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2011, Vol.25, No.

  • 1.

    ‘Castaway on the moon’: A sociological report on the global consumer society

    Junga Shin | Yong Ho Choi | 2011, 25() | pp.7~33 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper we attempt to read a film by Haejoon LEE entitled ‘Castaway on the moon’ from the Bauman's modernity perspective that draws our attention to uncomfortable problems relative to wastes and wasted lifes in the global consumer society we all live in. The so-called consumer society is a post-modern society designed according to the following two criteria: on the one hand, beauty and ugliness and on the other hand, competence and incompetence. Classified as ugly as well as incompetent in this society, the two heros in this film are condemned to live their lifes isolated. Miss Kim is confined to her small room while Mr. Kim is exiled to an uninhabited island called ‘Bamsum’ in the Han River. In these spaces, neither inside nor outside, they perform what we would like to call ‘surplus act’, using wastes at their disposal. In this paper we ask ourselves whether or not this act is able to challenge the two criteria and the solidarity of the two wasted lifes can bring about change in the consumer oriented society. As well as Bauman, Agamben will help us approach this question from a theoretical point of view.
  • 2.

    Magnum Korea and Korean Cultur- Focusing on ‘Seoul, Jogyesa’ of Bruno Barbey

    권용준 | KIM GI GOOK | 2011, 25() | pp.35~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Magnum Korea, a 2008 exhibit at the Hangaram Art Museum in the Seoul Arts Center, introduced representative images of Korea to commemorate the 60th year of the founding of the nation. Twenty photographers of various backgrounds participated in Magnum Korea. This study focuses on one of the exhibited photographers, the French photographer Bruno Barbey. Born in Morocco, Barbey occupies a special position in today's modern photography not to mention in the Magnum group of traditional medium of photography. His photographic world is affiliated with the humanism of Robert Diosneau,particularly as his photographic medium is based on communication and code. Among the photographs in the Magnum Korea collection, Barbey's photographs can be organized into six different subjects: industrial structures in nature, industrial buildings, traditional relics of culture, terminals, markets and restaurants, and daily life. This paper takes special interest in Barbey's unique perspective on Korea's traditional cultural assets focusing on ‘Seoul,Jogyesa’. What is the uniqueness of our culture as contained in Barbey's works?In other words, how did he capture the special characteristics of our culture that are often overlooked or ignored because they are so familiar to us? A semiotic approach is used to discover what common but special situations and realities of Korea attracted this photographer and how he managed to capture them in his photographs.
  • 3.

    A Study of “Missed Encounter” between American Culture and Latin Culture and the Border Theory

    Myoung Ah Shin | 2011, 25() | pp.55~85 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Many States such as Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Florida were obtained either from Spanish Empire or from Mexico. In 1848 due to the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty America could obtain half of the original territory of Mexico. American identity cannot be understood without the history of American expansionism further consolidated by the Spanish-American War in 1898, which brought other ex-Spanish colonies such as Guam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines to the US. The US’s interest in these territories dates back to the Monroe doctrine in 1823 when Monroe “declared the Americas off-limits to any new European colonization.” America justifies their expansion based on the notion of Manifest Destiny which was created by O'Sullivan at the hight of American fever to annex Texas to US. The intent of this paper is to study how Anglo-Saxon and Latin Culture clashed against each other especially right before and after the Spanish-American War. In this study the American hero, Theodore Roosevelt and Latin American hero, José Martí will be compared, though they did not meet each other during the Spanish-American war due to Marti's early death in 1895 at the battle for the Cuba Libre. Their comparison is significant in that the former represents the American expansionist spirit and the latter the spirit of Anti-imperialism and Anti-Anglocentrism. Along with the concept of Manifest Destiny of America, ‘American exceptionalism’ is also mentioned which motivates U.S. to expand further even after the Spanish-American war in the form of 'informal imperialism' characterized by ‘gunboat politics’of the US. These discussions will draw attention to how recent theorists such as Bryce Traister criticizes the Border Theory represented by José David Saldívar. Here the Border Theory is criticized to repeat the discourse of the globalized capitalism which prefers the weak state and the transnational aspects by focusing 미국문화와 라틴문화의 ‘어긋난 조우’와 탈경계성 연구 85on the in-betweenness of the border. In the end the paper will focus on how the Border theory as represented by Saldivar is political enough and sets up a resistant example against American expansionism of today in its focus on the call for pan-American and pluri-versal subjectivity of the borderlands. This point will be supported by a discussion of how Saldivar's view is confirmed by Walter Mignolo who advocates the "bottom up" resistance of the indigenous people of Chiapas and other social forums such as World Social Forum and the Social Forum of the Americas derived from the Zapatistas' movement whose motto is "A World in which many world co-exist."
  • 4.

    A Study on World literature-Oriented Korean Literature in the History of Modern Korean Literary Criticism

    Kim, Jong Soo | 2011, 25() | pp.87~106 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article studies that Korean literature has been renewed to World literature-oriented in the history of Modern Korean literary criticism from early modern period to present for reflecting the slogan, "globalization of Korean Literature" as well as contextualizing the necessity, "new relationship between Korean literature and World literature". Some writers, such as Lee Gwangsoo a pioneer of Modern Korean literature and the group for foreign literature[haioei-munhak-pa] introducing World literature to Korea and Lim hwa a prominent critic of proletarian literary theory under Japanese Colonial period, have understood European literature as World literature Korean literature had to reach. Inevitably the hierarchical relation between Korean literature and European literature as World literature had been interiorized to them. Meanwhile Jo Dong-il and Paik Nak-chung who have been representative researchers of Korean literature had tried to broken down the hierarchical relation between Korean literature and European literature interiorized to Korean writers until the 1980s, with Korean literature could be accomplished to World literature meaning. Since the late 1990s Park Sung-chang and Park Sang-jin who are leading researchers of comparative literature in Korea these days, have emphasized the methodology of new comparative literature for 'universality of literature' between Korean literature and World literature, which have been the renewal way of Korean literature in today's age of globalization.
  • 5.

