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2013, Vol.33, No.

  • 1.

    Censorship and Its Impact under the Franquismo:Focusing on novels

    Son-ung Kim | 2013, 33() | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This present study focuses on Franco's censorship and its influences in the works of Carmen Martín Gaite and Miguel Delibes. We know that from the years 1940’s to 1970’s a very harsh censorship existed in Spain. But the authors of those times were not completely obedient to the power of the Regime. Some authors attempted to find a new way to present his novels. In fact, Between Curtains of Martín Gaite shows an ideology that advocates for women who were not valued as deserved at the time. Against Franco’s totalitarianism the author indirectly revealed readers an attempt to improve the situation of women, criticizing the tradition. On the other hand, Delibes sought a new way of presenting the novel in Five Hours with Mario to avoid Franco regime’s censorship. The author hid behind a character that represents Franco’s politics to criticize the society of that time. The both authors as representatives of contemporary Spanish literature demonstrate that the oppression does not restrict the authors’ ability to create unexpected works.
  • 2.

    Poetic Imagination and Self-Image in Haizi’s Poems

    Sujin Kim | 2013, 33() | pp.33~52 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Haizi, who ended his life with suicide on the railroad at the age of 25, is a poet who implemented his unique poetic world alone without belonging to any of the existing Chinese poetry schools in the 1980s. The process that Haizi reveals self-inside through a poetic work is rather to hide self-inside paradoxically, too. Accordingly, even a work of figuring out the real intention, which is hidden in poetic dictions that he selected, will be meaningful. In this sense, this study tried to inquire into the poetic imagination and self-image that were revealed in poetry focusing on 『Spring, Haizi of 10People』, which is a work of having his name as topic, with having been written at the time of suicide, among Haizi's many poetic works. In addition, it figured out Haizi's private conscious world through analyzing the poem titled 『Facing the sea with spring blossoms』, which was created ahead of death same as 『Spring, Haizi of 10 People』. Thus, the aim was to look back on significance of his death and to broaden the width of understanding about Haizi's poetry. As for Haizi, the death can be regarded as the completion of 'performance,'which is a kind of Haizi's own final art form. Hence, Haizi's suicide needs to be seen from the perspective dubbed the continuity of creation through this performance, not the discontinuance of creation caused by 'intended death' that the poet himself selected. In the wake of pursuing the poetic world of a gifted poet Haizi, who died early, that this study examined, there will be any poet of Korea who is recalled naturally. One poet will be first recalled Yi Sang, who is a poet and a novelist of having been broadly known. Another poet is overlapped Gi Hyeong-do, who had been active as a poet and a journalist of having been dead after living in the similar period to Haizi. A comparative analysis among works by these Korean and Chinese poets has similarity beyond the temporal space. A research on this is thought to have value of being considered a little more deeply and generally hereafter. Still, this study mentioned only possibility of a comparative research on this.
  • 3.

    The World’s Gaze and Desire on the Opium War

    sung-hee Jin | 2013, 33() | pp.53~75 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It is well-known that Chinese saw themselves as the centre of the world until the early 20th century. Since the Opium War 1840, however, belong to the ‘general world’ the past century. The Opium War made China break away from the Sinocentric spirit. This writing(essay) examines movies from China and the World concern the historical event ‘the Opium War.’ It also discusses desires that are inherent in narration of each movie and how accord with the real world. The movie The Opium War(1997) directed by XieJin is a work that intended:to wash off the memory of history of disgrace and; to successfully put a disparate piece, Hong Kong, of a puzzle named China together. The Japanese movie Wànshìliúfāng(1943)and The Opium War(1943) were also made for the victory of the Pacific War. They were part of project for uniting the domestic Japan and the colonial outlands – Manchuria and Joseon – that reenacted humiliating history of China, which had been the suzerain of the East Asia The Korean movie The Opium War(1964) was not recalled due to the demand for a lesson from China’s painful history, but was recreated by imitating Hong Kong, into where capitalism was transplanted through the Opium War before Korea. History is eventually recalled to the present and the histories, that each different present invokes, are recreated in respective fashion. From their plan to wash off the history of disgrace and successfully return Hong Kong to its native country, China, Japan, and Korea portrayed China, once their cultural suzerain, as impotent East Asia. From their proposition that they should resist the present enemy, the West,together, they imitated the west of the East, which lead the way to achieve modernity. Finally, from their ambition to deviate from their status as developing country,they recalled and reorganized the history, the Opium War.
  • 4.

