) and English. Within the range of our data, the following constraints are observed: (a) code switching does not happen for finite verbs as a single element; (b) code switching between a verb stem and its inflection is not observed; (c) code switching between a NEG and the verb is not evidenced; and (d) code switching of functional words is not a normal process. Based on our observation, we suggest that the above-mentioned restrictions are expected and are the result of the typological differences between Persian and Korean on the one hand and English on the other. This idea is in line with recent works on code switching (Mcswann, 1999) which state that any correct approach to code switching should look to code switching constraints within the relevant mixed grammars.