    Analysis about the actual situation of Arabic education and his culture in France and his view

    JUNG Il Young | 2011, 25() | pp.107~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to observe the role of Arabic and analyze the future of Arabic in France under the base of the Al-Sabhan Rabina Baldhawe’s article,published in mettre l'importance sur University Paris 8 in 2007. In the first part, we have focus into the historical analysis: in France, with a few Arabic and French policy has been settled for what were examined. Also enable the use of Arabic in France with regard to trends of Maghreb countries and other Arab countries, is being led by noted. In the second part, we put on the importance about the situation of Arabic in the France’s educational institution. And we have analysed the reasons why Arabic became the most important reason for learning the target language:- in order to faciliate the children of immigrants living in Maghreb able to speak French - Due to differences in culture and language experience to relieve the psychological insecurity above sea - By using the Arabic language at home among family members, strengthen solidarity and resolve heterogeneity In the third part, we have recognized that the French education system was looked at in the Journal of Arabic teaching elementary, middle and high school courses, separated by a learning Arabic as the target language. Finally, we have tried to find a way to revitalize Arabic in France in connection with Sabhan Rabina Al-Baldhawe concrete example of the paper were based on a survey. France and the Arab countries’ relationship has been long enough to prove the historic aspects and economic cooperation have maintained a relationship even tighter. Arabic, many of the French people also need education and children 프랑스에서의 아랍어와 아랍문화의 현황과 전망 분석 129to learn Arabic in the French educational institution that has shown a positive stance. French students learning Arabic as a future career in choosing the width of the wider benefits it helps to have. Learning Arabic in the course need to be addressed is also true that a lot of points. But the Arabic and various aspects of internal organization is considered a minority in the popular Arabic language training in France has become more competitive in research and analysis to be active stance is required externally,such as the increase of trade agreements and economic systems side at the level of cultural exchange and international co-operation system, strengthening its position as the Arabic language in France.
  • 6.

    Religious Syncretism in Yakutia: A Case of the Building 'Archie Jiete'

    Tschung-Sun Kim | 2011, 25() | pp.131~158 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In the Sakha(Yakutia) Republic, culture and politics continue to be interwined. Shamanism recently has come out of hiding after Soviet repression, and into fashion. Images of the shaman are changing in villages, where traditional healers have maintained their practices in difficult conditions, and in cities, where a resurgence of spirit belief and healing has led to the revitalization of their nationalism. Shamans and folk healers manipulate their own images, and in turn are changed by the upheavals of politicized cultural revitalization. In this complex and interactive context, folklore about traditional shamans has become especially rich and accessible. I argue here that religion has become an idiom through which competing definitions of homeland and national pride are being shaped. Until September 2002, Yakutsk had never had a 'temple' devoted to the practice of traditional shamanic beliefs. Indeed the whole concept that a building 'Archie Jiete' could contain or represent the beliefs, values and rituals of the Sakha people was new, and highly controversial.
  • 7.

    The Role of Fortunetelling in the Manners and Customs of Koreans and "Scripture of Fortunetelling(『占察經』)"

    Lee Hak-ju | 2011, 25() | pp.159~183 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study is for the understanding of the role of fortunetelling and the "Scripture of Fortunetelling(占察經)" through the relationship between the manners and customs of Koreans and the Buddhist Scripture dealing with the fortunetelling. It is meaningful to understand how it is related with Buddhism. As a result, I perceived that Koreans have lived with fortunetelling and that the role of fortunetelling in from private person to the country. I saw there were four big roles; to clean the uncertainty of the future to fulfill the expectations,to confirm the justice of what he or she did , to cure, and to choice. Looking into “Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms(三國遺事)”, I see that the Scripture of Fortunetelling and the ceremony of fortunetelling was popular and those great monks such as Wongwang, Wonhyo, Jinpyo and Jihye presided these ceremonies. The structure of the "Scripture of Fortunetelling(占察經)" has the hierarchy of Fortunetelling, Penance, Practice, Awakening, and Salvation of the world. So fortunetelling motivated every stage of practice. The role of fortunetelling in "Scripture of Fortunetelling(占察經)" is to intermediate. For this purpose it divided the attitude for the fortunetelling into two categories; for the urgent real life and just for enjoying. But they seriously dealt with both results. They used the fortunetelling in order to accomplish the ultimate purpose of Buddhism. So the fortunetelling is a mean of propagation of Buddhism and a intermediary of awakening and salvation.
  • 8.

    A study on the perception of faith in St. Mary of Guadalupe

    Chongwook Park | 2011, 25() | pp.185~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The faith in St. Mary of Guadalupe is supposed to be concerned not as reminiscence of historical events or legends, but organic product of having nowness. It's an organism that can not be stay in a fixed type. From the perspectives of syncretism the coexistence of heterogeneous elements (Symbiosis) between Catholicism and Aztec's religion has been changed constantly depending on the necessity and function of the subjects who have dreamed the social integration. It's fundamentally clear that the faith in St. Mary of Guadalupe is still valid phenomenon in the modern Mexican society and that the faith is an aspect of popular catholicism which includes the remaining elements of the religion of the Aztecs. This is to understand the meanings of the perception of the contemporary mexicans on the phenomenon for the faith in St. Mary of Guadalupe. Through in-depth interviews, it is revealed that a high rate of sharing of the information does not mean the proportional acceptance of the history. It's a interesting point to see that the mexicans consider the faith in St. Mary of Guadalupe catholic belief, having a feeling of strong tie between themselves and the Aztec's religion. In spite of the historical conflicts over the veracity of St. Mary of Gaudalupe,the majority of the contemporary mexicans consider the faith positive element to consolidate the nationality and socio-cultural identity of México against the socio-political and ethnic conflicts in the Mexican Society.
  • 9.

