Cross-Cultural Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.6

Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2013, Vol.31, No.

  • 1.

    A Study on the Subjective Lives of the Premodern Korean Women in the Viewpoint of Gender

    Lee Hwa Hyung | 2013, 31() | pp.7~33 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The ultimate goal of women's studies and feminist critics is to improve the understanding on women and recognize women's values. When we examine the Korean women's history on the viewpoint of gender, we can find that the gender role is not fixed. We do not have any proofs that there are any kinds of gaps between women and men in ability and temperament. All of women's identity and subjectivity in status and activities was not insignificant. Especially women's subjectivity in high social standing was superior. The women's activities in economic area were energetically. The productive activities were lively, too. The patrilineal decent is usual in Chana though China is in the same Confucianism cultural area. But patrilineal and matrilineal decent were popular used until the early days in Chosun Dynasty. Only sons can be inherited father's estate in China but it's not in our country. Also the patriarch had the economic power in family in China but the housewives had the power in ours. The feminism has been making efforts for the equality of sexes and the dismantling of the patriarchal sex role for a long time. Every feminist activities included feminist theory and cultural criticism has the goal to increase women's liberty and equality and change the world. This study to understand the historical substance of Korean women is on the way, too.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Study on the Performance Stage and Performing Style between Peking Opera and Kabuki.

    오경희 | 2013, 31() | pp.35~64 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis seeks to compare China's Jing-ju and Japan's Kabuki for their common aspects and differences and examine how they are performed on the stage. Jing-ju is often called as Beijing Opera to refer to a musical play completed during the mid-Ching era and developed around Beijing. Jing-ju is composite arts of music, dance and play which are remarkable in its strict patterns in move along with luxurious costume and heavy make-up. Kabuki which was developed during the Edo-period, is expressional arts also structured with music, dance and play coupled with extravagant costume as well as even more strictly controlled move and emphasis on the beauty of form. The two plays seem very similar to each other in their time setting to gain popularity or features of play. It may look obvious that Jing-ju which had developed earlier than Kabuki, affected the latter's formation. However, general social practices or cultural trends in China and Japan at the time of their development also influenced literature and arts thus affecting play contents and performance expressions. Although the two plays have similar stage structure, they developed in different ways with detailed differences and actors' performance on the stage, way of using a stage and other ways of directing play are largely distinctive from each other. If a play's primary goal is to gain recognition of audience and draw their positive response, the relationship between play and stage becomes essential. With this understanding, this thesis aims to identify where such similarities and differences between the two plays are from by comparing historical background,stage structural development and directing manner development at a basic level.
  • 3.

    The Study on San-he-ming-zhu-bao-jian-quan-zhuan (三合明珠寶劍全傳)'s Xylographic Book and Narration

    Myungsin Kim , Min, Kwan Dong | 2013, 31() | pp.65~94 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    San-he-ming-zhu-bao-jian-quan-zhuan(三合明珠寶劍全傳), this work is characterized as follows: First of all, San-he-ming-zhu- bao-jian-quan-zhuan's charaters appear equally, the readers feels familiar. this work is formed a universal consensus. Ordinary people must empathize about xia-yi(俠義) and retribution,this work was well represented. Because the readers would have liked to this story. It was an intimate relationship between China and the Joseon Dynasty(朝鮮)all the way, The Joseon Dynasty imported books and the products of civilization. High official, official interpreter, woman loves the classic Chinese novel. The classic Chinese novel was transcribed, published, translated into a book. San-heming-zhu-bao-jian-quan-zhuan were introduced in the Joseon Dynasty,Sungkyunkwan(成均館) University holds one version. This work is being compromised, many missing words. Domestic holdings are rare. San-he-ming-zhu-bao-jian-quan-zhuan is a novel of chivalry, the character are classified into the chivalry, negative hero, person of affection, fantastic figure. This work is centered around Majun(馬俊). Maluanying(馬鸞英) is the heroin,seen as the classic case of overcoming adversity. Quzhongcheng(屈忠成) is the prime minister, negative figure, he fight with the chivalry, was defeated at the end. Liuxu(柳絮) is person of affection, overcoming adversity, marries the two lady, has a heroic side. Fantastic figure is more enriching the contents of the work, is Buddhist and Taoist figure, serves as the positive and the negative role. San-he-ming-zhu-bao-jian-quan-zhuan is a similar assessment on Zheng-chunyuan(爭春園)’s character and plot, But Liuxu's love story is strengthened. Therefore,continued research is needed for this work.
  • 4.

