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2014, Vol.37, No.

  • 1.

    The study on the diffusion of Catholicism in the New World: focused on the relationship between the king and the pope

    SeongHun LEE | 2014, 37() | pp.7~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The 'discovery' or 'conquest' of the New World in 1492 was the starting pointof world history that irrevocably changed the fate of the Latin American continent. The global stream known as 'Columbian Exchange', which was the widespreadinter-continental contacts, inter-civilizational conflicts, or bilateral communication,has rendered multifarious effects throughout many historical periods up to thevery contemporary time. The propagation of Catholicism initiated along with this'discovery' transformed Latin America of nowadays in the region that has thebiggest Catholic population in the world. The previous studies in Korea regarding Latin American Catholicism has focusedon the spread of Catholicism in relation to the European colonization, rather thananalyzing the concrete and detailed ways in which Catholicism exerted tremendousinfluences in the whole continent. They were less attentive to various historicalcontexts in which the diffusion of Catholicism differed greatly according to culturallandscapes and political specificities. Thus, this essay attempts to examine thediffusion of Catholicism from the perspective of confrontation between royalauthorities and the power of church. The essay points out that the royal communities and institutional authoritieswhich facilitated the intial process of Catholic evangelization maintainedantagonistic relationship with ecclesial powers. By delving into the gradualtransformation of church systems, it reveals that Catholicism in Latin Americabecame a major field for conquerors in power to attain economic and politicaldominance. And unlike the initial submission and hospitality, the religious convertof the indigenous people attested to the violent inhumanity and opposition. Therefore,the essay aims to pave a clearer way to the understanding of complicated dynamicsand conflicts between Catholicism in Latin America and the establishment ofSpanish colonization.
  • 2.

    A Study on Yingzi's Narration of Nostalgia for Peking – Based on Linhaiyin's Novel ChengnanJiushi and Wuyigong's Film of the Same Title

    Sujin Kim | 2014, 37() | pp.31~49 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Peking has peculiar features as capital city, and has gone through varioustransformations, with its name changed from Peking to Peiping to Peking. Evenwhen it did not serve as a capital city, it still played an unrivaled role in culturalaspects. Laoshe, a great writer of 'Peking flavour' literature, is famous for works fullof cultural charms of Peking. In his works, which show the manners, norms,art, culture and optimistic life style of Peking, Peking culture is described asan extension of cultural traditions of Qiren. In addition, his critical view of realityis also expressed in the works. Linhaiyin's literary works show ordinary hutongs she experienced in the 1920sin Chengnan, the southern part of Peking, and the quiet and simple life ofwarm-hearted people living there. Her vague memories of Peking, along withher nostalgia for the city, let her describe the city with recreated happy memoriesof it instead of the harsh critical view. Her works express the city in her recreatedmemory full of hope, with her dark memories of the city being glossed over. As seen above, Laoshe realistically described the tragic and difficult life oflow class people in hutongs of Peking as well as lower middle class people ofthe city. Meanwhile, in ChengnanJiushi, Linhaiyin expresses the daily routineand ordinary life of people in Peking from the perspective of middle class people. In addition, she showed the sympathetic view of middle class citizens towardstheir low-class neighbors. In Peking Menghualu, Wangdewei mentioned that the'castle of memory' which old Peking people in Taiwan tried to establish fills animportant gap for the continuity of Peking cultural history and cultural imagination. This indicates that the 'Peking castle of memories,' which Linhaiyin, a Taiwanesewriter well known for ‘Peking flavour,' has established plays a big role in fillingpart of such gap. ChengnanJiushi, Wuyigong's film based on Linhaiyin's novel of the same title,also describes the daily sceneries and culture of the southern Peking in the 1920s,which both Taiwanese and Chinese people miss, through sophisticated imageswith 'profound yearning tinted with calm sadness', accomplishing an artisticachievement different from that of the novel.
  • 3.