    American imperialism and Korean wolf - A Study on the Anti-American Viewpoint in the Period of ‘the Homeland Liberation War’

    Wonjin Nam | 2011, 25() | pp.213~236 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The negative symbol of ‘American imperialism’, which was reinterpreted superimposed on the symbol imposed on Japanese imperialism in the 1945Liberation of Korea, was more amplified added by the experiences of the bombing and massacre by US troops during the Korean War. In other words,the symbol of the extreme ‘American imperialism’ in the liberation in which even the role of America contributing to the liberation of Josun had been denied had continued for a long time adhered to and amplified through the war. Thus,unlike the current emphasis laid by North Josun, the assertion in the form of ‘American imperialism=Korean wolf’ is an idea made from the mixture of fact and fiction combined with the theory of imperialism rediscovered in the liberation and the experience of massacre during the Korean War. And this superimposed symbol for American imperialism naturally causes the problem of being superimposed also on the symbol of North Josun. And the extreme formalization for ‘good’ and ‘bad’ sides was based on the dichotomous compositions of beauty and ugliness, good and evil. The ground for saying that an act by a good side is ‘unconditionally’ legitimate is nowhere found. The anti-American viewpoint rediscovered in such an extreme form results in one aspect of criticism and resemblance as a result of being locked up in the same violence which one has rejected by oneself. The anti-American viewpoint going on in the form of anti-imperialist nationalism leaves nothing except another terrible retaliation for terrible brutality. It is self-evident that one can never get out of the enchanting power of imperialism which North Josun has continuously criticized in a ring of violence and vengeance, the familiar grammar commanded by North Josun literature.
  • 10.

    The symbolism of cherry blossoms in The Tale of Genji

    김정희 | 2011, 25() | pp.237~265 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is to argue what is the meaning of the expression of cherry blossoms appearing in 『Genjimonogatari(源氏物語)』 in relation with the structure of Monogatari after checking each example. First we reviewed some examples of the works before 『Genjimonogatari』,and clarified that cherry blossoms were used as metaphorical expressions of a beautiful woman in waka(和歌), and that at the same time cherry blossoms functioned as the symbol of futility, anxiety together with beauty. Especially in 『Kokinshu(古今集)』 we identified that there increased the examples where the combination of the expression as falling cherry blossoms, and fog and cherry blossoms was done. In 『Genjimonogatari』 we examined the examples of cherry blossoms of Chapter 1, Chapter 2, and clarified that Murasakinoue(紫の上) was a woman with an ideal character in looks and inner personality through the diverse viewpoints of characters. In Monogatari of Kashiwagi(柏木) of Chapter 2, the scene where he peeped Onnasannomiya(女三宮) was composed by the combination of cherry blossoms and fog, and we pointed out that we could feel the anxiety, ominousness of the love of the couple through this scene. And the composition of these scenes was also repeated in Monogatari of Chapter 3, and we discussed through these examples that the figurative expressions of cherry blossoms were used about the object of the love not to be realized. Next, we checked that Yugiri(夕霧) who had observed Kashiwagi's love toward Onnasannomiya gave a figurative expression of Kashiwagi's wife Ochibanomiya(落葉の宮) as cherry blossoms. Although Genji(源氏) realized Onnasannomiya's immaturity, Kashiwagi compared her to 「cherry blossoms」,and Yoogiri compared the woman whom Kashiwagi recognized as 「Ochiba(落『겐지모노가타리』에 나타난 벚꽃의 상징성 265葉)」 to 「cherry blossoms」, through which we have read the twisted human relation and ironical structure of Chaper 2. Finally, we checked the examples of cherry blossoms in Ooigimi(大君),Nakanokimi(中君), Ukihune(浮舟) who were Ujijujo's heroines. Ooigimi and Nakanokimi were expressed as cherry blossoms by Kaoru(薫) and Nioumiya(匂宮) and were disclosed as their ideal women. In contrast, Ukihune had something to do with two men with no such figurative expression, so it was pointed out that the absence of such metaphorical expression clarified that the meaning of her existence was nothing but the meaning as a mesiudo(召人).
  • 11.

    A Study on the discourse about Chosǒn national character and Chosǒn aesthetic consciousness : focusing on the An Hwak and Yanagi Muneyoshi's discourse

    Lee Sun-Hee | 2011, 25() | pp.267~290 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is examining a circulation and conflict of concepts and logics of the Chosǒn-ness by analysing the Chosǒn national character and Chosǒn aesthetic consciousness. As entering the modern period, we understood the nations as a unit of the artistic awareness. So, national art is defined as a national character expression from this period. The Chosǒn aesthetic consciousness by raising in this period, which is connected with the discourse of national character,carry out a discussional practice defining the Korean originality. However, there is a circulation and conflict of concepts and logics about the Chosǒn aesthetic consciousness in the process of a discussion. For the most representative examples are 'the white-clad folk' and 'the beauty of sorrow'. An Hwak and Yanagi Muneyoshi are representative debaters who try to establish the Chosǒn-ness and their discussion supports these facts. As An Hwak regressing of the respect for high antiquity, he demolished the historical character from the Chosǒn-ness and overlooked aesthetic differences by a periodical change. Yanagi Muneyoshi totally separates arts from politics and disposes of Korean arts in an abstract timeless-space. The function of such an early-modern period's discourse about Chosǒn aesthetic consciousness is that Chosǒn national character makes the dehistoricization and depoliticization.
  • 12.

    A study on the present research situation of Early modern Japanese plays in overseas

    Han Kyoung Ja | 2011, 25() | pp.291~312 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The academic world in Korea demands internationally competitive researches at the moment. However, there is a lack of understanding on research trends of Western countries. This research aims to understand how discussions on early modern Japanese plays are developed in Western countries such as America. Also, it aims to consider and compare the present situation of researches on early modern Japanese plays in Western countries, Japan and Korea. In Western countries, modern Japanese plays such as Kabuki and Joruri is accepted and enjoyed as universal plays of the world. It is not only because there is a background of enjoying plays such as Shakespeare's but also researches and translations are accumulated continuously from the early 20th century. In the early 20th century, the main theme of researches was about Kabuki actors in Ukiyoe which was collected because of an interest in orientalism. After 1930s,Japanese arts and handcrafts were sent to art museums in America in order to promote Japanese culture. Also, many Japanese books were donated to university libraries in order to form institutes of Japanology. The war was started when the foundation of Japanology was about to be laid. Students who were interested in Japan were mobilized to the war as agents to understand Japan. After the war,those students started to do researches on Japan on a full scale. There were researchers such as Donald Keen who did researches on Kabuki and Joruri. In western countries, there are researches on patterns of behavior and thoughts of Japanese people, comparison with Shakespeare's plays, dramaturgie,theatricalism as well as censorship of Kabuki during the war and mobilization of Kabuki to the war. It is necessary to understand where my researches are positioned in those research trends. It is also necessary to break away from overlapped and repeated researches of the same point of view and find out new research paradigms.
  • 13.