    Procrustes in Disguise: The Speakers in Robert Frost's Early Poems

    Samchool Lee | 2013, 31() | pp.95~118 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Robert Frost's poetry has generally been considered fairly readable partly because of the simplicity or down-to-earth-ness of the messages that go along with the poet's projected public image and the 'traditional' forms he used. Against the grain of such general perception, this study reads some of the early poems of Robert Frost to re-characterize the beginning of the poet's career as a modernist attempt to challenge the dominant poetic conventions of the time: the genteel conventions. In reading the poems, this study focuses on frost's strategic method of using the speaker or persona regarding the delivery of meanings. Those readers who would like to find the immediate presence of Frost's voice in the poems,fail to distinguish the speaker and the poet, readily accepting the face value of what the speaker tries to convey: those messages which are in line with liberal individualism, like self-reliance, autonomous self, work ethics, etc. Frost's speakers, however, are rarely the mouthpiece of the poet himself. Rather, they are fictional characters who, while on the surface of the text appear to be hammering out a stable theme out of their everyday experience, under a heuristic scrutiny of the textual structure, turn out to be undermining the logic or the rationality of the theme, which can be identified as a modernist textual strategy that challenges the traditional conventions regarding the stability of meaning in a poetic text.
  • 5.

    Understanding of I-Ching at a Viewpoint of Analytic Psychology - In a Basis at Ch'ien(乾) and K'on(坤) -

    신성수 , Lee, Hyeon-gu | 2013, 31() | pp.119~153 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    There is the commonness between I-Ching of Asian scriptures and Analytic Psychology of C. G. Jung as the conjunction of opposites of yin and yang. I-Ching has the base of the Great Absolute(太極) as yin and yang. Jung's psychology has the basic structure of opposite contents of psyche. The former wants to find the proper answer for the situation as fortune book, the latter realization of personal psyche. At this basis to approach I-Ching through the Analytic Psychology can be connected with the screening its inner system and structure in the frame of depth psychology. Basically I-Ching is the scripture about the good or ill luck, regret and stinginess. All of them are related with the psychology of human beings practically. I-Ching as the main scripture of Asia has the core theme concept of the mean (中). Previously mentioned the good or ill luck, regret and stinginess are included into this as the large view point. The best decision between the given situation and the fortune teller pursues the mean(中) path of both. Jung's psychology also attaches importance to the proper balance among personal conscious, unconscious and his surrounded situations. Goodness is relied on the mean, healthy psyche the harmony with the psychological and real situations of a person. But this balance and mean cannot be achieved without any reason but by the result of the conjunction of opposites. The opposites are the Ch'ien(乾, the Creative, Heaven) and K'un(坤, the Receptive, Earth) as yin and yang in I-Ching and the conscious and unconscious in Jung's psychology. These can be opened to masculine and feminine, psyche and matter, transcendent and existence and casuality and acausal synchronicity. Conjunction of these opposites can develope and create the new conscious and creative situation. Finally yin and yang from the Great Absolute and conscious and unconscious from Self become the opposites and go through necessary step of separation and sublimation for the creation of new level. In the Great Absolute there are yin and yang and yin the latter contains the cyclic process which can make the former renew. Conjunction of opposite in Jung's psychology also go through the similar process as the Great Absolute of yin and yang.
  • 6.