    Image of Eternity in N. Gogol’s «Rome»

    kimsungil | 2014, 37() | pp.51~79 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Seriously depressed by the failure in the first performance of his own drama«The Government Inspector», N. Gogol sought out a space, Italy, which is obviouslya turning point for the writer. Here in Italy, the writer could be able to explorean essential foundation for the national identity as well as self-identification ofRussian traditional culture, all of which have already been epitomized in theRenaissance period in Italy. The city Rome itself provided Gogol with its grandnessand harmonious perfectness, influencing something ‘spiritual being’ upon the writer. The work under discussion, “Rome,” is thus created through these literarycircumstances. Though it is made under the different title as “Annuntiata” andit delivers a love story between lovers, the story lines gradually turned into afiction about the city, Rome. In comparison with city Paris, Gogol himself presents a negative view of theFrench metropolitan, saying that it is nothing but a by-product of the 19th centurycivilization. Interestingly enough, Rome for Gogol is totally different; it is theplace of sublimity, that is a locus of harmonious, holy, and eternal city. Likewise,this pattern can be said of another description on the two contradictory cities:Paris and Rome. Again, Gogol fully pictures the city Paris as centripetal andRome as centrifugal, in which the main protagonist makes the reader indulgein his own world. Throughout the story the writer tells us a transformationexperienced by his character, and the work ends with an open denouement. LikeJerusalem, Rome is the city of resurrection for Gogol. Yet, this kind of possibilityof transformation in the story is exposed to the hero, and it arguably dependson the extent to which he explores the readiness for encountering of ‘eternity’in this “eternal city.”
  • 4.

    The modern Chinese literature and Freudian psychoanalysis - Focuing acceptance of the Freud's theory psychoanalysis on Lu xun and Guo Mo ruo

    고혜경 | 2014, 37() | pp.81~107 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Freud's' discovery of the unconscious' is a great revolution. Because of this,human beings were able to get the opportunity to look into their inner than honest. Lu Xun and Guo Mo Ruo a pair of realism and romanticism literature representativeof Chinese modern literature writers. They then absorb the psychoanalytic theoryo Freud along with other Western zeitgeist, introduce them widely inliterary theoryand creative practice, which was again. Lu Xun was reflected in the human worldof the unconscious Freud uncovered on the basis of strict realism literary spirit,Guo Mo Ruo is in accordance with the romantic literary time for the purposeof 'art for art' depicting a man's inner psychological well did. Although Freudspirit they claim to social and literary artistry of literature based on differentyarns in the Acceptance of analytical theory, has the characteristics of a commonsentiment analysis method to express and describe the unconscious human potential. 5.4 When Lu Xun and Guo Mo Ruo China Journalism writers, including Freud'spsychoanalytic theory has embraced the Enlightenment and the old feudal societywas a major contribution to want to read exactly what the human inner hearing. Chinese modern literature writers have to accept sometimes positive, sometimesaccepting the psychoanalytic theory was intellectually sharp criticism, which couldbe a great instrument in time to the 5.4 Enlightenment and psychological fictionnovel further development.
  • 5.

    The Anti-utopia in Utopia: The Dilemma of Russian 1920 Comedy Satire

    Byongyong Ahn | 2014, 37() | pp.109~130 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In 1920s, Russian society was unstable and tremendous. After the 1917Revolution, Russian government had initiated "New Economic Policy" embeddedin a partial market system in these times. Also, Russian culture had been exposedto a new trend of culture, for instance, Russian Modernism. In the field of Russianliterature, satirical comedy became very popular. One of famous satirical comedy writers was V. Mayakovsky who was tryingto express his ideal society which consisted of both tensions and harmonies between the old and the new periods. In this context, V. Mayakovsky was recognizedas a poet with futurism who loved to write a comedy expressing social suburbanityand governmental bureaucracy. His two comedies, "Bug" and "Bath" were hisfamous comedies, dealing with Russian modernistic historics and theatricality in1920s. In this article, authors try to look into their artistic characteristics of 1920sRussian literature involving a new trend of social change, for instance, Grotesqueand Tragicomic features. In the same context, this article focused on its innerdilemma of satirical comedy which had been existed in 1920s Russian literature.
  • 6.