    A tendency of Korean contemporary fictions according to Latin American fictions - Focus on the novels of Seok-yeong HWANG, Cheol-woo IM, Yeon-soo KIM, Hyeong-seo PARK

    HAM JEUNG-IM | 2011, 25() | pp.313~336 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this thesis is to unfold Latin American trends overlapping with Korean contemporary novels as an interesting scene in the circle of Korea literature at the beginning of the 21st century. This study was conducted largely in two directions. One is examining how long novel A Guest of Seok‐yeong HWANG, a representative realist writer in Korea, and another long novel One Hundred Years Motel (Baeknyeon Motel) of Cheol‐woo IM, a writer who has expressed Korean shamanic flowering as his fictitious characteristic since the 1980s, meet and interact with the world of magic realism in long novel One Hundred Years of Solitude of G. G. Marquez born in Colombia, Latin America,and the other is discussing the fictional techniques of H. L. Borges overlapping with short stories in novel collections The Age of Twenty and Fictions of Midnight by, respectively, young writers Yeon‐soo KIM and PARK Hyeong‐seo who displayed a unique world of fictions in the 2000s. For these purposes, we developed the points of discussion from the viewpoint of ‘the meeting of two essences’ for Seok‐yeong HWANG and Marquez, of ‘the meeting of two ‘hundred years’’ for Cheol‐woo IM and Marquez, of ‘novel writing as the finding of the original’ for Yeon‐soo KIM and Borges, and of ‘novel writing surrounding fictions’ for Hyeong‐seo PARK and Borges. Around 2000, the trend of Latin American novels emerged as a phenomenon in Korean novels. It was probably a natural consequence of contemporary writers’ struggling with genres and post‐genres, the overturn of the center and the periphery, and blurred boundaries. Seok‐yeong HWANG, Cheol‐woo IM,Yeon‐soo KIM, and PARK Hyeong‐seo borrowed the contents and techniques of Latin American novels, but further research is required on how continuously their works internalized the characteristic properties of Marquez‐style, Borgesstyle or polyphonic Latin American novels and, by doing so, how much they expanded or determined their own line. This is why this study has been performed productively out of vital importance. In every age throughout history, there have been the phenomena of encountering and sympathizing, and overlapping and spreading with foreign novels. This study is meaningful in that it illuminated the aspects of Korean contemporary novels in the flow of world literature through tracing the origin and reality of the trend of Latin American novels emerging conspicuously through overlapping particularly with Korean novels published in the 2000s.
  • 14.

    A comparative study on configuration of the nation in epics

    JANG EUN YOUNG | 2011, 25() | pp.338~360 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study focused on difference of the nation's concept between Ko un's Baekdusan and Lee uk's Gohyangsaramdul, Pungungi. These works are epics restructure nation's history. A epic's story provides framework of recognition to social members. An individual and community accept their story and then stories construct pesonal identity and community's identity. So we can say a epic configurates national identity by story nation history and nation territory. The nation's concept is understood steadfast and very pure as like a blood relationship in Korea. This is aspects of Korean nationalism. But the Nation is modern, social and historical concept. That is different from ethnic identity. This way throws open the door to analyze nation identity. Ko un's Baekdusan narrates permanence and sacralization of the nation for emphasizing the unification of North Korea and South Korea. Baekdusan expresses the social desire of Korea in the 1980s. In comparison, Lee uk's Gohyangsaramdul representate ambivalent attitude. One is a position as a settler and the other is a new master of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture. So Gohyangsaramdul narrates and remembers their motherland Chosun. But Pungungi exclude recognition of Chosun as motherland. This work's narration focuses on association with struggle of classes and anti-Japanese Movement during the Japanese colonial period. Because these events are able to unity Korean and Chines. Three works deal with same history and same background, but those show defferent recognition about the Nation. Because each society has different social desire and expect different future. The present desire and future prospect construct nation identity.
  • 15.

    A study on the modernity strategy to overcome the Western-centrism - By focusing on Lin, Hui-yin and Ling, Shu-hua's feminist literature

    고혜경 | 2011, 25() | pp.363~389 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Modern Chinese Literature, the so-called 'feminist' is a very modern and the traditional criticism and took an important position in the double action. Because a woman's freedom from the bondage of traditional ethics of restoring the social status equal to men but to women does not give, that compared to men and women just the dimension of the problem of isolation is not just. It is dominated by yugajeok worldview by streamlining the whole Chinese society to build a modern society and the country was a critical task. However, multi-cultural life of Lin,Hui-yin and Ling, Shu-hua in the history of the world's attention to the shrine was worried attention to soils, rather than East-West dualism law by taking a mixture of both women in modern Chinese literature and Western literature from the center of efforts to overcome the traditional point hayeotdaneun feminist literature that may be different. Lin, Hui-yin and Ling, Shu-hua to overcome the Western-oriented culture really the true dream of China's globalization and localization could be regarded. She naesewotdeon the banner of feminist literature in the traditional 'anti feudal', 'free personality' silcheondoen under such slogans as well as women's liberation from traditional, male-oriented perspective away from the women's unique experiences and new understanding of the value of the superiority the concept of a woman, and was to create. In particular, the femininity of these women who traditionally associated with women and the unique culture - the creation of a new consciousness, a re-evaluation of traditional feminine skills and talents was to try to.
  • 16.

