This study attempts to give a review of social media users’ choice of a particularname for the sake of signaling identity cues and interaction with the others.
The social media names could be classified into different categories such astraditional/cultural anthroponyms, nicknames and fictitious IDs etc. Out of thesecategories, it is the phenomenon of choice and construction of fictitious socialmedia IDs by Pakistani social media users which has been reviewed and scrutinizedin this particular article. This study examined fictitious IDs of Pakistani socialmedia users from Critical Discourse Analysis and System Functional Linguisticsperspectives and demonstrates how nationalistic, ethnic and religious identitiesare negotiated, constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed by the social mediausers through a particular ID choice.
William Wordsworth's "The Thorn" revolves around the following questions: Whois Martha? Why does she go to the mountain top and repeat her doleful cry?To these questions, it gives us two different kinds of answers; one derives fromthe villagers, and the other from the narrator. This essay attempts to examinehow the answers exemplify two different critical approaches to the problem ofcommunity, using Jacques Lacan's account of sexual difference in his seminaron Encore as a guiding thread of analysis. The important thing to retain hereis that sexual difference in Lacan's seminar on Encore does not so much indicatebiological determinations as two distinct forms of relating to the other whichare intimately bound up with the question of how a community is constructedand maintained. The first form, called "masculine," suggests that it is a radicalexception to a community that makes possible the community as a field of totalityor sameness; the second form, called "feminine," shows that each of the subjectscannot be regarded as a member of a closed community which is guaranteedby the exceptionality, but as an exception that is radically singular. This in turnleads us to consider the possibility that the masculine form has to do with thevillagers' effort to distinguish themselves from Martha and the feminine formwith the way in which the narrator confronts and represents her. In the courseof his formulation of sexuation graph, Lacan stresses that the masculine side mustbe supplemented by the feminine side, which allows us to elaborate on why, concerning Martha, the narrator does not just keep the completely different positionfrom the villagers'. This is to say that the villagers' representation of Martha asan exception to the community should be supplemented by the narrator's attemptto tell Martha's story as the villagers do and at the same time to capture somethingof her enigmatic unrepresentability. Bearing in mind Charles Shepherdson'selaboration of traumatic memory, this essay also tries to clarify how the narratorpreserves and even transmits something of Martha's truth that is embodied inher uncontrollable and unassimilable cry.
At the turn of the century in which European colonialism was reaching its zenithand modernization was gathering speed, public museums were institutionalized. This paper looks into the part these European modern museums played interritorializing academic disciplines like anthropology and art history. The museumsto deal with are the British Museum and the National Gallery in London, Muséedu Louvre in Paris, and Museumsinsel in Berlin. Rather than in-depth detailedanalysis of each museum, the aim is to explore the ways in which these museologicalinstitutions interacting with modern disciplines in the wider colonial contextobjectified other cultures and formulated a framework of the world throughclassification and comparison of material things, on the basis of the judgementof their artistic values. This exploration is also to rethink theoretical positionsand perspectives on the museum in Korea. It is remarkable in Europe that suchacademic fields as history, art history, anthropology and cultural studies look fornew possibilities of museology in conjunction with the recent proliferation ofstudies on the museum as a medium to construct and deconstruct knowledge. Meanwhile, the mammoth European museums which are often considered astronghold of museology advocate the ‘universal museum’ themselves, quite themodern idea but in a revised rendering. Under these circumstances, this paperseeks to shed light on the definition of the museum as an arena in which scholarlydiscourses about art, culture and history can be created and contested, on theeffectiveness of the museum as a communication medium in a postcolonial era,and on the need to pay trans-disciplinary attention to the museum in its broadestsense.
During the Edo-period [江戶時代 1603-1867], Japan accepted the modern westernscience and culture while trading with Holland since 1609, and also through theinflux of optical instruments in the 18th century the culture of viewing picturesbegan to be developed. Especially, the peep-boxes and their pictures had beenimported from China and Holland since the mid 1750s when they were flourished.
The peep-box was rapidly and widely spread. Soon after, the peep-boxes andpictures had begun to be produced in Japan (megane [眼鏡] and megane-e [眼鏡繪])since 1770s when the early visual culture settled down in Kyoto and Tokyo etc.
The visual culture developed with the peep-box contains two remarkable factorsin the cultural history of the 18th century Japan. First, the peep-boxes becamethe popular device of visual entertainment, and opened the first phase of themodern visual culture before the advent of photography and cinema in the midand end of the 19th century. Secondly, the peep-box played a role of an educativemedia as a ‘window to the unknown world’ in the 18th century Japan, by showingvarious pictures of many European cities. Through the peep-box pictures the ‘westernimages’ were spread and knowledges of Japanese about the west increased, although they were recognized just as ‘Holland’s images’ without differentiation in eachcountry.
The purpose of this essay is three-fold: to trace the genealogy of the Koreanmusical, which ever since its inception in the 1960s has been seeking to modernizeKorean theater with Broadway as a constant role model; to investigate how thenational and the global conflict and are conflated in the form of the Korean musicalin the process of its (dis)identification with Broadway; and to examine how itsintercultural translations reveal and reflect the dilemma and ambivalence posedby globalization in our era. Drawing on Richard Dyer's signature articleEntertainment and Utopia, I analyze how the Korean musical manifests and conduitscompeting utopian impulses of Korean/Global audiences. I also attempt toproblematize the formulaic notion of Broadway musicalsthe Superior Other!whichimplies a global hegemony that does not, in fact, exist because the boundarybetween the global and the local as well as the power dynamics of global cultureare not fixed but constantly moving and changing.
