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2012, Vol.29, No.

  • 1.

    A Study of Aleksandr Vampilov’s Play and Film

    Byongyong Ahn | 2012, 29() | pp.7~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    "Duck Hunting" is the most psychological play with unique structure written by Aleksandr Vampilov. The play describes protagonist hero's furious behavior with psychological instability, therefore, this play tends to be recognized as serious and complicated one. After the death of Vampilov, "Duck Hunting" was reproduced as a film, titled as "Vacation in September."This study is designed to shed light on the play's psychological-dramatic factors by focusing on the structure of narrative and spatial-temporal objet. Also, this study compared the screenshots of the play with their textual meanings, then concentrated on main character's psychological features. By focusing on protagonist hero's mind, this study tries to look into the features of the play and its meanings for modern period. The film's plot is a kind of story telling structure based on main character's memory. The short stories of main character represents that Jilov(main character's name)'s losing his own life. The audience can acknowledge that Jilov's life as a duck hunter who is cynical, ideological, lazy, and self-interest oriented person. This play provokes the audience to compare their life to Jilov's one because such comparison helps the audience recognize their lives as surplus style of life with nihilism. Jilov as a character represents one of Soviet's generation with the feeling of great loss in 1960s.
  • 2.

    The Truth of the Photograph and its Representation of Observer Appeared in the Painting of History

    Lee kyoung Ryul | 2012, 29() | pp.25~53 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The attitude of observer in the painting of history is to exclude a prejudice and a subjective view of an artist and to introduce a photograph, which is a record of objectivity, in the process of painting. Its ultimate intent is to redescribe the fact of an event's image intactly without any prejudice and to represent the event as a proven evidence that it was. The representation of history based on fact had already been conceived in imagination of renowned artists such as Francisco Goya or Théodore Géricault even before cameras were invented. What they portrayed was their own truth of reality which is gained through their observation, not a history that have corresponded to political ideologies, for all reliance on a limited tool of representation, painting. Furthermore, history was necessary for 19th century impressionism artists to be represented under proven fact in a neutral perspective excluding all subjective prejudice, not based on the representation with imagination. Edouard Manet in particular reconstited an instant moment on the basis of real proof of photograph without personal prejudice or opinion as if today's photojournalism. The catastrophic series by Andy Warhol and the photographic painting by Gerhard Richter show another role of painting in the realm of art, each of them implying information distortion and abuse by current media and intentional deformation toward history as Manet's painting of history. Today, the representation of an historical event that we experience in the era of the Internet and social networks having a great deal of information already came to be the exclusive property of the cutting edge mass media. Nevertheless, the attitude of observer which is realistic and contemplative in the realm of art is the crucial point in terms of artists' act as ever.
  • 3.

    As a Pioneer of the Mid-tang Dynasty Monk's Poem Style of Ling-yi's Poem World & the Significance in the History of Literature

    Lee Geing Min | 2012, 29() | pp.55~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to study the Tang Dynasty monk poet Ling-yi's poem world and his significance on history of literature. In Chinese literature history, “the monk poets” is a very unique literature creation group. The means of a word “the monk poet”, from the literal can see “ he is the monk that Can write poems”, which is dedicated to professionally writing poetry monk. Buddhism spread to China, from the Wei and Jin Dynasty beginning has been writing poetry of the monks, but the real meaning of "the monk poet" (i.e., professionally poetry monk) appeared to the Mid-Tang Dynasty period. The monk Ling-yi is the pioneer of the monk poets group and Buddist monk creative poem in Mid-tang Dynasty period. Although the Lingyi life is very short, only 35 had died, and his poetry has not been too much, only 44 songs, but he in this life of 35 years and 44 poems, for the development of classical Chinese poetry left noticeable imprinting. He is not just as monk's high practice and by advocating for great Buddhist scholar, also through the daily meditation in poetry creation practice were obtained at that time of many men of literature and writing respected. This paper from the poem monk Ling-yi double identity — the first is a Buddhist monk, the second is addicted to poetry poet to proceed, step by step, in-depth study as the poem monk Ling-yi's poetry creation characteristic and the creative mentality characteristics. This thesis also explores the poem monk by the creation of poetry pursuit, exploration, finally realized "poem" and "Zen" together as one "Zen poetry" creation mechanism.
  • 4.