    Christina Rossetti's Maude : Self-Abnegation and Self-Expression of a Victorian Poet

    하명자 | 2011, 25() | pp.391~420 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Christina Rossetti's novella Maude displays Tractarian influences in terms of Holy Eucharist, Puseyism, and the doctrine of Reserve. Tractarianism is High Church revival movement of nineteenth century. In the story a teenage girl,Maude went through hard time receiving Holy Eucharist due to self-consciousness and internal guilt according to Puseyism. She felt guilty when she enjoyed worldly things and outward beauty. Due to guilt Maude refused to receive Holy Communion, which is complete connection to God. Her cousin,Agnes suggested that in refusing Holy Communion Maude is following her own will not God's will. Later Maude overcame Puseyite thought of self-hatred and reconciled with her identity as a poet and a woman. Maude oscillates between concealing and revealing, secrecy and truth,sincerity and affectation, and modesty and display. Her marvelous poetic talent makes people praise her but she withholds private feelings and attempts to divert attention from herself. Like Maude herself, the meaning of her poems is at times reserved and withheld. This tendency goes with the doctrine of Reserve in Tractarianism. The doctrine of Reserve utilizes indirect methods to reveal divine attributes because finite human being can not accept infinite God. The doctrine of Reserve sees to it that the expression will be veiled, indirect, subdued and self-effacing. Rossetti adapts a poetic method of Reserve when Maude has anxiety over 'display and poetry' and generates the reticence, secrecy, mystery,renunciation, modesty and detachment. According to Mary Arseneau, by veiling and expressing herself through symbols she can rise above the self and employ the phenomenal to suggest a noumenal reality. Thus the poetry becomes an expression of longing for the divine. The poem "Three Nuns" exemplifies Maude's maturity and gradual progress in the relationship with God. Rossetti suggests the vision full of hopes and promises of reuniting with God. In conclusion, in some sense, authoritative and conservative Tractarianism affects Rossetti both ways. On the one hand, it makes Rossetti abnegate herself and leads her to asceticism, on the other hand, it makes Rossetti express her faith in God and write amazing devotional poems such as "Three Nuns". A poem within the poem has three voices that are in perfect harmony. In the poem the first and second nun show hesitation to fully commit to God's will and the desire for the world prevents them from having heavenly joy. Third nun reveals spiritual maturity and sings new life in God where their hopes and joys begin. Rossetti expresses the procedure of spiritual growth through the poem "Three Nuns". For Rossetti, self-abnegation and self-expression both are involved in the doctrine of Reserve, Puseyism and Holy Communion.
  • 17.

    The studies on preservation and transmission of Jing-Ju - focused on the ‘China Jing-Ju Yinpeixiang project’

    오경희 | 2011, 25() | pp.421~452 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This writing is about an effort to try to preserve and transmit the materials related to Jing-Ju(京劇) who is the Chinese traditional theatrical art. The plan to preserve the materials of performing arts is very important because its collection and preservation about them are much more particular than other genres. China got the great results in this field because of China Jing-Ju Yinpeixiang (中國京劇音配像) project. Jing-Ju Yinpeixiang project is a kind of project to restore and preserve the materials which reproduced Jing-Ju repertoire by inserting the performance method of Yinpeixiang (音配像: put together images to sounds) by later actors and actresses of Jing-Ju in recordings of 1950s to 1960s by remained famous ones. Also, this is the large scale culture project that more than 170 institutions and more than 3000 persons participated in during the total 21 years that it first started in 1985 and was completed in the end of 2006. Thanks to this project,China got to have the almost perfect materials which reproduced live performances to add the images of junior actors and actresses who accurately imitated performances of 115 famous actors and actresses including each type of role, schools and great actors from 1907 to the end of 20th century in their voices. This is the only method to restore the materials in this world and very creative. It's been 15 years since TV broadcasting first showed its fruition to Chinese people. The Chinese government gave the positive judgement on this project and prepared to hold the big event which celebrated itself this year. But very little is known of this process and there is no any study in Korea. This writing tried to clarify what Jing-Ju Yinpeixiang project is, what it has meant to Chinese people and what results it has gotten after it's been 15 years since the first show was on TV.
  • 18.

    A Study on 'the Character' in Adolfo Bioy Casares' Literature Works - Focusing on protagonist/antagonist, protagonist narrator/editor narrator

    Yonggab Jeon | 2011, 25() | pp.453~482 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Until now and in the studying of fantastic literature, there has been likely to regard the character as secondary element, compared to their actions. However,it has to be recognized that the characters is a barometer to divide the boundary among the marvellous literature, or fantasy, magic realism, etc., in particular it is an important narrative element to understand an epistemological vision of fantastic literature. This thesis analyzes the characters, focusing on two dimensions divided such as between protagonist/antagonist and protagonist narrator/editor narrator. The characters in fantastic literature are usually set-up as people like ourselves, because it is necessary for the readers to consider the supernatural phenomenon as real world situation. The reason why many characters in fantastic literature usually meet a tragic end is that the structure of fantastic literature embedded unresolved supernatural confusion into ordinary order in the end,while antagonists are viewed as holders of extraordinariness and they are far from vero-similarity. Together with usual characters who represent the world of logic and reason,antagonists who seek to understand more about the universe totally and thus regarded as symbols of intuition and imagination and ultimately are the elements of fantastic literature. On the other hand, the "first person narrator" is divided between "protagonist narrator" who narrates the supernatural things through his/her own experience to readers and "editor narrator" who narrates the other's experiences. Particularly in the case of "editor narrator", he/she may narrates the stories with different explication and angle, which lead to hesitation and confusion for readers to identify between reality and unreality or natural logic and supernatural one. Even though there are various categories in fantastic literature, this thesis exclude 'neo fantastic', 'metaphysical fantastic' ones, characterized as a possibility of convergence with the secondary interpretation and symbolic implication. Beyond these materials, the literatures which involved with this thesis and analysis are normally related with traditional fantastic literary works which supernatural events intervene in real world and bring out collision between real and unreal, or natural and supernatural logics. Based on this criteria, this thesis chooses literary works such as "De los Reyes Futuros", "El Perjurio de la Nieve" written by Adolfo Bioy Casares who is a representative author in Latin American fantastic literature.
  • 19.