    A Comparative Study of “Melodrama” in Films of Korea,China and Japan Since the 1990s

    Kim, Jong Soo | 2013, 33() | pp.77~94 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims at analyzing melodramas in films of Northeast Asia for seeking comparative studies of popular narrative which have been widely favored in Korea,China and Japan since the 1990s. It is explored of expectation and desire of public who have taken pleasure in watching the films in each countries of Northeast Asia as well. It is selected to Letter(1997) made in Korea, The Road Home(1999)in China and Love Letter(1995) in Japan for the research as above Melodrama of each countries has been searched at not only maintaining the traditional melodramatic convention but also corresponding to sociocultural environment of each countries for meeting tastes of public 'in the 1990s' when cultural interchanges have been more active along each countries of Northeast Asia. It will be concretely pursued to the interchanges and influence-reception relation of melodrama for follow-up research as it has been sprightly enjoying as well as transforming common cultural contents at each countries of Northeast Asia since the 1990s.
  • 5.

    A Reflection on the Avant-garde Small Theater in Paris, France

    PARK,HYUNG-SUB | 2013, 33() | pp.95~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about small theaters in Paris which produced the theater of the avant-garde(or theatre of the absurd) in the 50s. Paris was at the center of astonishing passion by small theaters in terms of spectacle. Small theaters actively embraced young actors/actresses, theater troupe and playwrights who created a new way to express their plays. They were mostly obscure but showed talent and genius. So playwrights came from abroad such as E. Ionesco, S. Beckett, A. Adamov and others were able to create a new type of comedy and experience theatrical realization. On the other hand, a great many drama creators such as R. Blin, N. Bataille, J.-M. Serreau, J. Noël and others appeared. We focused on studying about life of small theaters in Paris as mentioned earlier. The space of representation were limited. They were mostly about ridiculing of dramaturgy of comedy and theatrical realization. The substandard situations and conditions of small theaters fell far short of advantages of spectacle. Some of the theaters ― Babylone, Noctambules, Nouveau Lancry,Quartier-latin ― have not been able to survive up to this day. Other Theaters ― Huchette and Poche-Montparnasse ― have been able to last by performing creative activities. The theaters of the avant-garde are historic places of Drama Art. It is quite astonishing that some of the monuments did not last any longer. These were the places where La Cantatrice chauve by Ionesco and En attendant Godot by Beckett were premiered. When will they be restored to their original state?Meanwhile, the theater of Huchette have performed the comedies of Ionesco for last 60 years without a break. It becomes the museum of theater of the absurd that is the cradle of modern play. In conclusion, a great many play creators like playwrights, directors and set designers saw the light of day because of small theaters when there were not enough support fund. Their passion and curiosity still make us look forward to emerging of new drama.
  • 6.

    The Existential Conscience and Steadfast Spirit of Characters in Nada and Writing on Blank Paper

    Sunki, Song | 2013, 33() | pp.121~141 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to establish a methodology useful for identifying links between the postwar novels of Spain and Korea. We analyze the lives and actions of the characters from Nada by Carmen Laforet, and Writing on blank paper by Oh Sang Won. The characters in these novels demonstrate the challenge of adapting to the harsh reality of life because of the psychological or physical scars of war: characters such as Jungsub and Jungseo in Writing on blank paper and Juan and Andrea in Nada finally overcome their difficulties thanks to a shared sense of existential conscience and a steadfast fighting spirit;others, like Jungyun and Roman, surrender to the struggle and commit suicide,tragically succumbing to the bitter harshness of reality. Through the analysis of these novels’ characters, we can empathize with the common tragedy of war-time life and death; we gain perspective on the destruction of both society and people caused by war.
  • 7.

