Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.41
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2014, Vol.34, No.

  • 1.

    Magical Realism and Antonio Negri's Theory of Art: In Light of Claire Denis' Film Vendredi Soir

    Sooim Choi | 2014, 34() | pp.7~41 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines magical realism in contemporary european film, whichis considered to be one of the most popular styles in the present culture, withregards to Antonio Negri’s theory of art. Magical realism is “alternative approach to reality” (Maggie Ann Bowers,Magic(al) Realism) and defined as “a fictional technique that combines fantasywith raw physical reality or social reality in a search for truth beyond thatavailable from the surface of everyday life” (Joan Mellen, Magic Realism). Theterm of Magic Realism was coined in 1923 by Franz Roh, German art historian,as the concept for the post-expressionist painting in Germany. It has flourishedin the Latin-American literature during the 1950s to 1980s and spreadworldwide. Since 1980s magical realism is considered to be a universal artisticmode. Since 1990s magical realism is to find in the various novels, and since2000 one encounters magical realism in the cinema very often. Antonio Negri writes about the relationship between life, imagination, art andthe political in his book Art et Multitude. According to Negri, the hard life ofpeople in the present society liberates the imagination and this creates the artas “the excess of the existence”. In this process the aesthetic becomes to thepolitical. Negri calls this space of art as “magical time and space”. Claire Denis’ film Vendredi Soir is analyzed as a contemporary magic realisttext, which realizes Negri's concept of art: vendredi soir (friday night) inVendredi Soir is the magical time, when the impossible becomes the possible,and paris in the public transportation strike is the magical space, where theindividuals meet the other in a new situation. The film analysis associates itselfwith Negri’s theory of art: in Vendredi Soir, it is to see, that the excess of theexistence liberates imagination and creates the magic reality both in themovements of things and the human relationship. The phenomenon of magical realism in contemporary culture can be understoodas the symptom of the emotional and existential pains of contemporary peoplein the current world. The contemporaneity of the magical realism can be readin the film as "the metaphor for contemporary thought" (Alain Badiou, Cinema). As Antonio Negri writes, art can become “the aesthetic redemption” (Negri, Artet Multitude) for us. At the same time “(t)his is where aesthetics can be transformedinto the political.” (Lee, "Communism and the Void")
  • 2.

    Movies that seek after the truth and hierophanic time - Focused on <Offret> and <Flower Island>

    Soong Buem Ahn | 2014, 34() | pp.43~69 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This writing, focused on <Offret> by Tarkovsky and <Flower Island> bySong, Il-gon, examines moments of sage which is what Eliade described as‘hierophanic time’. These productions, which can be seen as movies that seekafter the truth, show important paradoxical ideas and expressions in thosemoments. This is because symbolic messages from unrealistic and out ofordinary images are specifically shown. If they had to be compared, through the film <Offret> by Tarkovsky, thetechnical civilization of contemporary society in an apocalyptic view is criticizedand saved, or the prophetic will to not give up the desire for salvation is shown. In the process, the short shots which forces to show hierophanic time not onlydiversely visualized the author’s ideological self-consciousness towards theconversion of the new world, but it also fulfills the metahistorical meaningsmentioned by Eliade. However, in the film <Flower Island> by Song, Il-gon, the realistic personalsufferings of three women is specifically shown first in extreme. They overcometheir unsolvable problems through mysterious rituals and belief in miracles. Inthe scenes that include hierophanic time, there are many cases that coverChristian faith and the meaning of salvation. In other words, we can say thathierophanic time in <Flower Island>, are related to conviction which led tomoments of miracles in order to overcome reality. Therefore, even though there is a difference in the way authors usehierophanic time, the scenes that show it in the two movies display individualityof mythical imaginations disclosed by Eliade. This is because the general hopefor reproduction, or meaningful symbols related to the ideal conversion of affairsare revealed.
  • 3.

