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2014, Vol.35, No.

  • 1.

    The Posthumanist Ethico-politicality in Silko's Storytelling of the Animal-Other

    Jin Man Jeong | 2014, 35() | pp.7~34 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay explores how Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony and Storyteller encourage human's sympathetic relationship with the nonhuman animal-Other, paying attention to her posthumanist voices against anthropocentric mistreatment of animals which is inseparable from white Americans' environmental and racio-ethnic subjugation of nature and Natives in the colonialist history of the United States. As a way of dissolving the problematic anthropocentrism and embracing the animal-Other as a fellow creature, Silko employs and transforms Native American oral tradition in her own idiosyncratic posthumanist storytelling. In order to highlight the ethico-political examination of the animal issue in her storytelling, this essay refers to contemporary posthumanist thinkers such as Jacques Derrida, Giorgio Agamben, and Gilles Deleuze who are all in their own ways critically engaged with Western metaphysical anthropocentrism. Arguably, in a similar vein with the posthumanist critics, Silko disrupts the mischievous hierarchical opposition of humans/animals that have directly or obliquely warranted violence against the animal-Other. In order to demonstrate Silko's ethico-politicality concerning the animal issue, this essay inquires her critical perception of humans' misunderstanding (or misbehavior) toward animals in terms of the suffering and death of animals. Besides, Silko's posthumanist storytelling of the animal's gaze (as Derrida notes as an event of revealing human aporia and vulnerability) and “in-between” (as a reification of crossing the boundary of humans/animals) is discussed with the exemplification of Tayo's encounter with a mountain lion and a bear-man Shush. The posthumanist approach to thinking about the animal-Other in Ceremony and Storyteller would shed light on the ethico-political significances of Silko's storytelling in our time in peril of losing the tie between humans and nonhuman animals.
  • 2.

    Cultural Politics of Transgredience and Transition : “people-image” in Bakhtinian Thought

    Choi Jin Seok | 2014, 35() | pp.35~58 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Cultural Politics of Transgredience and Transition: “people-image” in Bakhtinian ThoughtCHOI, Jin SeokThis article aims to explain the ‘people-image’ of Bakhtin’s works in the lightof “Transgredience” and “Transition.” According to Bakhtin, the real core ofevery culture is the people. But he did try to answer the question “what is thepeople?” I think, the secret of Bakhtinian thought is located in the people-image,because it is the one of the territories that have not been explained. For thispurpose, we have to examine four images represented by Bakhtin, - rogue,clown, fool, thief. These images are the concrete and individualized images ofpeople, who can characterize the power of transgredience and transition. Theycommonly act for changing ordinary borders of identities formulated withnationality, property, status, classes, sex and so forth. In this sense, Bakhtinthinks that the masks are the real nature which can show the mutational powerof Being. That is the kernel of Bakhtin’s people-image that makes and changesevery cultural world. When we accept and practise this perspective positively,we will realize that Bakhtin’s position is close to the cultural politics, becausea practical power of thought cannot help but being political. That’s why we haveto investigate Bakhtin’s people-image from a vantage point of “Transgredience”and “Transition.”
  • 3.

    An aspect of ‘Family’ demonstrated in Chinese New Period women's novels - Focusing on 『The Bathing Woman』 -

    Choi Eun Jeong | 2014, 35() | pp.59~78 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    An aspect of ‘Family’ demonstrated in Chinese New Periodwomen's novels- Focusing on 『The Bathing Woman』 -Choi, Eun JeongThis article is written on the ground that one of the major characteristics ofChinese New Period women's novels is about family dissolution and calling andit is examined based on analysis of 『The Bathing Woman』 by Tie Ning. In 『TheBathing Woman』, the family seems ‘Regular’ externally but it is actuallyfragmented internally. The author offers patriarchal perspective on 'Family' fromthe eyes of daughter of the family. The problems are classified into threecategories. First, it is the problem of exclusiveness embedded in the essentialcharacteristic of family represented by blood relation. Second, it is the researchon the reason for family dissolution. Tie Ning finds the reason at 'Unmotherlymother, that is the lack of maternal instinct. Third, it is the expectation of therestoration of dissolved family. Tie Ning's indication of ‘Family’ is equal to'Mother' and 'Mother' is the source and power that can heal and restore thedissolved family in her novel. It is expansion of maternal instinct representedby protection and caring into 'Practical action' and it is meaningful in a waythat it expands the principle of maternal instinct and sublimates it into universalmorality. However, it should not be overlooked that it could be another moralsystem that could suppress the females in other ways.
  • 4.