    Interdisciplinary and philosophy of Diderot Considered through De l'interprétation de la nature

    PAEK Chan-Wook | 2013, 33() | pp.143~169 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, because of the danger and damages that following the steady development of scientific technologies, natural science is faced with many humane and ethical problems. So it is asserted the interdisciplinary with social and human science. However, it comes commonly that the ethical issues such as world view and one’s view of life caused the development of sociology,especially development of the market economy. But in many cases, the interdisciplinary can be useful for widen the view of scholars. The interdisciplinary is actually connected with the problems of philosophy,and located in that domain. In this case, this is noticed as a model to the philosophers in 18th century, especially Denis Diderot. Diderot published De l'interprétation de la nature during editing the Encyclopedia, from there he picked out the contents from piles of documents of Encyclopedia. Even though the contents or opinions of De l'interprétation de la nature are inaccuracy or erroneous, it shows that how human-social science and natural science encountered. Diderot studied mathematics and then Diderot accepted to the natural science proposal, he approaches philosophy with translate English books to the French. Next he understood natural science by reading Buffon and Maupertuis, and during working for Encyclopedia, he possessed his knowledge that he can claim his opinion to other scholars. However in this De l'interprétation de la nature,Diderot who sometimes rebutted other scholars’ theory and demonstration, tried to build a philosophy on metaphysics in order to it was important for himself that he imposed the methods of science and importance of experience. Anyhow, this De l'interprétation de la nature cause consider the recognition of Diderot in the field of natural science, and is suggested as a model about his Nature. This mean that it is an expression of his philosophy, and the content is found from natural philosophy and empirical philosophy. Like giving these attache the importance of method study for science and technique, these are targeted the promotion of popularization of natural-science and scientific-technology. Also it advocates fulfilling from reasonable philosophy to empirical philosophy. Therefore, the philosophy which was speculative and abstracted became his philosophy which was writing the meaning, as waiting the discovery of science. And at that time, the humanities made interdisciplinary with natural science.
  • 8.

    Belle Epoque and Dadaism in the Modern Culture

    Lee Byung Soo | 2013, 33() | pp.171~192 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The article is a research about the Belle Epoque era and Dadaism in the modern culture as a whole and separate. The years from 1890s to 1914, is known as the Belle Epoque era, in which the European continent including France had developed the climax of the modern culture after the Renaissance. At the same time, it was the period where the postmodern developments were being spread,leading to the present days. Moreover, the main ideologies in art that led to the cultural advancement of the time were impressionism, cubism, art nouveau,evolutionized painting category, symbolism and futurism. It was a literature category that was maintained to present Dadaism and surrealism. Dadaism began since the magazine, Bulletin Dada was published, originating in 1916 by Tristan Tzara of Zurich, Switzerland during the WWI. The extreme motto that the Dadaists supported was a contradiction, as they had to dissolve from their own art movements and expression techniques. However, until Andre Breton introduced ‘Manifeste du Surrealisme’ in 1924, the "Dada group" had a tremendous influence in France as an epicenter and rejected the modern cause and art that continued during the time, thus attempting its dissolution. First, they rejected the ideology, ethics and customs of rationalism from the previous system and demonstrate an anarchical and anti-bourgeoisie characteristic. They also reject the French lucid thoughts and the artistic techniques. They strongly emphasized on their motto “The idea is created from the mouth”, while reframing from the philosophical ideology and at the same time, attempting to express the psychical unconsciousness. Second, the most important catchphrase that the Dadaists supported was the theory of negation. The question “Why do you write?” connotes the negative consciousness about the artistic value and the stereotyped method of the preexisting writing and drawing. Third, the Dadaists bring forward a radical query about all of the former esthetic and morals, and reveal an admirable resistance spirit. They emphasized on the slogan “Dada, means nothing” and insist on ‘the anti-literal Dada, anti-artistic Dada, anti-musical Dada’. The Dadaist movement manifested their resistant spirit and the new artistic spirit through the publication of <Dada 1, 2, 3>, <Sic>, and most importantly through the magazine <Literature>. Fourth, the Dadaists embodied the volume, density, and quality into an image through the auto-technical, cubistic writings and drawings. They ignored the fixed form of arrangements, verses, and rhymes of a poetic diction. The Dadaists utilized an unfamiliar and inversed expression method of applying the combination of the size of print, or capital letters and lowercase letters, even combining printed and handwritten writings. As presented, the auto-technical and cubistic characteristic of expressing the auto-psychical ideology into writing is called as the radical aesthetic and moral and can be considered as the most essential cause of the Dadaists’ avant-garde features. As a conclusion, Dadaism demonstrated dual characteristics of consuming the nutritive elements of the modern culture through the most powerful resistance and liberation of the artistic movement of the Belle Epoque era, where at the same time, it deconstructed the modern art. By revolting against the former grounds and expression techniques, and dominating the era with the new artistic spirit, their resistant actions were artistic movements that symbolized the dissolution of the modern times. Moreover, the Dada’s expressionism and resistance of saying “There’s nothing” can be evaluated as postmodernity’s initiative of outweighing the modern history and opening the door for new period of nowadays.
  • 9.