    Photogenie as the duality and mentality of the photographic image: a study based on the theory of Edgar Morin

    Kim Ho-young | 2014, 34() | pp.71~92 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article presents a study on the concept of "Photogenie", which refers tothe duality and mentality of the photographic image, with the viewpoint regardingthe photographic image by Edgar Morin. First, we will look at the evolution of the concept of "Photogenie". From thefield of photography, the term "Photogenie" means objects that produce light,enough to impress the photographic plate. But theorists of cinema at the beginningof the 20th century have changed the meaning of the term. For Louis Delluc,the "Photogenie" means the effect of union between the reproduction of real andartistic genius. For Jean Epstein, the "Photogenie" means mental quality, nonmaterialor inderterminable, of the photographic and cinematographic image. ButMorin synthesized the arguements of Delluc and Epstein. For him, the "Photogenie"indicates both a double character of the photographic image and its mental quality. Then, based on this concept of "Photogenie," Morin said on particular aspectsin the photographic image. Considering photography as a double in theanthropological sense, it puts emphasis not only the dual nature of the photographicimage but also mental and spiritual quality. Combining the theory of the mageHenri Bergson and Jean-Paul Sartre, he builds his own theory of the mage thatconcerns both photography and cinema. In short, to Morin, the photographic imageis a place where coexist absence and presence, the real and the imaginary, perceptionand memory, the material and mental, as well that a place of mentality whichappear all our memories, hallucinations, dreams, imagination etc.
  • 4.

    The superposition of Science and Imagination

    HONG Myung-Hee | 2014, 34() | pp.93~114 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Gaston Bachelard had a revolutionary progress in the field of humanunderstanding by proposing his theory of image and imagination. His theory ofthe new image was so powerful, almost all areas of human science, particularlythat of literary criticism, were strongly influenced and this influence continuesuntil today. Today almost everyone accepts his theory of the image without muchobjection, but not rarely asked where began his transfer from the philosophy ofscience to the images. We propose a hypothesis that the beginning of the new concept of Bachelard’simage was inspired by studies of contemporary science, especially quantummechanics. The Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle was the core of quantummechanics, and opens new perspectives on the material world. We couldsummarize the message of the uncertainty principle : the material world is madeup of various layers, and the material can not be measured by the location andmovement at the same time. So we must have a new point of view of anotherdimension to know this material world. Bachelard had accepted this view ofHeisenberg and developed his own theory of epistemological rupture. What is revolutionary in the theory of Bachelard’s image is the fact that helooked at the images with the new perspective. The human psyche is anotherworld compared to the rational world that dominates our daily lives. Bachelardinsists that the image can not be explained by the concept. The fantasy worldis a totally different world to that of rationality. That is why it can not beexplained by the language of rationality as the concept. The imaginary world exists independently of the real world, but it issuperimposed on the real world. These two worlds are influencing each other,and it is between these two world where our daily lives continues. Thedeclaration of Bachelard ‘image is a specific reality’ is never a metaphor orrhetorical expression. This is an ontological expression that must truthfully. Theimaginary world is a world built on the image and it works according to its own114 비교문화연구 제34집 (2014. 3.)law. It is not a representation or copy of the real world. But the world ofimagination are not alone. It exists in the same time and space with the worldof science. It is superimposed with the world of science. Both two worldinfluence each other. Bachelard has made a revolutionary change by studying the images. He gavethem their own place. It has changed the views on the images that were treatedas mere representations of reality. Thanks to him, the image can have its ownvalue, that of a factor that creates reality. Bachelard shows how we can go deepinto the source of being and the universe if we look at the pictures with theeyes of other dimensions.
  • 5.

    War in Leo Tolstoy’s Literature and War and Peace

    kimsungil | 2014, 34() | pp.115~146 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Cyclical stories on Caucasus and Sebastopol Sketches, including War andPeace, have generally been said as masterpieces dealing with the theme of warin Leo Tolstoy’s literature. Among them, it is no doubt that War and Peace isabsolutely the best one describing the grand panorama of people’s lives and waritself. The plot of this novel consists of the so-called Napoleonic War of 1812and of diverse lives both from the upper class and lower class, more essentiallyit dramatically presents how these pictures made all literary participantsexperienced their destiny and lives. Throughout these texts, war, including ofits cause and effects and participants, re-considers and re-evaluates all of eachfeatures. The most important themes in War and Peace is war itself as the novel’s titlesays. Rather than a just backdrop to the novel, the war plays a significant rolein providing the reader with various realistic, philosophic, moral andexistentialist perspectives. Moreover, War and Peace for the writer showscontradictory two views about war; he severally criticizes the Napoleonic warof 1812 in the sense that it violets people’s reason and nature. At the same time,however, Tolstoy considers that the war as liberation is justified and necessaryfor guarding people’s nation, otechestvo in Russian. What the writer attempts to show from this novel, however, goes beyond thesimple descriptions which were done above. Leo Tolstoy successfully offers andwhat he tries to show in the long run is that how people go through all kindsof sufferings and hardship and their spiritual resurrection, thereby leading to thevital force making history. For the writer, the essential force that makes historyand people’s lives is not heroic military leader like Napoleon, but those commonpeople. And the novel serves a wonderful prelude expecting the Decembristrevolt in 1825, because all of the vital and active streams that Tolstoyemphasizes turn out true in Russian history.
  • 6.