    The literature of Catherine II and the image of freemason in the late 18th century Russia: the case of anti-freemason trilogy from Catherine II

    Seo KwangJin | 2014, 37() | pp.131~156 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article attempts to explore the literature of Catherine the second, focusingon her comedies in the light of anti-freemasonry in the late 18th-centuryof Russia. Her main idea towards social morals was consistently expressed from in herearly comedies during 1770s, such as ‘Oh! times!’(1772), to her late counterpartsduring 1880s, such as so called ‘anti-freemason trilogy,’ which includes ‘thedeceiver’(1785), ‘the deceived one’(1785) and ‘Siberian shaman’(1786). By depicting antagonists-freemasons in her own trilogy, only as alchemists,shamans, fallacious chemists, hypocritical medical doctors, and so on, Caterinethe second intended to undermine the mason influence against Russian Empire,which had ideationally attracted Russian nobles and intellectuals and furthermoreto reinforce her political control over the intellectuals as well as the public. The above literacy attempts by Catherine can be said to aim to found moralsof her own era through the utilization of social discourse, rather than throughthe political or governmental control.
  • 7.

    The American influence on the literary works of Yourcenar

    OH Jung-Sook | 2014, 37() | pp.157~183 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Although Marguerite Yourcenar, a representative French woman writer, lived47 years in the United States from 1939 to 1987, the American influence onher life has not been studied either at home or abroad. The purpose of this studyis to examine chronologically the American influence on the following three literaryworks of Yourcenar: The Little Mermaid (1942), River Deep, Dark River (1966)and Recluse (1982). The Little Mermaid is a drama, presented in musical format, about the identitycrisis and inner conflict of Yourcenar. Unlike the little mermaid who burst likea bubble in Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale, Yourcenar associates her deathwith the image of ascension. River Deep, dark river is a translation of the Negrospiritual expressing the suffering of African Americans. Recluse, her last novel,deals with the life story of a simple man living in nature on a small island. Thisnovel shows Yourcenar’s desire for a pure world that is not defiled by humangreed. Yourcenar sponsored major human rights organizations and environmentalgroups in her life, and donated her entire fortune for human rights and the protectionof Wild Fauna and Flora. The American influence on the literary works of Yourcenarcan be summarized as a "great turning point", because she was transformed froma humanistic writer into an intellectual actor.
  • 8.

    Study on was serialized in The Korea Magazine 「KOREA’S NOTED WOMEN」

    Choi yunhi | 2014, 37() | pp.185~209 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study on The Korea Magzine. The magazine has a series. Oneof them is KOREA’S NOTED WOMEN. This is the women who are all Chinesewomen. They are Yo-WHA-SI(여와씨), A-WHANG, YU-YUNG(아황과 여영),T`AI-IM AND T`AI-SA(태임과 태사), WANG SO-KOON(왕소군), Su Wang Mo(서왕모), Yang Kwi-pi(양귀비), SU-SI(서시), TAK MOON-KOON(탁문군). The story of the women in the magazine were studied in a series of articlesof reasons. First, it is because the Chinese women living in the hearts of Koreans. Second, the Koreans because these women want to love passionately, and belike. Third, because the Chinese women was also well-known in Korea as wellknown in East Asia. Was This series is used in any way. Features shown in the description wasinvestigated. It explains how to understand what they Korea. Deliberately omitted,and were also added. I also used the analogy and comparison. This does notmake sense but were accepted. Finally, we fully understand and take advantageof the literature.
  • 9.

    A Perspective of Teaching French With TV Advertisements

    KIM EUNNE KYUNG | 2014, 37() | pp.211~231 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Many researches have been done in order to find effective ways for college students to learn French. Here we intend to introduce mass media elements in our French classes to stimulate students' cultural and social senses in learning the language. Our purpose is to motivate them to get acquainted with contemporary French society and culture. In particular, we selected two examples of French popular TV advertisements for the purpose. Students were invited to watch those examples and analyze them semiotically. The active debates were followed to deepen their knowledge and intellectual curiosity. The use of TV advertisements in French language classes does not allow us to see the French society as a whole, but it stimulates critical cognitive approaches and facilitates the language learning.
  • 10.