Today's musical scene in Korea shows interesting reversals from the 1990s, whenKorean producers were eager to debut on Broadway and impress Americanaudiences. Korean producers no longer look up to Broadway as a final destination;instead they want to make Seoul a new Broadway. They import Broadway musicalsand turn them into Korean shows. The glamor of Broadway is no longer the main attraction of musicals in Korea. What young audiences look for most isthe glamor of K-pop idols and utopian feelings of abundance, energy, intensity,transparency and community, which they can experience live in the musical withtheir favorite stars right in front of their eyes.
In conclusion, I delve into the complex dynamics of recent Korean musicals withThomas Friedman's theory of Globalization 3.0 as reference. The binary formulaof Global/America versus Local/Korea cannot be applied to the dynamic andintercultural musical scene of today. Globalization is not a uniform phenomenonbut rather a twofold (multifold) process of global domination and dissemination,in which the global and the local conflict and are conflated constantly. As thisstudy tries to illuminate, the Korean musical has evolved in a huge net ofinterdependences between the global and the local with a range of sources, powersand influences.
This paper examines language policies of Ghana and Tanzania (former BritishColonies) since independence. The view that language use in education is a problemfor African countries is evident in the ever changing language in education policiesin many African countries. Because of the inevitable multilingual situation inmany African countries, there are unavoidable challenges in their quest to adopta language policy that works for the entire country since it is not practical toadopt all the languages spoken in the country as Media of Instruction. Ghanais not immune to this challenge and has fallen victim to this tendency to changethe language in education policy from time to time in an attempt to adopt a satisfactorypolicy which would yield the intended results. Tanzania, however, is one of thefew African countries that have found a sustainable language in education policysince independence. Nonetheless, it has its fair share of challenges as a consequenceof the perceived competition between Kiswahili and English as official languages.
The paper discusses the challenges that both Ghana and Tanzania face against the background of colonization. The paper also offers a discussion on possiblefuture perspectives for the two countries.
This paper reports on a qualitative examining the cross-cultural reasons for studentengagement and resistance to critical literacy in a three week summer TESOLMA course that was part of a Korean/American university faculty exchange program.
Of particular interest was the unique diversity of the class which consisted of13 subjects from 9 different nations. Using student and instructor reflective journals,field notes on classroom observations, and the course terminal paper on student’sphilosophies of education as research corpora, results of the study revealed thatstudents resisted instruction in critical literacy for ideological and epistemologicalreasons. Nonetheless, the data also showed that while all students resisted sometheories in critical literacy, all students nonetheless engaged the course contentin meaningful ways.
This is a cross-sectional study designed to analyze the correlation between thestructural and social variables and the pattern of contraction and deletion of thecopula verb in the speech of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) speakersin Athens in Georgia, USA using a questionnaire. The results show that the frequencyof copula contraction is higher than that of deletion in all factor groups includingthe age of the speakers where this study found that younger speakers tend tohave higher frequency of contraction and deletion of the copula than older speakers.
This study analyzes this as a function of the fact that younger speakers of AAVEare conscious of the linguistic and social differences between AAVE speakersand speakers of Standard American English (SAE) and they consciously make choices regarding which norm to use at which contexts to satisfy their communicativeand socio-cultural needs. This sort of conscious social behavior is not likely todisappear with age rather it might increase as a correlate of the perceived physical,socio-cultural and psychological distance between AAVE speakers and speakersof other varieties. This study shows that such perceived linguistic, socio-culturaland psychological distance has negative effects on pedagogy and I proffer theremedy.
The aim of this article is to review the traditional methodologies of teachingtranslation that concentrate on text-typologies and, as an alternative, to proposean eclectic multi-componential approach that involves a set of interdisciplinaryskills with a view to improving the trainee translators’ competences and skills.
To this end, three approaches, namely a minimalist approach, a pre-transferringadjustment approach and a revision vs. editing approach are proposed to shiftthe focus of attention from teacher-centred approaches towards student-centredapproaches. It has been shown that translator training programmes need to focuson improving the trainee translators’ competences and skills, such as trainingthem how to produce and select among the different versions they produce bythemselves with justified confidence as quickly as they can (minimalistapproach), adjust the original text semantically, syntactically and/or textually ina way that the source text supplely accommodates itself in the linguistic systemof the target language (pre-transferring adjustment), and revise and edit others’translations. As the validity of the approach proposed relies partially on instructors’competences and skills in teaching translation, universities, particularly in theArab world, need to invest in recruiting expert practitioners instead of dependingmainly on bilingual teachers to teach translation.
In this paper, we maintain that case makers ‘에e’ and ‘에게ege’, and ‘에서eseo’and ‘에게서egeseo’ are not two separate morphemes but are simply allomorphsof the same morphemes respectively. When ‘에e’ and ‘에게ege’ are used as adative marker, they show exactly the same semantic function and are incomplementary distribution in relation to the semantic features of their precedingnoun; that is, if the preceding noun is an animate noun, ‘에게ege’ is used and‘에e’ is used if not. Also, ‘에게서egeseo’ and ‘에서eseo’ as ablative and locativecase makers show exactly the same semantic function and show complementarydistribution depending on whether the preceding noun is animate or non-animate.
Therefore, we assume that these markers are semantically conditioned allomorphs.