    Appearance of Homo Economicus and Morals of Youth in Early Modern of Korea with reference to A Large River[Dae-Ha]

    Kim, Jong Soo | 2014, 35() | pp.79~95 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Appearance of Homo Economicus and Morals of Youthin Early Modern of Korea with reference toA Large River[Dae-Ha]Kim, JongsooThis article aims at rethinking on people of Modern styles in early modernperiod with reference to A Large River[Dae-Ha] written by Kim Nam-cheon at1939. Park Sung-guoen could be called to Homo Economicus, first, havemaximized of self-interest in rapid changes of Korea society with loan sharking,rising to upper class in new early modern era instead of traditional nobleman. Park Hyung-geol could be said romantic guy, second, have chased romatic loveconsist of three elements(love-sex-marriage). But he troubled his love affairs tohis family members frustrated his will because of a bastard son. It is the model of situations, Kim Nan-cheon intended to describe, that HomoEconomicus became an object of envy among people in early modern societyas well as the choice has been hard in conflicting between family and lover,concretizing anachronism through history of family.
  • 5.

    Chinese-American Representation in Howard Fast’s The Immigrants

    이수미 | 2014, 35() | pp.97~122 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese-American Representationin Howard Fast’s The ImmigrantsLee, Su MeeSince the arrival of Chinese immigrants in the 1850s, many Euro-Americanwriters tended to project their fears, contempt, desires and fantasy onto the Otherrace and perceived Chinese Americans in stereotypes―dangerous villains,unassimilated aliens, quiet and passive servants, sexually submissive women, orseductive prostitutes. However in the 1970s and the 1980s Euro-American novelsexpressed varying attitudes towards Chinese Americans. Many earlier Euro-American writers began portraying positive characterizations of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways one of the Euro-Americanwriters, Howard Fast characterized Chinese Americans in The Immigrants. Partof the novel concerns a Chinese American family. Fast gave a favorable portrayalof Chinese Americans. Unlike many Euro-American novelists who dealt only withChinese American villains and prostitutes and view Chinese Americans as thelowest class of American society, Fast, on the other hand, portrayed ChineseAmericans as law-abiding and useful citizens. Thus, I will discuss how HowardFast subverted the familiar negative characterization of Chinese Americans andplaced Chinese American experiences in the context of American immigrationhistory. Many white Americans tended to notice only the lurid and sensational aspectsin the Chinese American community. They seldom regarded Chinese Americansas people with homes and families and seldom saw Chinese Americans as individuals,as human beings with feelings, pain, and joy. To counter this racist view, Fastdescribed the family life of Chinese Americans and depicted Chinese Americansas individuals with a full range of human emotions and with strong family andcultural ties. Though Fast debunked some myths about Chinese Americans, healso reinforces other stereotypes or some stereotypical illusions about them. Inconclusion, I’ll demonstrate Fast’s work remains an incomplete representationof Chinese Americans.
  • 6.

    Myths for Kingship of the Ryukyu Kingdom in the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Jeong, Jin-hee | 2014, 35() | pp.123~154 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Myths for Kingship of the Ryukyu Kingdomin the 17th and 18th CenturiesJeong, JinheeIn the 17th and 18th centuries, when the Ryukyu kingdom had been invadedand controlled by Japan, some official texts about ‘history’ were documented. In that texts, there are some myths about the kings-Syunten(舜天), Eiso(英祖),Satto(察度), Syouhasi(尙巴志), Syouen(尙圓)-who founded dynasties of Ryukyukingdom. This study attempts to delineate the features and meaning of those foundermyths as a polotial discourse for kingship. The results of this study are asfollows. 1. The founder myths are discourses to describe the genealogy of the Ryukyukingdom as the result of Mandate of Heaven(T’ien Ming, 天命). 2. In ancient okinawa, the sun was a symbol of ruler. The king of Ryukyukingdom was thought as ‘son of the sun’, ‘Tedako(てだこ, 太陽子) in thetime of Syou dynasty(尙王朝). But in the founder myths, the only oneTedako is Eiso. 3. In the myths, the ‘historical’ founders are described as the king foragriculture. They were said to make the farming instruments with iron andrule the spring water for farming. The iron and water for fariming wasthought to represent the power of king and the kingship. 4. The writers of myths aimed to be separated from the mythical kingshipof past Ryukyu(古琉球). So, they threw the idea of Tedako(=mythicalkingship) into the prison of mythical ages by rewriting myth of King Eiso. Instead of it, they built up the new image of agriculture-king who rulesand controlls the iron and water for good farming. The meaing of thischange, from ‘shiny sun’ to ‘cultural king’, is that the abstract and generalpower of kingship was turned into a concrete and restricted power ofkingship. On the bases of it, there was the confucian political ideas from154 비교문화연구 제35집 (2014. 6.)China, T’ien Ming thought(天命論). Under the influence of not only China but also Japan, the writers of mythsattempt to find a new way for their kingdom by reconstructing kingship withruminating over the kingship of past. The myth of founders in the 17th and 18thCenturies shows the aspects of kingship of Ryukyu kingdom and tells us thatthose myths are the political discourses identifying kingship and Ryukyukingdom.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Buddhist Worldview and Aesthetics of Secular Humor in Jo Oh-Hyeon’s Literature: With a Focus on For Vupasama(Extinction)