    The syntax comparative research of Korean and Chinese Adjectives

    단명결 | 2011, 25() | pp.483~527 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The main focus of this dissertation is the comparative research of Korean and Chinese adjectives. With the comparison and contrast of the concepts, features and usages of Korean and Chinese adjectives, we have concluded some similarities and differences. The aim is to help Chinese learners who study Korean better understand the features of Korean adjectives and use them more easily. Korean belongs to 阿尔泰语族 and expresses meanings with pronunciation;however, Chinese belongs to 汉藏语族 and expresses meanings with characters. There are many similarities between those two languages that look completely different, such as pronunciation and grammar at some extent. Even the Chinese words in Korean are quite similar to Chinese. However, the two languages are very different from each other, from the detailed grammatical view. For instance,the auxiliary word in Korean and Chinese is completely different. Then, Korean has a concept: 语尾that does not exist in Chinese at all. Especially, about categories of words, it is very important and difficult to distinguish adjective and verb for the Chinese Korean-learners. One reason of the challenge is that some Korean adjectives are categorized as verbs in Chinese. For example, "like","dislike", "fear" in Korean are "psychological adjective" however, they are "psychological verb" in Chinese. The differences in categorization always mislead learners in understanding whole articles. At the same time, they cause more problems and difficulties in learning other grammatical items for Chinese Korean-learners. Based on that, the dissertation is helpful for Chinese learners who are studying Korean. Starting from the most basic concepts, the second chapter focuses on analyzing the similarities and differences between Korean and Chinese adjectives. The correct understanding of adjective is the basis of accurate learning of it. With the comparison of concepts and primary comprehension of adjective, the third chapter analyzes in detail about the features of Korean and Chinese adjective from grammar and meaning. Based on those features, we analyze the detailed usages of Korean and Chinese adjective in articles; especially we provide the detailed explanations of adjective changes in different tense and 语尾changes in using with noun and verb. The fourth chapter emphasizes the similarities and differences of adjective meanings in Korean and Chinese. We have provided the comparative analyses from six different views, which could be helpful for Chinese Korean-learners. Until now, there are few comparative studies of Korean and Chinese adjectives. About this dissertation, some limitations also exist in such an area. However, we hope it could provide some help for Chinese Korean-learners, and more profound research will be developed in the future.
  • 20.

    Study on the Chinese graphonomy's exchanges of Qing Dynasty and Joseon Dynasty

    서한용 | 2011, 25() | pp.529~548 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Zu Wen-Zao(朱文藻), Li Tiao-Yuan(李調元), Hong Liang-Ji(洪亮吉), Peng Yuan-Rui(彭元瑞), Qian Dong-Huan(錢東垣), Sun Xing-Yan(孫星衍), Ruan Yuan(阮元), Chen Zhan(陳鱣), Wu Shi-Fen(吳式芬), Feng Gui-Fen(馮桂芬), He Shao-Ji(何紹基), Fan Zu-Yin(潘祖蔭) made the contributions to the theoretical construction to the science of Chinese characters in their books 『Shuwenxizhuankao(說文繫傳考異)』,『Liushufenhao(六書分毫)』, 『Liushuzhuanzhulu(六書轉注錄)』, 『Xiqinggujian(西淸古鑒)』, 『Xiaoeryajiaozheng(小爾雅校證)』, 『Jiujingzhengsuzikao(九經正俗字考)』,『Jiguzhaizhongdingyiqikuanshi(積古齋鐘鼎彞器款識)』, 『Shuwenshengxi(說文聲繫)』, 『Shuwenjiuzizhengyi(說文解字正義)』, 『Jungulu(攈古錄)』, 『Shuwenjiuzizhukaozheng (說文解字段注考正)』, 『Shuowenduanzhubozheng(說文段注駁正)』,『Haidongjinshilu(海東金石錄)』. They analyzed the rules behind character construction, and tried to find out the nature of Chinese characters, the relationship between Chinese characters, the evolutionary laws of Chinese characters, the characteristic of ancient Chinese characters etc.
  • 21.

    Study of Operation of Civil College, "the College outside College," in France

    Park, Chan Wook | 2011, 25() | pp.549~626 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Civil college is a public educational institute for theoretical and practical learning. This study examines the social context behind France's civil college and how it is being operated. Many studies have been conducted in Korea to examine Germany in terms of lifelong learning or adult learning, but there is almost no study on France. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the history and operation of civil college, the "college outside college," in France and what Korea should learn from it. ·The civil college of France can be discussed in two contexts: first, it is AUPF,which stands for the French association of civil colleges, and it was mostly influenced by Northern Europe and Germany. Second, it is Caen Civil College,which was established by M. Onfray based his philosophical collaboration. The European civil college opened almost 1,000 courses in 2010-2011 for a variety of subjects, including Foreign Languages, Mother Tongue, the Dialects of Alsace, Philosophy, Cosmology, History, Art History, Psychology, Sociology,Astronomy, Botany, and Natural Science. Courses in Fine Arts include drawing,painting, sculpture, photography, music, and theater. For another form of civil college, Philosopher M. Onfray has been operating Caen Civil College since 2002 for general education and cultural education. It is not acknowledged by conventional philosophers, but it is contributing to the popularization of philosophy. In conclusion, the civil college in France has brought in-depth philosophical discussions out of the lecture rooms in an effort to popularize learning, making lifelong learning more accessible to the general public.
  • 22.

    Study of Operation of Civil College, "the College outside College," in France

    Hwang Sung-Won | 2011, 25() | pp.597~626 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Civil college is a public educational institute for theoretical and practical learning. This study examines the social context behind France's civil college and how it is being operated. Many studies have been conducted in Korea to examine Germany in terms of lifelong learning or adult learning, but there is almost no study on France. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the history and operation of civil college, the "college outside college," in France and what Korea should learn from it. ·The civil college of France can be discussed in two contexts: first, it is AUPF,which stands for the French association of civil colleges, and it was mostly influenced by Northern Europe and Germany. Second, it is Caen Civil College,which was established by M. Onfray based his philosophical collaboration. The European civil college opened almost 1,000 courses in 2010-2011 for a variety of subjects, including Foreign Languages, Mother Tongue, the Dialects of Alsace, Philosophy, Cosmology, History, Art History, Psychology, Sociology,Astronomy, Botany, and Natural Science. Courses in Fine Arts include drawing,painting, sculpture, photography, music, and theater. For another form of civil college, Philosopher M. Onfray has been operating Caen Civil College since 2002 for general education and cultural education. It is not acknowledged by conventional philosophers, but it is contributing to the popularization of philosophy. In conclusion, the civil college in France has brought in-depth philosophical discussions out of the lecture rooms in an effort to popularize learning, making lifelong learning more accessible to the general public.
  • 23.