    Application and Its Typological Classification of Photographs Shown in Contemporary Art

    Lee kyoung Ryul | 2013, 33() | pp.193~239 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    A photograph, which was applied to contemporary art, plays a very important role in the whole of the multiplied and diversified contemporary arts today. The application of photos, which were shown in contemporary art following the 1950s, can be classified into five types according to role and function of a photo in the process of developing a work. However, this classification is shown a little ambiguously. That is because photos of being utilized by artists are indicated very diversely depending on their artistic strategy and situation. As the first type, a few painters utilize a photo as mirror of reality in order to materialize a challenging and revolutionary idea with going against traditional picture in their pictorial practice. As the second classification, especially American painters utilize a photo as material component of forming their picture like photo-montage or collage. The combined application of this medium is first doing genre de-construction and hybridization of post-modernism in the 1980s while ultimately aiming at social criticism or political satire. The third type implies particularly a case that avant-garde artists utilize a photo as evidence of a work. In this case, a photo is employed as evidence of a work, which disappears in the temporal space essentially like body art, land art, and performance. Also, as the fourth type is a case of utilizing a photo for artistic concept of a work, not pictorial practice of picture, it is utilized often as important artistic strategy of conceptual artists. The final type of utilizing photo is a case of applying photo as formative tool on behalf of dye-stuffs or crayon in order to record a section of reality, which always continues regardless of event or meaning any more, in the traditional picture. In this case, a work is indicated as a photo of having a form of picture,namely, as Forme-tableau. The main subject is indicated there as a daily case of being repeated always the extremely common and revived theme.
  • 10.

    The Modern Chinese Literature and Philosophy of Nietzsche:Focusing Acceptance of the Nietzsche's Philosophy on Guo Mo Ruo and Mao Dun

    고혜경 | 2013, 33() | pp.241~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Nietzsche in the early 20th century, many Western thought came to China pushed the time, who want to reform the Chinese young intellectuals was a great welcome. Around 5.4 times writers representing China Journalism Guo Mo ruo ․ Mao Dun and social needs of the times according to the spirit, according to their ideology, no tubes and four optional understand Nietzsche. Was acceptable, in the process, Nietzsche was transformed hem into various forms. In this paper,two Guo Mo ruo ․ Mao Dun accept Nietzsche as Nietzsche socreated their own awards and also looked at these similarities and difference. Nietzsche Guo Mo ruo the remnants of the old feudal ideas and traditions were to break down and accept only select perspective. Nietzsche's self-discovery and individual liberty, and against the reality and accept the terms of loan 5.4seconds, an ideal Nietzsche award was created. However Guo Mo ruo particular aspect of the acceptance of Nietzsche, whereas Nietzsche regarded as an extreme pessimist history, and his extreme caution and idealistic form of individualism was often criticized. Mao Dun the core ideas of Nietzsche 'Superman' and 'will power' noted. 5.4All time view of life, a new morality must re-evaluate the need for a practical,based on the old tradition of Nietzsche completely against the spirit of rebellion was to have especially appreciated. But this was different Mao Dun Nietzsche and moral beliefs. What is the old morality Nietzsche corrupt, bourgeois morality and ethics, and was negative for democracy and freedom, Mao Dun dark realities facing the old Chinese feudal and traditional idea of revolution as a democrat were negative for. Guo Mo ruo ․ Mao Dun optional for Nietzsche's acceptance was 5.4 times that contemporary needs can be met.
  • 11.