    Independence of Latin America and the Role of Afro-Ibero America: Mainly with Cimarron's Resistance and Comuneros Revolution

    Cha-kyung Mi | 2013, 31() | pp.155~175 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Meantime there has been a tendency to keep silent about the role of Afro-Ibero America Diaspora which contributed to the spirit of independence and the realization of country foundation ideology in the official history of Latin America. In some countries, although the collective resistance of Afro-Ibero America Diaspora, which intended to establish a liberal and equal society resisting against slavery and colonization system, was the foundation of independence and the establishment of a new country, their contribution has been difficult to leave an official trace in Caucasian criollo-centered history system. Along with the development of Hcienda in 17th Century, black slaves' collective resistance was developed mainly with el Virreinato de la Nueva Granada, the center of the Independence movement of Brazil and South America. The black people who escaped resisting against slavery formed communities and developed organized activities through various politics and social activities. However, such communities were mostly dispersed or destroyed by the colonial power, and the collective resistance of Afro-Ibero America Diaspora lost life. On the other side, in case of Colombia, a community of escaped black slaves which was formed in the early 17th Century is solely remaining in Latin America,moreover, Afro-Ibero America Diaspora's struggle for liberty and equality became the foundation for Comuneros revolution and Independence movement in the late 18th Century. Comuneros revolution which occurred in 1781 awoke self-awareness of liberty and equality, and became an ideological base for independence movement based on revolutional republicanism and philosophy of enlightenment. It is considered that South America's independence movement lead by Simón Bolívar was a history that could not have started without historical base of Afro-Ibero America Diaspora's resistance against colonization system. Therefore, this study intends to discuss the role and achievement of Afro-Ibero America Diaspora in the process of independence of Latin America mainly with Colombia, which is the center of Independence movement of South America. Through this process, this study intends to revaluate historical contribution of Afro-Ibero America which has been relatively neglected meanwhile in the process of independence and the establishment of country.
  • 7.

    Study of Chinese & Japanese Literary Modernism in Early 20th century

    Kim Kyung Seog | 2013, 31() | pp.177~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is the study of literary modernism school(新感覺派 xinganjuepai),appeared in the early 20th century in China and Japan. This literary modernism,developed in Japan in the 1920s, was developed in China after 10 years in the 1930s. Chinese literary modernism was influenced by the Japanese school. However,the following occurs the difference in modernism caused by background of the two countries. Japanese school of literary modernism was formed by a backlash against the proletarian literature. The rivalry between Japanese proletarian literature and literary modernism occurred in 1920's. Literary modernism in China occurred in the course of the development of the proletarian literature, as part. In addition, China's literary writers of modernism have expressed their support proletarian literature for the position. This difference between the two countries can be caused by the difference of historical background (imperial and colonial) in early 20th century.
  • 8.

    Rereading Tie Ning's Rose Gate - Focused on Female Characters’ “Becoming”

    Choi Eun Jeong | 2013, 31() | pp.197~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis analyzes various becomings of female characters in Rose Gate written by Tie Ning. By this analyzation, we can pick out what identity the female characters eager to have decomposed, what identity they hope to create, and what do these procedures mean. Si Qiwen's 'becoming male' presents strong desire to shift from periphery to center. However, it is meaningless when her tragic life can not be justified by those same female people. Zuxi's 'becoming wanderer' shows that Tie Ning refuses usual reality of woman's life which vest in man. Sumei's 'becoming mother' is the exact point where torn female ego gets to consolidate, and it means Tie Ning takes 'mother-becoming' as ultimate truth of woman's life. Besides, Tie Ning finds women's becoming something new as escaping from the other and she denies equation of man with savior.
  • 9.

    A Study of Bronze Epigraphy of ShuoWen's Scholar in the Qing Dynasty

    JaeJoong Oh | 2013, 31() | pp.217~240 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Chinese Bronze Epigraphy is based on the study of the Ancient Bronze,which is excavated from the ground and it is also related to Archeology and Historical Science as well. From the Han dynasty, to the Song dynasty and to the Qing dynasty. Chinese Graphonomy had a splendid development. Including ShuoWenJieZi in the Chinese Graphonomy and the study of Bronze got a shining improvement. ShuoWenJieZi as a key for deciphering ancient Chinese characters. With constant reference to the ShuoWenJieZi, Qing scholars pioneered the earliest large scale interpretations of bronze inscriptions. Several Qing Dynasty ShuoWen scholars such as a WangYun and DuanYuCai have made research in the Bronze Epigraphy. Through this research, we can figure out whether there is any relevance between the traditional study of Epigraphy and the Qing dynasty’s.
  • 10.