    The Study of the Genocide in Guatemala

    Yongseok Noh | 2014, 34() | pp.147~172 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Guatemalan government and guerrilla forces(the Unidad RevolucionariaNacional Guatemalteco, URNG) signed peace accord in 1996, and ended civilconflict(1960-1996). The bloodiest governments of the 36-year-lond armedconflict were those of Lucas García, Ríos Montt and Mejía Víctores, between1978 and 1983. The war that Guatemala underwent resulted in more than200,000 casualties, more than 83% of them Mayan, according to the report ofthe CEH(Comision para de Esclarecimiento Historico). ‘Victoria 82’ and‘Opreation Sofía’ were the strategy of military dictatorship to destory indigenousMayan communities. This paper is to demonstrates that the Guatemalan stateperpetrated a genocide against the indigenous population using racism tostrengthening modern nation-state and this was because, historically andstructurally, it possessed, in its intrinsic naturem the repressive, ideological andlegal apparatus. To distinguish Maya from ladino is often linked to cultural andsocial discrimination and a system of racial ranking. Militaty dictatorship usedthe system of racial ranking to exterminate indigenous populations.
  • 7.

    A new viewpoint to regulate foundation myth as Akijangsu legend narrative’s antistructure

    DO KYUNG KWON | 2014, 34() | pp.173~199 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study was attempted to suggest a new viewpoint to regulate foundationmyth as Akijangsu legend narrative’s antistructure. The problem is thatAkijangsu legend has been regulated as reversed narrative of foundation mythin precedent research history. Following this viewpoint, it is impossible toexplain context that Gangchaeyoon’s Akijangsu narrative is collected in Sejong’ssovereign myth. But Gangchaeyoon is changed as helper to found ideology orderand his Akijangsu narrative is collected in sovereign myth’s context. Thereforein this point it is necessary to sound out foundation possibility of new thesisthe found myth is reversed narrative of Akijangsu legend. Choosing thisstandpoint, it is possible to regulate Sejong’s sovereign myth as narrativedramatization of successful Akijangsu legend. At the same time it is possibleto regulate Cheongkijun as Akijangsu that was situated in Sejong’s sovereignmyth as antagonist, competing and failing with Sejong to replace existing orderby own ideological order. This study investigated that found myth is reversednarrative of Akijangsu legend.
  • 8.

    The influence of Hollywood Movies and Marsé's novels - Based on Caligrafía de los sueños (2011)

    김광희 | 2014, 34() | pp.201~236 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Juan Marsé was born in 1933 in Barcelona. Being the son of a City cleaner,he was able to watch, from a very early age, all the films he desired, as manytimes as he wished. This privilege meant a great help in future years, whenhaving to develop the plots and characters of his works. In his last (latest) novel, Caligrafía de los sueños, published in 2011, as hehas done in his previous works he uses a cinematographic frame again. Theexplicit references to Hollywood's Golden Age -such as John Ford's Stagecoachand Cecil B. DeMiller's The Plainsman- bring very specific and vivid imagesto the reader's mind, leading to clear physical and psychological associations. The aim is achieved: the reader's attention is caught immediately. However,characters, plot and cinematographic structures are actually distracting mirages. They make the reader expect a predictable ending which, in fact, will be verydifferent. Therefore, the surprised reader must step back, in order to approachthe main topics of the novel from a certain distance. Doing so, he's followingthe Theory of the Distancing Effect. He becomes aware of the need of a newperspective on social problems that he had considered as familiar justo a fewmoments before. Thus, he is getting prepared for a more objective interpretation,such as the futility of war and the ideological differences that led to the(Spanich) Civil War and all its devastationg effects.
  • 9.