    The Road to Empire: Journeys to Europe and Far Eastern Asia by Natsume Soseki

    Sang-In Yoon | 2013, 33() | pp.263~286 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Is this a right way in politics that attitude of Japanese scholars to separate Natsume Soseki from the expansionism of pre-war Japan to protect ‘sanctity’?Nowadays, most Japanese scholars are regarded to share the desire that minimize the memory of the behavior of Japanese Imperialism in East Asia, such as Korea,China, etc. Furthermore, ‘the desire to minimize’ inescapably concluded in avoidance, concealment, at last the temptation of deliberate misleading. Until now, the controversy about the Natsume Soseki’s travel to Korea and Manchuria has repeated in defence and criticism surrounding the self-awareness and recognition of others of Natsume Soseki, making the expression in a record of Natsume’s travel as the subject of study, for example, the degrading expression about Chosun people and scorn for Chinese and Russian. This paper will investigate that Natsume’s travel is the political practice which is combined with the desire for the empire, focusing on the political context in the action of journey of Natsume and its contents other than the expression itself.
  • 12.

    A Study of Victor Pelevin’ Short Story “Nika”

    Haenggyu Choi | Byongyong Ahn | 2013, 33() | pp.287~307 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    One cat caused a big wave in Russian literature. This cat revived the heroine of Russian classics. Her light breath was scattered in the world, in the cloudy sky and in the cold spring wind about one hundred years ago. And the cat gave an opportunity of turning to Russian classics to Russian readers. Thanks to this cat, a Russian dreamer changed his typical thinking, as well as many ordinary readers start to read works of creator of this wonderful cat. Pelevin accomplished these works with one cat, which he has made. Of course "Nika" is not only caused to make readers to return to Russian classics. I think,the cat and "Nika" are the symbols of writer's purpose in Russian literature. In this study the understanding of "Nika" is following the steps of realization of writer's purpose. In the second chapter it is analyzed to the textual relationship between "Nika"and "Light breath". Apart from existing analyses to be emphasized the succession of thematic aspect of two works as well. Existence of observers to each heroine stress this succession of thematic aspect of two works. In the third chapter it is analyzed the use of technique of mystification in "Nika". This intentional use of mystification has been demanded to read a "Nika" from another point of view(internal speculation of hero-narrator). The purpose of writer was to expose the cognitive error of a human being. I think this purpose was effectively explained by Pelevin's Buddhist world view which was introduced in his several works.
  • 13.

    The Problem of Pure Language in Walter Benjamin’s “The Task of the Translator” from the Perspectives of Paul De Man, Gilles Deleuze, and Jorge Luis Borges

    Jiyoung Kim | 2013, 33() | pp.309~330 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the concept of pure language introduced in Walter Benjamin’s “The Task of the Translator” and looks at various perspectives on this concept represented in theories of Paul De Man and Gilles Deleuze and a short story of Jorge Luis Borges. According to “The Task of the Translator,”pure language is defined as a vessel of which fragments are the original and the translation. Just as fragments are part of a vessel, so the original and the translation are fragments of a greater language, which is pure language. On the other hand, De Man, from a deconstructive criticism, says that pure language does not exist except as a permanent disjunction, which inhabits all languages as such, and that any work is totally fragmented in relation to this pure language and every translation is totally fragmented in relation to the original. While De Man consider pure language incorporeal, Deleuzian interpretation regards it as a virtual object or differenciator in relation to which the two series of the original and the translation coexist and resonate. Finally in Borges’s “Pierre Menard,Author of the Quixote” Menard attempt to translate Cervantes’s Don Quixote identically in every detail. By showing a case in which the original and the translation are the same, Borges raises a question what would take place in relation to pure language if the original and the translation were identical. In Deleuze, identity and resemblance are the result of a differenciator, but in Borges, identity is a differenciator which produces differences. If we apply this logic to the last paragraph of “The Task of the Translator,” we can say the interlinear version of Scriptures, as the prototype or ideal of all translation, in the form of which the original and the translation must be one, is a differenciator,an endless difference-making machine.
  • 14.