    A Semantic Analysis of Human Body Russian Slang

    Kim Sung Wan | 2013, 31() | pp.241~262 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we select and analyze the slang that is represented in Elistratov's "Dictionary of Russian slang". Through the above analysis, some conclusions were drawn as follows:First, as a social and psychological phenomenon appears universal in all languages, the study of slang generates strict criteria for the analysis. Unlike literary language, listed in the dictionary slang expressions can become obsolete for their short period of usage by native speakers. Therefore, in the following research of the actual data, we have to validate words targeted for analysis. Second, as the result of the analysis it is metaphor for the most part studied rather than metonymy. The semantic derivations as a result of metonymy are used very frequently in real life. But in this study we mainly analyze words,therefore the number of words was less in metonymy than was expected. Third, the basic types of metaphor are appeared as similarity by form, function,and location, and there are varieties of intervening of subjectivity in similarity of emotional impression. Fourth, the metonymy is divided into three cases: the part meaning the whole,the whole meaning the part, and some thing meaning the reality of where it exists. Fifth, not only literary language, but also slang as the 'transitional process'is the most active way of development of new meanings, and there are two methods to transfer main meaning to second meaning.
  • 11.

    Application of the Podcasting in Korean Education -Aimed at Education for the Business School Students-

    Kim Yu-Mi , Tongkyu Park | 2013, 31() | pp.263~286 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The goal of this study is to explore the possibility of applying the podcasting in Korean education for foreign students. To achieve this goal, concepts and applicability of the podcasting is discussed. Previous studies on foreign language education are reviewed and the cases on Korean language education based on technology using mobile phones are investigated. Some of the outstanding merits of the podcasting are found to be its accessibility, mobility and variability along with its room for control by the learners. It also enables the learners to be motivated and to enhance their learning ability. In addition, the podcasting with the content-based instruction is applied for the foreign students majoring in business and its results and implications are discussed. Based on the above results of this study, more active discussions are expected on such issues as educational designs through the podcasting, related variables and the performance evaluation.
  • 12.

    Widening of Lexical Meaning in Russian Loanwards

    Kang Ducksoo , Lee Sung-Min | 2013, 31() | pp.287~308 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Russian language tends to be quite open to borrowing. In Russian it has been for a long time the conventional way of expanding the lexicon, accepting many words from adjacent languages, including Church Slavic. In the contemporary Russian English has been the main source for loanwords. There are several linguistic factors for lexical borrowing: 1. the necessity of denominating new facts, phenomena or concepts, 2. the necessity of differentiating concepts, 3. the necessity of specializing new concepts, 4. the introduction of new international terms, 5. the increase of periphrastic expressions, 6. the needs for the more elegant and modern words. These factors have caused borrowing to enlarge the component of the lexicon and phrasal expressions, but excessive use of foreign words has brought about negative effects such as linguistic pollution. Some borrowed words are assimilated without serious conflicts, but other words undergo semantic changes in confrontation to existing words of similar meanings. These types of semantic changes comprise total change of meaning, reduction of semantic scale and extension of meaning. Semantic changes are caused by linguistic factors such as lexical conflict with existing words or by socio-culural factors such as misunderstanding of foreign words. And extension of meaning shows two types: qualitative extension and quantitative extension. The first means extending the semantic scope of a borrowed word and the latter - increasing the number of its sememe. In contemporary Russian language we can witness two productive phenomena:qualitative extension by socio-cultural factors, in which words with negative nuances are changed into those with positive ones and professional terms become common words, losing their professional meanings. On the other hand, by quantative extension some loanwords change their concrete meanings into abstract ones. In such cases loanwords acquire the additional meanings of abstractness, putting aside their original concrete meanings as the basic. On the contrary, the qualitative extension of adding the special meaning to general words or giving the concrete meaning to abstract words is not productive. And it is rarely witnessed that words of positive nuances are negatively used. It is considered that such cases are partly restricted in the spoken language or the jargon. Such phenomena may happen by the incomplete understanding of English words.
  • 13.