    The study on Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi(『忠烈小五義』)'s transmission and the story

    Myungsin Kim | Min, Kwan Dong | 2012, 29() | pp.85~111 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi(忠烈小五義), whose author was Shiyukun(石玉昆), is a Xia-Yi-Gong-An(俠義公案) novel in the late Qing Dynasty. This work published in 1890 when Emperor Guangxu(光緖) governed China. This work's author is Shiyukun, distribution books has an amender. The amender will be a shuoshuyiren(說書藝人). Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi is Zhong-lie-xia-yi-zhuan(忠烈俠義傳)'s a sequel, the story leads from Zhong-lie-xia-yi-zhuan. It is just the beginning of Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi is redundant. Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi was introduced to the late Chosun(朝鮮) Dynasty. This work was translated in Hangeul, Chosun's readers read Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi. This work's circulation is not clear, But this work's exciting story is interested in the readers. This work is characterized as follows: First of all, Zhong-lie-xia-yi-zhuan's charaters appear equally, the readers feels familiar. The readers like the familiar characters, because the readers read the book. The familiar characters can have a sense of speed in reading. Second, the story is continuous. Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi is narrated by connecting Zhong-lie-xia-yi-zhuan‘s story. Third, Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi was seeking an open ending. Classical novels prefer happy ending, this work is open ending, the expectations for the sequel became more doubled. The fourth, this work took advantage of the colloquial expressions. Zhong-lie-xiao-wu-yi is Huabenti(話本體) novel, took advantage of the spoken language. Suyu(俗語) and xiehouyu(歇後語) was represented in this work. Fifth, this work is formed a universal consensus. Ordinary people must empathize about xia-yi(俠義) and retribution, this work was well represented. Because the readers would have liked to this story.
  • 5.

    A Study of the History of Western Imagination

    HONG Myung-Hee | 2012, 29() | pp.113~131 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In our days, we live in the world of image and imagination. Now we think that the images and imaginations are no more selective but indispensable elements in our life. The status of imagination is dramatically changed since 20 century. Many philosophers like G. Bachelard, G. Durand, Paul Ricoeur, H. Corbin, G. Deleuze made great contributions and we think that the studies of imagination began since 20 century. But the change of the status of imagination was not made in one day. In the long history of human life, the imagination kept his own value, and never stopped to give his influence to the human mentalities. The concept of imagination was born from the Plato’s notion of phantasia. Plato thinks that the phantasia is a kind of drawing capacity in mind in the process of recognition. But the image which phantasia makes is not real one but pseudo one. So it is necessary to banish those false images from our recognition. Aristotle thought phantasia as an afterimage of object of sense. The sense is always true, but the phantasia is very possible to be an error. After Plato and Aristotle, the notion of phantasia developed into that of imagination, but it was always a problem full of contradictions. According to G. Durand, we can say, in some sense, the history of western philosophy is a kind of struggle against the image and imagination. In Middle Age, the iconoclasm tried to exclude image from their religion. Thomas Aquinas tried to explain the image by the rationalistic christianisme. In 16-17C Galilei and Descartes solidified the exclusion of imagination from the philosophy in the name of science and reason. The empiricism and positivism was the final and the most conclusive philosophies which exclude the imagination definitively from the field of philosophy. But the imagination continued his influence in the field of art. In the age of Renaissance, the imagination found his way of liberal expression, and this trend was inherited to Baroque. From the middle of 17c many philosophical theories supported the imagination by many philosophers like J.-B. Dubos, Baumgarten, A. Becq, J.-J. Rousseau etc. The Romanticism was the first significant wave which made the imagination come forward in front the art. The romanticism broke the narrow frame of rationalism and expand human’s view of the world to the cosmos. From the romanticism, the imagination became a faculty which expresses the unity of human and nature. That was impossible by the rational thinking of rationalism. The concept of new imagination made a new future of human, ‘the imagining conscious’ and this imagining conscious provided a solid base of next generation’s symbolism and surrealism.
  • 6.