    A Study on the general language use of ROOJIN : in Headline Database of Newspaper Articles and Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese by KOKKEN

    Misun Oh | 2011, 25() | pp.627~648 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The study analyzed a diachronic distribution, social meanings and social evaluations of ROOJIN. 'Headline Database of Newspaper Articles' and 'Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese' by KOKKEN were used as research data. There were 305 newspaper articles (About 0.2%) which contained the word ROOJIN at 'Headline Database of Newspaper Articles'. The number of newspaper articles related to ROOJIN started to increase in a rapid rate in 1972and 1973. They were also increased in 1976, from 1981 to 1987, 1992 and 1993. The reasons of increasing of newspaper articles related to ROOJIN on those 4periods of time could be summarized as follows. Firstly, there was a increasement of ROOJIN who are lonely, are not able to move about freely or live alone. Secondly, the understanding of a symptom of aging called BOKE was necessary. Thirdly, there were negative evaluations in a society towards ROOJIN. There were 453 cases which contained the word ROOJIN at 'Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese' on the data since 2000. The most frequently used words were ones that are related to senior care facilities. There were 109cases (24%) which contain those words. '∼SISETSU', '∼SENTA-', '∼HO-MU'were presented as words related to senior care facilities. Among them, 78 cases contained the word '∼HO-MU' which was similar to a home with family members. The second most frequently used words were ones that are related to 'welfare for the aged' and they are led by 'medical care for the aged'. They occupied about 8%. Institutionalization of medical care for the aged, medical expenses, nursing were presented as words related to 'medical care for the aged'. Words that were related to 'welfare for the aged' led by 'senior care facilities'and 'medical care for the aged' occupied about 32% of research data. As mentioned above, problems of the aged in Modern Japan such as negative evaluations in a society towards ROOJIN, ROOJIN who are lonely, are not able to move about freely or live alone, BOKE could be identified by analyzing the data. Also, The frequent usage of words such as 'Home for the aged', 'medical care for the aged' and 'nursing' could be identified. The outcome of analysis suggested that a family traditionally had a function of solving problems of the aged but that function was reduced in modern Japan. It also suggested that there was a tendency to outsource problems of the aged as much as possible.
  • 24.

    Indirect Evidentiality and Epistemic Modality: With Reference to Functional Variation

    Hong Taek-Gyu | 2011, 25() | pp.649~678 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this work is to explain categorial correlations between indirect evidentiality and epistemic modality on the basis of semantic, pragmatic usages of Russian so-called non-specialized lexical markers of evidentiality, such as kazhetsja, naverno, vidimo, poxozhe, dolzhno byt' etc. To do this, firstly I concentrated on the parameter of internal functional variation of a given parenthetic word. Secondly, I approached this topic from a typological perspective. Thirdly, I accepted Sweeter(1990)'s methodological assumption that etymological prototype of a given word plays a great role in grammatical, semantic,pragmatic changes. As a result, I could postulate general tendencies of grammaticalizations (or semantic, pragmatic, funtional changes) in the direction from epistemic modality to indirect evidentialty, which consists of inferentives, presumptives, and quotatives. For example, such a parenthetic word as kazhetsja can functions not only as a marker of epistemic modality of uncertainty, but also as inferentives. Besides,it is very interesting that this word lately has started to function as quotatives,too. This kind of functional variations are very characteristic in these spheres.
  • 25.

    Logosphère de G. Bachelard et les rêveries de langue

    HONG Myung-Hee | 2011, 25() | pp.679~694 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    La langue est un des éléments privilégiés de la rêverie chez Bachelard. La langue est une force fondamentale de l'imagination. D'une part, elle garde son propre valeur dans le processus de l'imagination, et d'autre part elle forme sa propre image. La priorité de langue chez Bachelard a, en effet, quelque liaison avec la notion de Logos qui avait été traité depuis longtemps comme vérité éternelle dans la métaphysique occidentale. Cependant, la notion de logos de Bachelard se diffère de celle de métaphysique occidentale. Tandis que la métaphysique traditionnelle traite le logos comme un but éternel de sa méditation, Bachelard donne l'importance sur la capacité linguistique et imaginaire du logos. Le logosphère est un des exemples qui montre bien la différence entre la notion de logos de Bachelard et celle de métaphysique traditionnelle. Le logosphère est un néologisme de Bachelard qui est fait pour désigner l'atmosphère verbal de la société contemporaine grâce à l'emission de radio. Bachelard comprend le phénomène de radio en tant que réalisation de Psyché dans la vie quotidienne. C'est grâce à la technologie moderne que nous pouvons avoir l'univers de langue plus facilement par rapport aux siècles précédents. Selon Bachelard, la radio n'est pas un simple instrument de communication. C'est une porte pour entrer dans la rêverie universelle. La radio est une voix du monde qui exprime notre inconscient. Quand un rêveur rêve, son rêverie se développe en se discutant avec le monde. Alors, quand nous rêvons, nous parlons au monde et nous écoutons du monde,de sorte que nous devenons les citoyens du logosphère. Dans son oeuvre Sur la Grammatologie, J. Derrida critique la métaphysique occidentale en la intitulant logocentrisme. Derrida pense que la philosophie occidentale a comme le but final la présence de logos. Cette présence de logos ne peut être réalisée que par la langue de la voix, non pas par la langue de caractère. D'où vient le logocentrisme ou le phonocentrisme de métaphysique occidental. Mais Derrida pense que le logocentrisme n'est qu'un autre aspect de l'ethnocentrisme étroit de l'occident. La notion de logosphère de Bachelard a quelques ressemblances avec logocentrisme par ses apparences. Cependant, elles ont une différence fondamentale depuis leur départ. Tandis que logocentrisme traîte la parole en tant que manière d'expression de raison qui est une puissance fondamentale de l'homme, Bachelard pense que la parole est un résultat d'une opposition et fusion de notre raisons et parole. Bachelard pense que la parole est une réalisation de l'image qui est l'essence de notre psyché. Pour lui, la parole, la quintessence de logosphère, est le champ de l'imagination d'où jaillissent les images. C'est pour cela que logosphère se situe à l'antipode de logocentrisme. Logosphère nous fournit un espace de rêverie de langue. Notre société contemporaine fourrée des images visuelles creuses est dépouillée de plus en plus des espaces de rêveries. C'est une des raisons que le logosphère de Bachelard doit être réactivé aujourd'hui.
  • 26.