    Consideration on deixis on the Chinese Conversation Textbook: Focused on Women(我們)

    Park, Chan Wook | 2013, 31() | pp.309~330 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine distribution and patterns of Women(我們) on Chinese conversation textbook, and also suggest that Chinese class need to impose pragmatic perspective. For this purpose, this paper explores 35 Womens in 42 conversation units on three Chinese textbooks Hanyu Kouyu vol.1~3 at first. Women is more contributed on ‘exclusive Women’ among three categories (inclusive, exclusive, borrowed) than other two categories, is also contributed on ‘symbolic usage’ than ‘gestural usage’. Second, this paper examines patterns of Women on the three categories. It shows: first, ‘inclusive Women’, ‘exclusive Women’, ‘borrowed Women’ all show up on the textbooks even though on the textbook vol.1(for beginner) surprisingly; Second, ‘exclusive Women’ may be a primary one of three categories in terms of the coverage of Women. Women covers those who are related with the speaker regardless of being on the spot, and also covers those which the speaker belongs to, for example, nationality, ethnicity etc. Consequently, the results show that Chinese speaking course, from now on, needs to consider pragmatic factors including existing semantic and syntactic factors, and from the pragmatic perspective, impose ‘action’(including speech act, body gesture etc.) on Chinese conversation class for the learners’ improvement in Chinese speaking.
  • 14.

    Essay on Terminology Formation and Translation Methodology in Korean

    Hyunjoo LEE | 2013, 31() | pp.331~370 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    In this knowledge based society, the circulation of knowledge and information is more and more increasing. Terms, as denominations of every specialized concept, has grown in quantity and there are considerable amount of foreign terminology coming to settle down in Korean language. Since terminologies quickly generate and be extinguished, it is important to translate in appropriate way at the very first phase of terminology implementation. This article aims to elaborate the typology of korean terminology translation forms, and propose some guidelines for terminology formation and translation methodology. ISO terminology principle and other institutes' propositions for term formation as well as translational theories constitute two basic columns of the guidelines.
  • 15.

    A Study on Giving Verbs ‘kureru’ and ‘kudasaru’: by Analyzing Dialogues of Female Speakers in Novels of the Edo Period, Meiji Period and the Taisho Period-