    Reflections on Society in Francisco Ayala's Cazador en el alba

    Chan-kee Kim | 2012, 29() | pp.133~152 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Franciso Ayala´s narrative work was published in the collection "Nova novorum" (1926-1929) of Revista de Occidente, founded by José Ortega y Gasset. The author of Cazador en el alba was well aware of the avant-garde aesthetics and hence he put into practice an artistic rupture of the traditional narrative forms of Realism. The work consists of two short stories: "Cazador en el alba" and "Erika ante el invierno". The use of metaphor, Francisco Ayala´s preferred literary device (which Ortega y Gasset already emphasized in The Dehumanization of Art), reveals the influence of Ramón Gómez de la Serna´s Aphorisms. Through a metaphoric language, "Cazador en el alba" describes the life of Antonio, a soldier and peasant, who visits Madrid and confronts the urban reality of the metropolis. "Erika ante el invierno" portrays with a singular depth the solitude of a woman living in another metropolis, Berlin. The author confessed that he wrote both short stories influenced by the European avant-garde and its use of poetic imagery and metaphor, common practice at that time. However, the main purpose of this article is to reflect upon the society of the first decades of the 20th Century: the city, the people and their lives, the societal changes, as well as the innovative perspective of the new art.
  • 7.

    Modality and Iimplication of Chinese Minority Group's Cultural Change: Focused on Hui-zu's Culture and Yi-zu's Culture

    Kim Dug-Sam | 2012, 29() | pp.153~176 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study focused on concretely how minority group's attitude accepting han-zu's culture changes. In the past, minority group's culture and han-zu's culture were acculturated spontaneously, not forcibly. But as the people's republic of china was founded and control of chinese government was intensified, control and interference of minority group area became aggressive, and acculturation became compulsory. However, after chinese economic reform, by economic affluence and modernization and urbanization according to economic affluence, acculturation of minority group's culture and han-zu's culture is changing from forced acculturation to spontaneous acculturation. Still there are some areas where mutual friction lasts because of forced acculturation. But except some areas the stream is changing rapidly to spontaneous acculturation. In the text, this study investigated process and present state of acculturation focused on hui-zu that implemented aggressive acceptance of han-zu's culture relatively early. Then this study investigated yi-zu society and cultural change focused on their spontaneous acculturation. In the modern society setting a high value on convenience and personal happiness rather than ideology and value, value of race becomes less attractive to young people of minority group who know modern civilization and convenience of city. In this respect, maybe hui-zu society is future of yi-zu society and minority group society.
  • 8.

    Korean Community in the Society of Immigrants in Spain: its prestige and trend

    Yonggab Jeon | Hwang Soo Hyun | 2012, 29() | pp.177~199 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Nowadays migrations between the countries are getting each day more active and a mixture of people with different cultural backgrounds strengthens the hybridism, whereupon the point of view on the migration of Koreans has been changed from a diasporan perspective to an transnational one. The expansion of the transnationalism affects the identity of the subsequent generations of the immigration giving way to a psychologically deterritorialized social identity, which is an important consideration in the study of subsequent generations of the immigration. This study examined the Korean immigration history and the current status of the Korean community in Spain since the 1960s. The early immigrants like fishing vessel crew members, instructors of Taekwondo, chicken sexers who, despite the limits of foreigners in Spain, went to find out the source of life with no hesitation, overcame the difficulties of the early settlers and finally managed to achieve local success. Current history of immigration that began in the mid-1960s went through the maturity during the 1970s and 80s and the Koreans in Spain these days, who have undergone differentiation in the occupational structure because of the crisis of pelagic fisheries, face new challenges due to changes in the environment of the country they reside. The Korean community is regarded as an 'exemplary minority group (Model Minority)' even though it is a minority group in number. Now that the interest for overseas Koreans is higher than ever at home and abroad, due to the economic growth of the Republic of Korea, the spread of its cultural influence -the Korean Wave as proof-, and the overseas Koreans suffrage conducted, the research of the Korean residents in Spain will be important as an advanced research of an unexplored field, as well as an opportunity to broaden the horizons of the existing study area that has mainly dealt with major regions only.
  • 9.