    Lee, Chan | 2014, 35() | pp.155~184 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    A Study on the Buddhist Worldview and Aesthetics of SecularHumor in Jo Oh-Hyeon’s Literature:With a Focus on For Vupasama(Extinction)Lee, ChanThe present study aims at exploring in detail the Buddhist worldview andaesthetics of humor in Jo O-hyeon’s literary works. This includes the same contextas an elucidation of the ways in which his poems closely correspond in expressiveforms and thematic contents. It is because, in Jo’s literary world, where shortpoems and prose poems form a contrast, the expressive forms and thematic contentssharply differ depending on the ways in which prajnapti (provisional designation)is either foregrounded or backgrounded. In his literary world, when such a viewof language and a worldview based on prajnapti are foregrounded, works thateither inherit or play a variation on the fixed structure of the sijo emerge; andwhen they recede to the rear and are backgrounded, verses in the form of theprose poem are formulated. In addition, in Jo’s literary works, where such aworldview of prajnapti and an aesthetics of secular humor intersect together, thethoughts on bheda-abheda(difference-non-difference) and the madhyama-pratipad(middle way) are formed. Such thoughts have considerable significance becausethey not only harbor a possibility of deconstructing and overcoming the oppositionof the sacred/profane but also present a vision of a new unity.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Forms and Character of Huhdai Mergen in Mongolian Mythology through the archery

    LEE,AN NA | 2014, 35() | pp.185~214 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    A Study on the Forms and Character of Huhdai Mergen inMongolian Mythology through the archeryLee An-naThis paper presents an investigation into the forms of master archer HuhdaiMergen from Mongolian mythology and his character through archery. InMongolian mythology, master archer Huhdai Mergen is usually connected to theregulation of the sun, the moon, and the stars in Heaven and the creation ofstars. Such a series of acts are conducted through archery, which used to beperformed as an incantatory ritual to resolve a disaster in life, dispel an evilspirit, and pray for affluence as well as for hunting. In Mongolian mythology, Huhdai Mergen is a master archer and hunter thatrises to Heaven while hunting a deer and becomes Sirius with the deer becomingOrion. The Mongolian have believed that the two constellations protect themsince ancient times. While Orion is related to the deer totem, Huhdai Mergenor Sirius is related to the wolf totem faith. Huhdai Mergen takes too much pride in his archery skills and ends up causingdamage to himself, which can be understood as a pattern of controlling the powerof personified Huhdai Mergen through excessive natural force. He also hassomething to do with Polaris, which is regarded as the stake to bind his horseto by the Mongolian. They also believe that their ancestral gods reside in thehorse stake or column. The stake is the residence of Huhdai Mergen protectingthe Mongolian people, which reflects his aspect as an ancestral god. He is also depicted as the god of thunder and lightning born in a cow. Thestones he throws and the arrows he shoots in Heaven are the embodiments ofthunder and lightning. The Mongolian have understood lightning of dispellingan evil spirit and striking wicked things as the arrow of Huhdai Mergen. Thegod of thunder and lightning has the attributes of a fertility god such aseliminating bad devils and bringing affluence. Huhdai Mergen is also manifestedas the creator to create the earth and the savior to save mankind. Such formsall derive from his archery skills.
  • 9.