    YANG JUNGSOON | 2013, 31() | pp.371~394 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to know word forms and usages according to personal relationships of ‘Kureru・Kudasaru’ by analyzing dialogues of female speakers. Novels of the Meiji period when there were attempts of a language revolution were mainly used for this study as well as novels of the Edo Period and the Taisho Period. Firstly, the number of examples according to gender differences in the novels was as follows. In case of ‘Kureru’, female speakers showed a high usage rate in the novels of the Edo period. ‘Kureru’ was mostly connected with female languages such as ‘Naharu’, ‘Namasu’, ‘Nansu’. These expressions were not used in the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. Although ‘Okureru’ and ‘Okurenasaru’ were used in the novels of the Meiji Period, the number of examples of 'Kureru’ by female speakers was decreased in the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. ‘Kudasaru’ was predominantly used by female speakers. Especially, female speakers used clearly to show vertical relationships in the novels of the Edo Period and 『Doseishoseikatagi』of Meiji 10s. After『Ukigumo』, the usage rate of female speakers was decreased but the usage rate of male speakers was increased. Gender differences became gradually smaller. Female speakers in the novels were increased from geisha and relatives such as wife, sister, mother and children to young women, teacher and student. Aspects of benefactive verbs' usages could be summarized as follows. Female speakers at licensed quarters used clearer and more typical expressions according to vertical relationships and gender differences in the novels of The Edo Period than the novels of The Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. In the novels of the Meiji Period, female speakers in a sophisticated social group used benefactive verbs to show strong respect and concern for the other person. In the novels of the Taisho Period, female speakers used benefactive verbs to show respect and concern for the other person according to their areas of outside activities. In the novels of the Meiji Period, female speakers used ‘Okureru’ when the other person was younger than them and was socially and psychologically close to them. Also, ‘O~Nasaru’ which was one of respect expressions was used by female speakers. Female speakers used it to older people in the Edo period but they also used it to younger people in the Meiji Period. Examples were not shown in the novels of the Taisho Period. Usages of ‘Kureru’ ‘Kudasaru’ according to vertical relationships were as follows. If ‘a giver’ was an older person, ‘Kureru’ with respect expressions ‘Nasaru’ ‘Nansu’ ‘Namasu’ was used more than ‘Kudasaru’ in the novels of the Edo Period. However, many examples of 'Kudasaru' were shown on the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho period. In the novels of the Meiji Period, ‘Okureru’ and ‘Okurenasaru’ which were expressions included in ‘Kureru’ were shown. Female speakers used them to older people who were socially and psychologically close to them like family. There were not many examples of ‘a giver’ and ‘a receiver’ around the same age. However, ‘Kureru’ and ‘Okureru’ were used in a younger group and 'Kudasaru’ was used in an older group in the novels of the Meiji Period. If ‘a giver’ was an younger person, ‘Kureru’ was mainly used in the novels of the Edo period and 『Doseishoseikatagi』in Meiji 10s. However, ‘Kudasaru’ was used many times in the novels of the latter Meiji Period and the Taisho Period.
  • 16.

    Enforcement Status of EPS-TOPIK and Needs Analysis of EPS Centers

    Chung Ho-Jin | 2013, 31() | pp.395~414 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    EPS-TOPIK is a test of Korean proficiency which is enforced at the level of Korean government for the selection of competent foreign workers. Therefore, it must ensure validity and reliability, and practicability as a language assessment tool. For seeking a way of developing EPS-TOPIK, in this paper, the current state of EPS-TOPIK was investigated based upon the materials published by the Korean government, and the questions of EPS-TOPIK were analysed. Together with this, newspaper articles both in Korea and in foreign countries were also analyzed, and the directors of the EPS center abroad were interviewed. According to the survey results, as expected, the local environment of Korean education is poor in a number of ways to improve the Korean communication skills of foreign workers, as well as to prepare the EPS-TOPIK. To improve the efficiency of the EPS-TOPIK and to enhance the Korean communication skills of foreign workers, the Korean language institutions including the King Sejong Institute, which are in charge of the Korean language education should closely cooperate with the Human Resources Development Service of Korea, which is responsible for all of the influx of foreign workers.
  • 17.

    Teaching Chinese through Drama to University Students for Language Skills

    CHOI TAE HOON | 2013, 31() | pp.415~438 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores how to teach Chinese, using multi-media resources such as Chinese dramas and focusing on one of Jin Yong's dramas, The Return of the Condor Heroes. The purpose of this study is to develop teaching methodologies for university students learning Chinese through drama to integrate language skills: enhancing communicative competence and understanding Chinese cultures. First, the overview of previous studies provides several cases of foreign language education using drama. Teaching Chinese through drama can be an integrative education because students can develop their communicative competence as well as understand the cultures of the target language. In other words, the contexts of drama may offer rich sources of the history of China, Han Chinese ethnocentrism, and knowledge of Chinese literature as well as geography. Second, this study applies the principles of Tomlinson (2010) for materials development in language teaching into the case of Chinese drama. It concentrates on Jin Yong's The Return of the Condor Heroes that the author has used in the Chinese language courses for three years. It examines the characteristics of the drama for developing effective ways of teaching and learning Chinese language and culture. Furthermore, it discusses the impact of using drama on changes in students' pervasive perceptions about unnecessity of Chinese classical literature. Third, this paper presents some sample lessons which may help teachers to develop understanding of how to organize lessons through drama. Finally, it illustrates university students' opinions about using drama to learn Chinese.