    Cultural Differences in Politeness and Notion of Flattery

    Jae-Hak Yoon | 2013, 33() | pp.331~358 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper looks into several aspects of linguistic behaviors attested in Korean and American English corpora. A special attention is paid to the areas of politeness phenomena, terms of address, power and solidarity, practice of flattery, and closely-related non-linguistic behaviors such as tipping and gift-giving conventions. An analysis of the data reveals that Korean society remains very much superior-oriented, non-egalitarian, non-democratic despite the pride and sense of accomplishment among the populace that the nation has achieved a satisfactory level of democracy. In particular, the following facts in Korean and the Korean society are exposed by an examination of the data:• There is a notional gap of positive politeness • Superiors enjoy an unfair advantage in the power and solidarity system • The terms of address system is set up to make a clear distinction between levels and the terms of address, in turn, dictate norms of expected behavior • The notion and practice of flattery heavily favors superiors • Non-linguistic acts of gift-giving and tipping are consistent with the examined social interactions As a result, all the benefits, emotional as well as material, are garnered by superiors. These facts may reflect the real Korea that people are used to being comfortable with, a pre-modern, feudalistic society, something akin to its kin in the north. We may proclaim that we aspire to a more democratic society. However, it appears Koreans, deep inside, may have been seeking a powerful dictator all along. These findings help provide a partial but insightful clue to the political puzzle:why Koreans grew uncomfortable with an egalitarian and democratic president and could not save him, but instead replaced him with a succession of a corrupted businessman and the authoritarian daughter of a former dictator. The flight to democracy has stalled in midair, not quite making the grade yet. There is plenty of linguistic evidence in Korean.
  • 15.

    Study on Chinese Character Borrowing in Korean Language

    Park, Seok Hong | 2013, 33() | pp.359~384 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There is linguistic phenomenon that Korean syllable, morpheme and word are substituted with Chinese Character. These phenomenon is called Chinese Character Borrowing, the Chinese character used here is called Borrowed Chinese Character. Whereas borrowing Chinese character in Chinese is used for borrowing only sound for different word, borrowing Chinese character in Korean is used for assigning new meaning. Hence, by borrowing Chinese character in Korean, a syllable which had no meaning originally get new meaning, morpheme and word meaning has changed. At advertisement and campaign, Chinese Character Borrowing has lots of linguistical advantage such as visual immediacy, effectiveness of meaning expression. However, there are number of cases found that violate grammar rule and word constitution practice by Chinese Character Borrowing. For this reason,Chinese Character Borrowing has the problem polluting Korean along with another foreign words. Thus, this paper focus on study Chinese Character Borrowing phenomenon in Korean, and analysis its effectiveness and impact in Korean. In addition, analysis the problem of Borrowed chinese Character, and suggestion several alternative for right use of Korean is followed.
  • 16.

    Acculturation and Educational Paradigm Shift of China for Western Educational System

    Kim Dug-Sam | lee kyung ja | 2013, 33() | pp.385~406 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This research starts based on the assumption that the changes of educational system in China which had been caused by accepting western educational system in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China are indeed considered as a paradigm shift of educational system in China, This research aims first to investigate what kinds of problems and changes Chinese educational system confronted at that time and second to examine what kinds of implications such changes and problems of paradigm shift may have today in China. In order to achieve the goals of this research, I first researched changes and characteristics of educational paradigm shift occurred in the history of China. On the basis of those findings, I tried to analyze acculturation problems of Chinese educational system for that of western countries at that time, their implications in present time Chinese educational system, and the possibility of further paradigmatic shift in present Chinese education. In this paper, I assumed three historical paradigmatic shifts in educational system in China which had big influences on the foundation of Chinese education, such as the introduction of Confucian Thoughts, the introduction of Civil Examination System in Sui Dynasty, and lastly the introduction of western educational system in the late Qing Dynasty. The last paradigmatic shift occurred by the introduction of western education system into China was very different from the previous two paradigmatic shifts in China in that it was literally initiated by the world with cultures different from those of China, and that’s why it is called Spatial Collision. It was also one of the many changes China had been forced to confront unvoluntarily. It was done for many other complicated factors such as the greed of western imperialistic countries, spreading of Christianity and missionary education, domestic resistance against long feudal reigning of Qing Dynasty, and lastly the intellect’s eagerness for new knowledge and new ways of thinking. What is surely regretful for the paradigmatic shift of Chinese educational system was that it had been triggered by those many heterogeneous factors,thereby leading to such a sudden, entire and complete shift of Chinese education system. In addition, it was done without a deeper and further consideration of Chinese education system with thousand years of tradition. This situation could be understood to be an impetus strong enough to encourage the advent of a new paradigm propelled by rapid economic growth of China, many problems of western education system, reconsideration of Chinese tradition, and strengthening of women power in China, etc.
  • 17.