    Stylistic analysis of grammar teaching and learning application plan - based on the gender of French nouns

    Jung,Il-Young | 2014, 37() | pp.233~265 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this article is to emphasize the importance of French grammar and apply effective ways in the course considering the results of investigations conducted by teachers and learners. In the first part, we observed different types of the theory of grammar teaching. The key point in choosing a theory of grammar is to adopt a learning objective defined by the level of learners. To do this, the teacher must find methods that enable learners to achieve a gradual grammatical knowledge. In the second part, we focused on the conscience of the learners et teachers in respect of the grammar's importance. Learners and teachers agreed on the importance of French grammar. However, it is essential to find effective methods that can not only attract the interest of learners but also give students the motivation towards learning French grammar. Regarding the correlation between the learning of linguistic communication and the teaching of grammar, it is very important to familiarize learners with the following facts: - The grammar is not an independent component of the other with regard to the teaching of French. - You can get a satisfactory result on learning grammar provided that it takes place in the course of linguistic communication. What we have proposed in this article is not an absolute solution to improve the course of French, with regard to learning grammar. However, we hope that this study could help to facilitate the teaching of French grammar.
  • 11.

    Improving French Writing through the Use of French Newspapers - A study on Summary writing

    Kyung-Rang Kim | 2014, 37() | pp.267~286 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to improve the writing skills through activitiesto read and summarize the internet children newspaper article. The subjects ofstudy are the college students of A2-B1 level in the French writing classes. Therange of study was as follows:- As the previous activity of writing, activities of teaching and learning ofvocabularies to comprehend the internet children newspaper article. - learn about the rules of summary- writing the summaryThe children's newspaper used in this study has the advantage that can increasethe learning motivation of learners as having a topicality by itself and a levelof easy language. The summary activities can be called a comprehensive activities of teachingand learning that combine the critical reading ability that can distinguish importantinformation and secondary one with the creative writing ablility that can reconstructone's own style from the selected content. In addition, the summary assists theunderstanding of a text and is a help to its memory. It is the strategy of readingcomprehension and also is simultaneously the strategy of writing that can writewith one's own vocabulary by newly structuring the text. The results of this study will provide a vitality for the education environmentand field of study of French language that have been neglected the writingability. Moreover it will be the motivation to propose a way of a balancedFrench language communication to our French language learners weighted onoral communication.
  • 12.

    A study on Activity in Speaking Class: Partner’s Speech Reconstitution(PSR)

    KIM, SANG KYUNG | 2014, 37() | pp.287~307 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and effective classroom speakingactivity helping student's communication in real situation. It will be one of usefulteaching techniques for teachers because it can be used with other various typesof speaking activities together. The activity is designed by the researcher, andnamed as the Partner's Speech Reconstitution(PSR) in this paper. In chapter 2,Noticing and Output hypothesis which is the theoretic basis of the PSR will bedescribed and the chapter 3 will explain activity methods and examples of thePSR, and then describe its merits and demerits. The researcher applied and practicedthe PSR in the speaking class for international students in the K university forthree semesters. This paper systematically introduces its organized activity. It helpedlearners elicit speaking performance of students who avoided talking in the speakingclass, made the students concentrate in speaking activity, and helped the learnersto talk sufficiently by inducing each student to reconstitute partner's speechproduction.
  • 13.

    A Comparative Study on Korean Connective Morpheme ‘-myenseo’ to the Chinese expression - based on Korean-Chinese parallel corpus

    Yi, Chao | 2014, 37() | pp.309~334 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study is based on the Korean-Chinese parallel corpus, utilizing the Koreanconnective morpheme '-myenseo' and contrasting with the Chinese expression. Korean learners often struggle with the use of Korean Connective Morphemeespecially when there is a lexical gap between their mother language. '-myenseo'is of the most use Korean Connective Morpheme, it usually contrast to the Chinesecoordinating conjunction. But according to the corpus, the contrastive Chineseexpression to '-myenseo' is more than coordinating conjunction. So through thisstudy, can help the Chinese Korean language learners learn easier while studying'-myenseo', because the variety Chinese expression are found from the parallelcorpus that related to '-myenseo'. In this study, firstly discussed the semantic features and syntactic characteristicsof '-myenseo'. The significant semantic features of '-myenseo' are 'simultaneous'and 'conflict'. So in this chapter the study use examples of usage to analyse thespecific usage of '-myenseo'. And then this study analyse syntactic characteristicsof '-myenseo' through the subject constraint, predicate constraints, temporalconstraints, mood constraints, negatives constraints. then summarize them intoa table. And the most important part of this study is Chapter 4. In this chapter, it contrastedthe Korean connective morpheme '-myenseo' to the Chinese expression by analysingthe Korean-Chinese parallel corpus. As a result of the analysis, the frequencyof the Chinese expression that contrasted to '-myenseo' is summarized into <Table3>. It can see from the table that the most common Chinese expression comparativeto '-myenseo' is non-marker patterns. That means the connection of sentence inKorean can use connective morpheme what is a clarifying linguistic marker, butin Chinese it often connect the sentence by their intrinsic logical relationships. So the conclusion of this chapter is that '-myenseo' can be comparative to Chineseconjunction, expression, non-marker patterns and liberal translation patterns, which are more than Chinese conjunction that discovered before. In the last Chapter, as the conclusion part of this study, it summarized andsuggest the limitations and the future research direction.
  • 14.