    The Comparative Study of The View about the Craftsmanship of Korean and Japanese

    정수현 | 2014, 35() | pp.215~235 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The Comparative Study of The View about the Craftsmanshipof Korean and JapaneseJeong, Su HyunThe purpose of this paper look at the basis of the cultural differences ofKorean and Japan by comparing the craftsmanship. Korean craftsmanship and master craftsman making traditional handcrafts andartwork would die out at a critical moment. The craftsmanship and system couldnot be established because of discrimination in the traditional four classes ofsociety( scholars, farmers, artisans and tradesmen), invasions of other countriesand discontinuity of tradition from modernization. On the contrast, in Japan, itwas possible to establish traditional handcrafts and artworks, technique andcraftsmanship with apprentice system and various social privilege and treatmenteven in the same traditional four classes of society ( scholars, farmers, artisansand tradesmen). It was common to pass down the family business for a hundredsof years with self respect between Japanese master craftsmen and lots of peoplesucceed the family business will now. Japanese craftsmanship is originated from 'worship to god' Medieval Japanesebelieved that the thing changes human mind, artistic talent, masterpieces andfaith were connected to sacred power. Therefore, master craftsmen and theirworks were also made by the power of god. In this context, craftsmen wereprotected and treated in socially and nationally. It is that the social treatments and supports in national level and their ownpride and continuous training of techniques and abilities as the main drivingforce to maintain the craftsmanship in Japan. Korea has the sale level ofcompetitive tradition and technique in comparison any other countries. Japanesecraftsmanship study will be a critical data in the protection and maintenance ofKorean traditional and technique
  • 10.

    On the Development of Swear Words

    Yoon Jae-Hak | 2014, 35() | pp.237~268 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    On the Development of Swear WordsYoon, Jae-HakExamining swear words found in Korean and English, we aim to answer thefollowing two questions: (i) ‘What words develop into swear words?’ and (ii)‘Why they do?’The utility of a swear word is frequently recognized as intimidation directedtowards an opponent, emotional catharsis, and solidarity building amongin-group members (Jay 1992, 2000, Kim 1997). We seek to go beyond thissimple enumeration of possible functions of swearing and suggest an underlyingmechanism at work to explain how these functions are achieved and why onlycertain types of words are employed in this pursuit. A close examination reveals that a swear word must contain either taboo orsadism as an essential component. Sexual pleasure adds another dimension tothe basic components. Thus, if an expression contains a subset of the componentset {taboo, sadism, sex} in its semantics, it becomes available for swearing (oneof the underlined components must be included in the set). For example, manyreligiously sacred expressions and words for excretion are common swear wordsas they violate social and religious taboo. On the other hand, words referringto social minorities are a convenient target for sadism. Furthermore, wordsdescribing sexual activity contain all three components, violating social taboo,evoking sadism, and giving the initiator guilty sexual pleasure. A combination of the components can produce an emotional effect calledcatharsis for the initiator. When directed towards others, these components,especially taboo and sadism, can be exploited as a verbal attack, an intimidation,preceding or replacing a physical attack. However, solidarity building is analyzedas a secondary function of swearing, achieved by sharing a sense of accomplicewhen in-group members behave badly together, such as violating social tabooand committing sadism.
  • 11.

    The Study of Ancient Chinese and arrange SHI-JI document

    SEOWEONAM | 2014, 35() | pp.269~291 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Study of Ancient Chinese and arrange SHI-JI documentSEO Weon NamChina has countless ancient books that contain thousand years of continuouslyrecorded history across every generation. It is essential to organize the ancientcultural literature in order to better communicate. The study of ancient Chineseliterature recently has become a subject of priority. Shi-Ji, one of therepresentative documents, is used for record keeping because of its experiencewith ancient Chinese historic materials and artifacts. This draft of Shi-ji is basedon ancient Chinese research methods with the purpose to explore the character,phonology, syntax, exegesis and collation of historical value.
  • 12.