    Historical Reality and Cultural Memory: The Image of Peter I in Russian Literature and Folklore

    Seon Jeong Seo | 2012, 29() | pp.202~232 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the world history in the rein of totalitarianism cultural project of government had been activated, and consequently of it official culture had been organized. But at the same time on the other side of it people(‘narod’), who didn’t have cultural means for active expression of own opinion on the reality, had expressed world-view and judgement informally in everyday language. In the literature of autocracy, subjected to censorship, had been expressed and fixed mythically idealized image of sovereign and his works. But in the folklore the image of ruler had been created by liberal fantasy of people. This article examined russian literature and folklore texts of 18 century, when russian people suffered from rapid and dramatic changes, caused by Peter I. Although russian literature of 18 century had gone over to the new literary regime, it still accepted political mechanism as dominant of age, and consequently in the literary texts of this century Peter I was represented as ideal person and great monarch. But various images in folklore texts show that people’s opinion on ruler and his activities couldn’t be controlled. In other worlds, diverse images of Peter I in folklore texts reflect clear and plain historical consciousness of people. This analysis reveals not only difference between mechanism of idealization of government and historical consciousness of people, but also meaning of cultural memory as indicator of historical reality.
  • 10.

    A study on the corporality in the film Avatar

    Kim Ho-young | 2012, 29() | pp.233~256 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to look into various symbolic meanings of the body shown in the film, Avatar (2009, James Cameron), and to ponder over a variety of media strategies carried by the pursuit of the corporality shown in this film. In a nutshell, the body in Avatar is a symbol of primitiveness rather than civilization, and the body language is a fundamental and effective means of communication much better than verbal language. A variety of physical contacts that appeared in many scenes of the movie emphasizes the role of the body as a means of real communication. Also, in the composition of the film dominated by the confrontation of civilization, numerous creatures in the planet Pandora with a variety of colors as well as a number of agencies and large body sizes express primitive richness. The narrative of the film telling the story of a 'moving' body ultimately emphasizes the superiority of the body with respect to consciousness, unlike the narrative of conventional movies dealing with the problems of the body. In addition, the corporality pursued by this film implies several important media strategies. It may reveal a self-reflection of the material civilization and the imperialism, or, on the contrary, an attempt to conceal or dilute them. It may also represent a self-reflection of the overdeveloped media technology, or simply the dilution of it. Finally, it may be an attempt to recover the feeling of "presence", not fully supported by the 3D technology, by the identification of the spectator's body and the character's body.
  • 11.

    Russian Imperialist Ambition in A. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky's Allamat-Bek

    kimsungil | 2012, 29() | pp.257~285 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The theme of Caucasus in Russian literature stemmed from A. Pushkin's The Prisoner of the Caucasus (1820) became expended when it reached to writer Bestuzhev-Marlinsky. The writer's magnum opus, Allamat-Bek (1832), was based on a real historical event. Being proponent to the side of Russian ideology, this work strongly presents that the primary task the Russian Imperialist government paused in this region at the time was civilization of the Caucasus through diplomatic and humanistic ways. There are three main protagonists in this work, but Berkhovsky and Sultan Akhmet-Khan are the characters who stand for the contradictory views toward the "war between Russia- Caucasus." While the former, Berkhovsky, thinks that the conflict between the two parties might be solved by means of communication and cooperation, the latter, on the other hand, is opposed to any of peaceful completion of this war. Allamat-Bek, the main hero of this work, however, passes away, going back and forth between loyalty and renegation. The author goes on to describe that Berkhovsky considers the Caucasus as Eden, the land of fruits, unlike Russia which appears as the land of labor. Yet, for Berkhovsky the Caucasus is presented as the land which needs enlightenment. This is the transformation of the so-called typical Western Orientalism. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky does not take side of either evil or good between the Russian Orthodoxy and the Islam, that is the conflict between the two opponent parties. The writer, instead, argues that this is just difference between the familiar and the strange, that is, the svoi and the chuzhoi. What is the very picture the writer wants to show the reader, then, is that it is petty and sad to see the unavoidable violent progress which happened and experienced by the indigenous people during the civilization of the Caucasus by the Russian Imperialist government.
  • 12.