    Acceptance and development of Chinese realism - Focusing on the realism of France Russia

    Kim Kyung Seog | 2014, 34() | pp.237~257 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Paragraph of the early 20th century, China has begun to blow hot air creativerealism . Chinese intellectuals at the time of national crisis, China is facing anational transformed into a modern nation must be performed in order tochallenge literary realism to recognize the most suitable literary thoughts. Butrealism is screwed literary thoughts introduced from the West . Shen Yan Bingin 1922 revolves around a discussion of realism and naturalism in France startedto spread all over Europe for historical realism and creative learning originatesfrom the well came from the intended operating suggesting. In addition, writersof Wenxueyanjiuhui is influenced by the Russian realism directly. In this paper,the realism of the French and Russian for the study and development of Chineseaccept.
  • 10.

    From René Char to Yi Yuk-Sa : Po-ethica of the Resistance

    Chan-Kyu Lee | 2014, 34() | pp.259~284 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    René Char and Yi Yuk-Sa have similarities to be accepted as representativepoet of resistance in France and South Korea's history of literature. Thesesimilarities lead us to make a comparative study on two poets not having anypositive influencing relationship. Their experiences as a independence fighterhave a great effect on their whole works. This study applies concept of"Po-ethica" to compare features and values about their works. This concept anticipates ethical and existential throwbacks not an aestheticthrowback. Their poems are remarkable that they not only present a ethicalperspectives surpassing the "lettrism" but also show the lyricism in poems ofresistance surpassing patriotic and ideological appeal. This lyricism results fromthe pursuits of a true life not a confidence of the goodness. The similarities and differences in their works can be a clue for rediscoveringthe meaning and values of poems of resistance. Rilke said, "The Poem is theexperience". Char's poems are more experiential than any other poet's poems. His poems of resistance show a personal life than deconstruction of discoursesuch as nationality and father·land. On the other hand, Yuk-Sa's poems showa prospect of nature and the macrocosm. This naturalization of a resistancesurpass a pastoral attitude of forgetting their phases of the times and reality. Therefore, their " "Po-ethica"" of resistance is valid today.
  • 11.

    La época de la independencia de América latina y los roles de las mujeres

    LEE Seonghun | 2014, 34() | pp.285~306 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    La historia sobre la época de la independencia y la formación de las nacioneslatinoamericanas enfatiza sobre todo los roles de los hombres y esporádicamentede las mujeres. Se han considerado directrices las acciones de algunos criollosde esa epoca como Simón Bolivar y San Martín. La historiografíamasculina-céntrica está ignorando y marginando las luchas y los sacrificios delas mujeres que participaron en la independencia y la formación de las naciones. Por tanto, es preciso realizar una crítica a los procesos que han mantenido latendencia machista, uno de ellos es porque no se han desatendido concepcionesy cosmovisiones sobre el género. En fin, esta tendencia es porque no se hasuperado la herencia colonial de manera crítica. En este contexto, este artículo intenta investigar los cambios sobre los puntosde vista y la manera de ver a las mujeres y sus actividades durante la épocade la independencia. Puesto que las mujeres han sido consideradas como objetosque ocupan un espacio secundario en comparación a los roles de los criollos. Este estudio pretende configurar nuevos puntos de vista para reestructurarnuestro enfoque tradicional sobre la independencia y las formaciones de lasnaciones latinoamericanas para poner en evidencia los roles de las mujeres enla historia.
  • 12.

    A Study of Chinese Linguistic Taboo

    Han, Yong Su | 2014, 34() | pp.307~330 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    To avoid calamities, the Chinese use different euphemisms in various fieldsof occupation and region. There are a lot of linguistic taboos concerned withXieyin that shows the special characteristic of chinese characters. If two charactersare homophones and one of them is considered offensive or misfortune, the Chineseprefer to substitute another expression for them in the actual conversations. Thesesubstitutes are called euphemisms. As an combined expression of psychologicalinsecurity and language, euphemisms were not only used in the past, but alsonow they are still in common use. Although some of the chinese euphemisms are not used anymore nowadays,some of them are still used. There are a large number of chinese euphemismsin common use, but some special ones are used in particular fields only. Thisarticle focused on the linguistic taboos in some special fields like differentregions, occupations and some others related with calamities, and tried to makea distinction from other previous studies. Language reflects culture and euphemism is a mirror of culture. The studyof chinese linguistic taboos and euphemisms is expected to be some help tounderstand the chinese customs and linguistic features.