    A Study on the Expression Class through Story-telling about Interracial Married Women's Homeland Cultures

    KIM YOUNGSOON | 허숙 | 응웬뚜언아잉 | 2011, 25() | pp.695~721 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to provide the case study of expression education using story-telling about their cultures from which they came to the women who get interracial married and study korean cultures with the pride of their homeland. This research is also for the diverse members of korean society to deeply understand interracial married women, get higher understanding cultural diversities. And it is expected that these women could learn and study more korean cultures, too. In this study, process-based instruction method is used in the first step and second step such as brainstorming, questioning, discussing, investigating,teacher's asking in order to create some ideas about their home countries. Suggesting an example answer by teacher and free-writing are also involved. As the core of the process-based writing activity, the second step is focused on revising and correcting. Through reviewing their own writing task, feedback from teacher, interviewing from the difficulty of writing after this activity to cultural and linguistic backgrounds, they could appreciate their errors or mistakes in writing are natural and this affects their learning abilities positively. In third step which is focused on speaking activities, teacher provides feedback to learners after checking their common errors or habits in speaking. Meanwhile,by evaluating the role of the appraiser, It is helpful for the learners to have self-esteem of their own. When interviewing after fourth step's activities, the teacher compliments each learner's improvement while pointing out some errors. Afterward, We can see they show more positiveness to learn and understand korean cultures and set their identities. And they indicate interests and concerns each other's cultures by story-telling. It means they identify the popularity and interaction which the story-telling contains. Also, they confirm the participation in story-telling by expressing their willingness to revise their stories. After the activities in fifthstep, there have been relatively positive changes in establishing identity and cultivating a sense of pride of learner's homeland cultures. Furthermore, we could find the strong will to be a story-teller about their homeland cultures. On this research , the effectiveness of expression education case study using story-telling about local cultures of interracial married women's homeland has been examined centrally focused on popularity, interaction, and participation. Afterward, interracial married women could not only cultivate the understanding about korean cultures but also establish their identity, improve their korean language skills through this education case study. Finally, the studies of the education programs to train interracial married women as story-tellers for their homeland local cultures are expected.
  • 27.

    A Study on vowel systems: the cases of Korean, English, Japanese and Chinese

    Heo Yong | 2011, 25() | pp.723~741 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract PDF
    The principle of vowel dispersion claims that vowels are dispersed in the available phonetic space. However, SPAP and UPSID show that deviations from the patterns predicted by this principle are relatively infrequent of, for the most part, confined to matters of small scale, falling into a few definable classes. In this paper, we will discuss the vowel systems of 4 languages, Korean, English,Japanese, and Chinese, and will argue that vowels tend toward a balanced and wide dispersion in the available phonetic space by the complementary vowels.
  • 28.

    A Comparative Study of the Trisyllabic Words with same form-morpheme and same meaning in Modern Chinese and the Trisyllabic Korean Words Written in Chinese Characters with same form-morpheme and same meaning

    최금단 | 2011, 25() | pp.743~773 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this research, the writer has done a comparative analysis of 4,791 trisyllabic modern Chinese vocabularies from 『a dictionary for trisyllabic modern Chinese word』and the corresponding Korean words written in Chinese characters out of 170,000 vocabularies hereupon that are collected in『new age new Korean dictionar y』. Aa a result, we have the total 407 pairs of corresponding group with the following 3 types:1) Chinese : Korean 3(2) : 3 syllable Chinese characters with completely same form-morpheme and same meaning, use, class (376pairs, 92.38% of 407), 2) Chinese : Korean 3 : 3 syllable Chinese characters with completely same form-morpheme and partly same meaning, use, class (18pairs, 4.42% of 407), 3)Chinese : Korean 3 : 3 syllable Chinese characters with completely same form-morpheme and different meaning, use, class (13pairs, 3.19% of 407).
  • 29.

    Trend of conclusive expressions in Post-Modern Edo-language

    엄필교 | 2011, 25() | pp.776~798 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    From Post-Modern Edo-language of Japan, it is possible to find expression formats related to current Tokyo language. However, in some cases, Tokyo language and Edo-language has the same format but different usage. One example is the ending portion of a sentence. This research investigates conclusive expressions of Edo-language in literary works excluding the usage of 「ダ」. Various formats of conclusive expressions appear in a conversation, and the usage is closely related to the speaker’s sex, age, and social status. Also from the study, it was possible to see that the social relationship between a speaker and a listener and a conversation circumstance has an effect on the usage of conclusive expressions. In addition, usage does not conform to the current standard Japanese. 1. Currently 「である(dearu)」 format is seldom used in speaking, it is used with 「だ」 only in writing. The study found no case of 「である(dearu)」 in conclusive expressions but some use of 「であろうて(dearoute)·であらうな(dearouna)」「であったのう(deattanou)·であったよ(deattayo)」 only in old aged male. 2. 「であります(dearimasu)」 format is a typical Edo-language used by society-women (Japanese hostess who has a good education and an elegant speaking skills). This format was used once in 『浮世風呂』(ukiyoburo) and 14times in 『梅暦』(umegoyomi), but speakers were always a female. The reason for 14 occurrences in 『梅暦』 is closely related to the fact that the main characters are society-women and genre is 「人情本(ninjoubourn)」 which is popular type of cultural literature (based on humanity and romance) in late Edo period. 3. 「でござる」 format is originally used as a respect-language but later changed to a polite language. The format is always used by male. It is a male language used by old aged people with a genteel manner such as a medicaldoctor, a retired man, or a funny-song writer. 4. 「ございます(gozaimasu)·ごぜへます(gozeemasu)」The study found the speaker’s social status has a connection with the use of 「ごぜへます(gozeemasu)」 format. Which is 「ございます(gozaimasu)」 format but instead of [ai], long vowel [eː] is used. 「ごぜへます(gozeemasu)」 is more used by a female than a male and only used by young and mid-to-low class people. The format has a tough nuance and less elegant feel, therefore high class and/or educated ladies have a clear tendency to avoiding it