    A Study of Error Correction in Words Used in Chinese Novel Kam Pin Mui Presented in the Great Chinese-Korean Dictionary

    CHOI TAE HOON | 2012, 29() | pp.287~314 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the problems with some words used in 『Chinese novel Kam Pin Mui』that are presented in『the Great Chinese-Korean dictionary』. The author analyses the problems into three aspects: first, error correction in meaning interpretation; second, supplementary correction in meaning interpretation; and third, additional error correction. The main points of the study are presented in the following. First, in relation to the error correction in meaning interpretation, this study finds out that the explanations of "Liezi", "daxuanmo", "kedui", "shaojian" in the 『Great Chinese-Korean dictionary』are incorrect. The cases involve the explanations that have no foundation, do not get to the points, and have narrow meaning interpretations compared with original meanings. Second, as for the supplementary correction, this study points out that the explanations of "yiri", "jiaosa", "buxi", "langhu" are not sufficient. Thus, this study claims that the following meanings for each case should be added, including "long time," "abdominal pains during pregnancy," "a type of folk performing arts without stages in local areas of China, and "to devour in greedy gulps." Third, with respect to the additional error correction, this study analyses "the typos of the examples," "the setup of inaccurate meaning items," "the front-to-back arrangement of the examples," and "inconsistency between meaning interpretations and examples" displayed in the dictionary. The error correction in the dictionary can be possible only if the findings from several other disciplines should be incorporated, involving cultural history, the history of literature, philology, grammatology, linguistics, etc. It seems impossible for a person to solve all the problems with the errors in the dictionary. Thus, it will be greatly helpful to the author and the people who prepare for the new edition of 『the Great Chinese-Korean dictionary』 if we can get continuous supports and comments from relating scholars of other disciplines. As a result, all these efforts will contribute to the academic progress for the relevant disciplines and these academic activities may develop a new area of the study.
  • 13.

    A Critical Approach to the Directions of the Neoliberal Educative Policies of the Governments of Democratic Alliances of Chile

    Taehwan Ahn | 2012, 29() | pp.315~339 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Chilean educative policies as the Voucher System and the privatization have been almost same from the Pinochet government and the ones of "Concertacion" or "Democratic Alliances" until now. Because the neoliberal regime has dominated principally in Chile the area of the education. In this study first of all I will analyze the procedures of the violent repression of the leftist politicians and the intellectuals of the universities by the Pinochet government. And the importance of the reform of the law of education in 1980 was emphasized and the other one in 1990 one day before the retirement of Pinochet. We can comprehend the fact that the education would have been used as a tool to achieve the development of the country and the economic one sacrificing the public and equalitarian values of the education. And the competence, the efficiency and the quality of the education have been emphasized through the policies as example the rights of the selection of the schools by the parents as like a product in the market. But the result was the enormorors expansion of the private education not only in the secondary schools but also in the universities. And also has been intensified "the segregation and the discrimination" of the students jerarquitized by the different social-economic levels of the parents. The Chilean people including the middle class did not realize rightly the inherent problems of the neoliberal regime having the equivocation as if the private schools should have been better than the public ones. However the high level of the public university education became to be dominated by the acomodated class. This was the cause of the last year's great scale of the demonstration of the Chilean students. The most important thing is that these matters was agravated not by the Pinochet government but by the ones of "Concertacion" or "Democratic Alliances". Because these governments tried to maintain the neoliberal regime by means of the education only arranging the small problems or contratiempos.
  • 14.