    A Pragmatic Approach to Ellipsis in Russian and Polish Colloquial and Informal Texts of the Novel “Exit to the South”

    Jungwon Chung | 2013, 33() | pp.407~459 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The paper pragmatically analyzes ellipsis in Russian and Polish colloquial and informal texts. The famous Polish writer Sławomir Mrożek's "Exit to the South",written in Polish and Russian is used as a material for the analysis. Russian and Polish ellipsis in colloquial and informal texts have in common that the givenness and subjecthood of the elliptical co-referent play a crucial role. However, the ellipsis in two languages also has differences in many ways. Above all, in the Polish texts of colloquial and informal style, a theme is likely to be elliptical and the coreferential relation reaches to an extra-sentential antecedent, while the ellipsis in analysed Russian texts in most cases requires coordinate, subordinate or relative clauses, and the elliptical co-referent tends to have an intra-sentential antecedent. The ellipsis of the theme-subject is unmarked in Polish, where every verbal form has an ending denoting person. Unlike formal style which often allows explicit noun subject, Polish text of colloquial and informal style prefer null form of the subject in most cases. If Polish sentences have explicit theme-subjects,they disambiguate intervening and main themes, and indicate the contrast, the focus, the introduction of new narratives or the change of speaker's point of view. Sometimes direct speeches and deictic pronouns also need explicit theme-subjects in Polish sentences. On the other hand, the ellipsis of the theme-subject is marked in Russian even in colloquial and informal texts. The theme-subject can be deleted in Russian colloquial and informal texts, if the subject is a form of the first or the second person, or if the aspect and the tense of the antecedent sentence's verb are the same as those of the given sentence's verb and both the antecedent and the coreferential word have the nominative case.
  • 18.

    Categorial Character of Russian Verbal Aspect:Typological Perspective and Grammaticalization

    Hong Taek-Gyu | 2013, 33() | pp.461~494 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this work is to analyze categorial character of Russian verbal aspect from the typological perspective. To do this, first of all we will examine the overall historical process of grammaticalization of Russian verbal aspect. As a result of analysis, we have suggested that against wide-spread general assumptions in this area Russian verbal aspect correspond rather to lexico-grammatical category, than to purely typical grammatical category. Actually, I think this kind of approach as a pivotal point for the study of Russian verbal aspect. For example, this kind of typological approach has great advantages in a sense that firstly it gives us possibility of breaking from notorious routine Slavic-Centrism, secondly it can explain sufficiently and adequately various lexico-semantic usages of Russian verbs. Thirdly, our approach consistently accounts for various interactions of lexico-semantic,grammatical, discourse-pragmatic levels, in which Russian verbal aspect is involved. And finally, it sheds light on functional interactions between verbal categories, such as aspect, tense, and mood.
  • 19.

    A Contrastive Analysis on Episememe of Aspect Marker ‘le了’and Related Syntactic Structures in Korean and Chinese

    Chang,Hodeug | 2013, 33() | pp.495~514 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This article covers a contrastive analysis on Korean and Chinese linguistic structures with aspect marker ‘le了’. The results of this study are as follows:‘le’Related Syntactic Structures examples Semantic category of Chinese Chinese Markers Semantic category of Korean Korean Markers X+了+{Y}他天還沒亮的時候就吃了飯。他吃了兩小時的飯。Aspect_[Perfective _{finish}] X+了+Y。Tense_[past] -았{었}다. 這本書我看了一天了。Aspect_[Perfective _{wrap-up/finish}] X+了+Y+了。Tense_[past+(lin king particle)]-았{었}다. -았{었}+는데…X+了+X 既然這麼想奶奶,怎麼三年多了才回來!明天吃了飯再走。Aspect_[Perfective _{wrap-up}] Xi+了…Xj…。Modality_[order] -고서(야)…-고 나서…我看了看錶,離八點還有十四分鐘。 Aspect_[Perfective _{wrap-up}] Xi+了+Xi…。Modality_[try] -보고(는)…-어 보니…