    Phonological Contrast between Korean and Thai in Terms of Language Universality

    Kim,Seon-Jung , 껀나파분마럿 | 2014, 35() | pp.293~314 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Phonological Contrast between Korean and Thai in Terms ofLanguage UniversalityKim, Seon-JungThis paper aims to contrast phonology of Korean and Thai in terms oflanguage universality. Considering consonants, both languages having 21typologically most plausible consonants display high universality in the numberof consonants. However, Thai shows higher universality in regards to theirsubstance, i.e. it differs from Korean when it comes to the structure of plosivesand fricatives. Both Korean and Thai show similarities regarding the plosivesdue to the fact that both languages possess three contrastive consonants. However, the Thai plosives consist of plain voiced, plain voiceless and aspiratedvoiceless sounds that have higher universality than the Korean plosives whichare plain voiced, plain voiceless and aspirated voiceless. In case of vowels, both Korean with its 10 vowels and Thai with its 9 vowelsshow lower universality when it comes to the total number of vowels. However,all of those vowels belong to the list of most plausible vowels which makes theiruniversality higher in substance. In respect of syllable structure, Korean with its CVC type shows a moderatelycomplex structure while Thai with its CCVC type has a complex structure. Thecoda may consist of only one consonant in each language but onset is composedof one consonant in Korean, and two consonants in Thai. The contrastive study of similarities and differences between Korean and Thaiin terms of phonology will help not only understand the two languages but alsoprovide useful information for increasing the efficacy of Korean languageeducation for Thai learners of Korean whose number is rapidly increasing.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Operation Condition and Improvement for Japanese Language Continuing Education - Focused on Social Welfare Centers Located in Seoul -

    Hwalran Kim | 2014, 35() | pp.315~338 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    A Study on the Operation Condition and Improvement forJapanese Language Continuing Education- Focused on Social Welfare Centers Located in Seoul -Kim, Hwal RanThe purpose of this study is to propose actual operation condition of Japaneselecture based on social welfare organizations located in Seoul to investigate thecurrent status and problems of Japanese language education in terms of lifelongeducation. According to the result of this study, the remarkable point was that a majorityof Japanese lecture courses are highly focused on the elderly and 86% of thewelfare organizations are providing free education. Regarding the effect of specialized business for the aged run by social welfarecommunity center, it says, as Korea changing to aging society at the beginningof 21st century, it has put focus on strengthening personal competences ofseniors through opportunities for participation in lifelong education, recreationalactivity programs and culture classes. It means foreign language classes areoperating as one of the lifelong education programs for reinforcement ofindividual capability. Considering this tendency, it is expected that the lifelongeducation participation rate of the elder in Seoul will be raised. So, systematicimprovements will be needed for this. First, it is required to recognize the existence of Educational and CulturalIndustry and work hard to make it public so it could be invigorated and utilizedby people usefully at the same time. Second, Japanese language training that mostly 55-year-old or more than60-year-old people receive at the welfare center needs to be systematized forpreparations on proper studying environment which provides the older withappropriate education method and content as well. Third, stable and systematic operation should be available through the linkwith experts in the field of Japanese language education and elderly education. 338 비교문화연구 제35집 (2014. 6.)Fourth, education program development is needed, which is able to satisfyone's desires for learning. Hence, targeting Japanese learners at each welfarecenter, we need to know the estimation of satisfaction degree and consciousnesson learning Japanese. Finally, it has not been studied sufficiently regarding the instructors onteaching Japanese language in this paper, but it has been reported that most ofsocial welfare centers, where Japanese language lectures are provided, are runby volunteers who can teach Japanese. Thus, the study on actual condition forJapanese language instructors will be conducted as well later on.
  • 14.

    A Study of the Speaking-Centered Chinese Pronunciation Teaching Method for Basic Chinese Learners.

    임승규 | 2014, 35() | pp.339~368 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A Study of the Speaking-Centered Chinese PronunciationTeaching Method for Basic Chinese Learners. Lim, Seung KyuIn Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, phoneme-based pronunciationteaching such as tone, consonants, vowels is the most common teaching methods. Based on main character of Chinese grammar: ‘lack of morphological change'in a narrow sense, was proposed by Lv Shuxiang and Zhu Dexi, I designed'Communicative oriented Chinese pronunciation teaching method’. This teaching method is composed of seven elements: one kind is the‘structural elements’: phoneme, word, phrase, sentence; another kind is the‘functional elements’: listening, speaking and translation. This pronunciationteaching method has four kinds of practice methods: 1) phoneme learningmethod; 2) word based pronunciation practice; 3) phrase based pronunciationpractice; 4) sentence based pronunciation practice. When the teachers use thesepractice methods, they can use the dialogue and Korean-Chinese translation. Inparticular, when the teachers use ‘phoneme learning method’, they must useKorean and Chinese phonetic comparison results. When the teachers try tocorrect learner's errors, they must first consider the speech communication.