    The study analyzed a diachronic distribution, social meanings and social evaluations of ONNA : 'Headline Database of Newspaper Articles' by KOKKEN were used as research data

    Misun Oh | 2012, 29() | pp.341~366 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Headline Database of Newspaper Articles' is a database which contains about 141,500 newspaper articles from 1949 to March, 2009. They are collected from two perspectives; ‘language’ and ‘language life’ by KOKKEN. There were 3312 newspaper articles (about 2.34%) which included the word ONNA at 'Headline Database of Newspaper Articles'. The number of newspaper articles related to ONNA started to increase in 1975 but they decreased afterwards. They increased rapidly in 1980 and maintained the condition. However, they started to decrease rapidly in 1990 and maintained the decreased condition. They increased rapidly again in 2004 and 2007. The main causes of rapid increase were the commercial message of instant noodles "I am the one who is making. I am the one who is eating." in 1975, newspaper articles related to "Starting of full-scale studies on female language" in 1980, comments of "active women" and "men’s crime" related to a murder case of an elementary school student in Sasebo City and mixed attendance books in 2004, a comment of "Women are machines which give birth to babies" in 2007. Those six causes of rapid increase suggested that the perception of gender such as ‘Men need to work outside and Women need to do housework and take care of child’ which was fixed until then was changing and becoming a stereotype of virtual reality rather than reality. The vocabulary related to ONNA appeared 3411 times among 3312 newspaper articles which included ONNA. Typical forms of the vocabulary related to ONNA were <JOSEI(1263)> <ONNA(778)> and <JOSI(349)>. They appeared 2390 times and occupied 70% of the whole data. (3411 times)The form of ONNANOKO among the vocabulary related to ONNA appeared 113 times and occupied a high rate. ONNANOKO(113) and other words such as SHOJO(115), JOJI(28), YOJO(9) (152 in total) implied that appearing of young women at newspaper articles were increasing. Also, the vocabulary related to ‘female language’ such as ONNAKOTOBA(28) ONNANOKOTOBA(10) and a woman's heart such as ONNAGOKORO(35) and ONNANOKIMOCHI(34) appeared frequently. The vocabulary related to JOSEI were divided into <JOSEI**> and <**JOSEI>. <JOSEI**> were mainly related to an occupation. <**JOSEI> were mainly used to express women by regional groups such as <SEKAIJOSEI> <GAIKOKUJOSEI> <NIHONJOSEI> or combined with modifiers to express women such as <WAKAIOSEI> <GENDAIJOSEI> <HATARAKUJOSEI>. In case with modifiers, WAKAIJOSEI appeared 35 times and showed the highest frequency. It had negative evaluations in many cases. The vocabulary related to JOSI appeared on the form of <JOSI**> and mainly associated with ‘a girl’s school’ and ‘a female student’.
  • 15.

    The Present State and Outcomes of Korean Language Education for Multicultural Family Members

    Kim,Seon-Jung | 2012, 29() | pp.367~389 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to briefly consider the present state regarding Korean language education for multicultural family members, and to consider the outcomes produced so far. Married woman immigrants and their children must be one of the most significant groups for Korean language education in terms of their huge number and their roles and meanings in Korean society. In order to uplift the Korean communicative ability for multicultural family members, an effective operating system for Korean language education is needed, and also live and efficient Korean language instruction must be given by capable Korean language teachers with adequate teaching materials. A customized Korean language education must also be offered based on researches about the characteristics of multicultural family members as “Korean language learners”. Korean language education for married woman immigrants has almost been set up in some extent, in terms of teaching materials and the teacher training system. Therefore, an efficient operating system must be constructed so that the developed teaching materials can be actively utilized in the site of Korean language education. A periodical retraining of Korean language teachers for multicultural family members is also necessary for the improvement of Korean language teaching efficiency. However, Korean language education for multicultural children is still in its infancy due to its late start-up. By the support of the Korean government, the curriculum of Korean language education has recently been fixed, KSL text books are being developed, and a diagnostic tool for evaluating their Korean language ability is now in progress. Many continuing concerns and support must still be provided for the improvement of their Korean language ability and fostering them as competitive and capable of speaking Korean.
  • 16.