    A Study on High-Level Essay Writing Questions in TOPIK

    Kim Sun Ok | 2014, 37() | pp.335~360 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether high-level(level 6)essay-writing questions in Test of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK) have beenpresented appropriately so as to enable foreign test-takers to display their Koreanwriting ability properly, and to provide some suggestions on how those questionsneed to be changed. To accomplish this purpose, all the essay-writing questionswere collected from the 33 TOPIK tests, from the 2nd in 1998 to the 35thin2014, and analyzed from the perspectives of their topics and formats. The resultsare that high-level TOPIK essay-writing questions showed a strong tendency totake as their topics Korean sociocultural structures and phenomena, or currentissues in Korea, and that they frequently employed guided writing formats byproviding preset ideas or/and contexts for test-takers to write in a guided way;such tendencies were analyzed to shed a negative influence on test-takers displayingtheir writing ability and creativity, because those topics and preset ideas or contextsprovided do not allow them to express their own opinions or positions freely. It is suggested that TOPIK essay-writing questions should be changed to dealwith objective and general topics which enable test-takers to write freely andlogically in Korean based on their experience, because TOPIK is not a test tocheck whether they have enough background knowledge about the Korean societyand culture, but a test to assess their Korean proficiency.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Change of Functions of Duibuqi

    Park, Chan Wook | 2014, 37() | pp.361~382 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to investigate the change of functions of duibuqi and analysisother fuctions of duibuqi apart from apology from pragmatics and conversationanalysis perspectives. Duibuqi consists of dui(face) and buqi(be not capable ofperforming), and means ‘be not capable of facing’. After that, it is assumed tohave changed to ‘ashamed’ and finally ‘sorry’. In terms of functions, duibuqi is generally regarded as meaning ‘sorry’ typically,so mei guanxi is considered to consist adjacency pair with it, but in this investigation,mei guanxi is very little adjacent to duibuqi contrary to expectation(n=2/28,per.=7.1/100). About half of duibuqi(n=15/28, per.=53.6/100) functions in apologyaction sequence, and in the sequence, duibuqi functions much more for take thelead in apology(n=11/15) but not for a reaction against scolding(n=4/15). Andthe other half of duibuqi(n=13/28, per.=46.4/100) functions for softening the impactof reject or direct action, or for switching situations, e.g. from favorable situationto unfavorable situation, or for expressing speaker’s emotion to the other’s repairetc. Consequently, duibuqi has being changed its meanings and its functions isbeing changed accordingly.
  • 16.

    A Comparative Study of Semantic Featueres about ‘zheng’, ‘fa’, ‘qin’, ‘xi’, ‘tao’

    Yu Hyun a | 2014, 37() | pp.383~400 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Synonym means that the conceptual meaning of the word is the same or similarwhile other meanings or function of language difference may exist. That is twoor more identified names correspond with one sense and have the words withminor difference. Words with synonym relation are a set of same meaning but conceptual areaor emotional color, language function can be identified. Therefore, the core researchof synonym is the difference analysis and in general difference analysis is progressin the three aspects of Meaning, Pragmatic, and Semantic. However, the differenceanalysis is the most important. In this paper, the set of meaning item of synonym word ‘Attack’ is 'zheng','fa', 'tao', 'qin', 'xi'. We compare the meaning of five verbs and analyze the differenceand characteristics.