    Expressions of requests using give and receive verbs in the era of Meizi and Taisyo

    YANG JUNGSOON | 2012, 29() | pp.391~411 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Request expressions can be defined as expressions that demand or ask the other person to do certain movements. There are direct request expressions that ask the other person to do certain movements directly and indirect request expressions that ask the other person to do certain movements by describing the speaker's condition. The study analyzed gender and hierarchy of speakers and listeners who used ‘tekure’ and ‘tekudasai’ in dialog examples of the Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. In those periods, the modern Tokyo dialect was formed and established.『Toseishoseikatagi』in Meiji 10s,『Ukigumo』『Natsukodachi』『Tajotakon』in Meiji 20s,『Hakai』『Botchan』in Meiji 30s,『Huton』『Inakakyoshi』 in Meiji 40s and 『Aruonna』in the Taisho Period were analyzed for the study. ‘kure’ was used more by male speakers than female speakers. Examples by female speakers were shown on the novels after Meji 30s. In case of male speakers, they often used it to listeners with an equitable relationship at 『Toseishoseikatagi』in Meiji 10s but they often used it to younger listeners at『Hakai』in Meiji 30s. ‘okure’ was used more by female speakers than male speakers. Listeners were varied from older ones to younger ones. In case of female speakers, ‘okure’ was used more often at 『Aruonna』in the Taisho Period than the other novels. In case of male speakers, ‘okure’ was used only at 『Ukigumo』『Natsukodachi』and 『Hakai』. ‘Okurenasai’ was used outstandingly by female speakers on the form of ‘okunー’. In case of ‘kudasai’, female speakers used it more than male speakers at 『Toseishoseikatagi』 and 『Aruonna』but male speakers used it more than female speakers at 『Tajotakon』and 『Hakai』. Listeners were varied from older ones to younger ones. ‘o~kudasai’ was not shown until Meiji 20s but shown after Meiji 30s among the analyzed novels. According to gender, it was used a little bit more often by female speakers than male speakers. According to hierarchy, listeners were usually older than speakers. ‘o~nasatekudasai’ was used more often by male speakers than female speakers. Listeners were also usually older than speakers.
  • 17.

    Some Suggestions for Improving Environment of Chinese Reading Class: Focused on Blended Learing

    Park, Chan Wook | 2012, 29() | pp.413~452 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine and apply Blended Learning to Chinese reading class and give some suggestions for Chinese reading class for realizing the interactive model for reading. For learner's improvement in Chinese reading level, various teaching methods need to be applied to Chinese reading class. Among teaching methods, this article tried to apply Blened Learning in terms of interaction, because Blended Learning can follow the general trend that all of people use laptop, smartphone, etc., and also can be contribution to reading as performance in foreign language learning. As a result, Blended Learning can make learner prepare class for giving online contents, and can make teacher and learner have more chances of interaction in class for improving reading competence.
  • 18.

    A Corpus-based Study of the Truth-related Words in Korean Used as Discourse Markers

    Taeho Kim | 정선영 | 2012, 29() | pp.453~477 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates how the truth-related words in Korean, which were originally noun or adverb with ‘truth’ related meaning, can be used as discourse markers with the functions such as ‘emphatic marker’, ‘attention getter’, or ‘hesitation marker’, and it argues that such functions of the discourse markers are the result of grammaticalization process. That is to say that the truth-related words have acquired new functions as discourse markers from their corresponding lexical items as a noun or an adverb through grammaticalization process. In this study, we demonstrate that the truth-related words tend to appear sentence-initially or sentence-medially when they are used as discourse markers. We also show that they are most likely to be used as emphatic marker because of the lexical meaning of the truth-related words. Finally, we state that truth-related words differ from one another in where they appear and what function they are used with.
  • 19.

    Analysis of Russian Culture Education According to the Curriculum Changes

    Eo Keon Joo | 2012, 29() | pp.479~501 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I analyzed the russian cultural content of the russian textbook according to curriculum changes. The aim of this study is to analyze the content of the russian textbooks on russian culture. Our education of russian language begins in high school as a second language. And russian education in high school entirely depend on the textbook. In these circumstances, Russian textbooks play a very important role in the Russian language learning. For a practical and efficient language learning, acquisition of cultural knowledge is very important. Because cultural content can be learning motivational factors. But the contents of a textbook is not satisfactory enough to teach russian culture. More efficient textbook must be developed to advance student's linguistic ability.