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2015, Vol.41, No.

  • 1.

    The Memory Sttruggle Surrounding Battle of Okinawa and 4.3 Jeju Massacre - Based on Island of the Gods Island of Oshiro Tatsuhiro and Sooni's Uncle of Hyun, Ki Young

    Ji-Youn SON | 2015, 41() | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study started from an interest in the unique history and literature of Okinawa and Jeju Islands. The Battle of Okinawa at a late stage of the Asia-Pacific theatre of World War II, and the indiscriminate violence in the 4.3 Jeju Massacre directly show the shared tragedy of the two islands; furthermore, they are are both located on the frontier of a nation's authority, and thus are symbolic cases. This thesis analyzes Oshiro Tatsuhiro's Island of the Gods and Hyun, Ki Young's Sooni's Uncle, both directly deal with the tragedy of two different but analogous incidents, and question the difference in memory struggle and definitions. Thus, though both novels show a similarity in focusing on and exposing the forbidden memory of mass suicide and massacre, the methods of suggesting the course of memory struggle are different. For example, in contrast to Hyun who took a different approach from the fury, accusations, and violence of South Korea to espoused forgiveness and reconciliation, Oshiro showed the changes in the form of responding to the mainland Japan.
  • 2.

    The Active Way of Trauma: Receiving the Return of the Past

    Gilwan, Seoh | 2015, 41() | pp.33~56 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Trauma studies have provided useful models for dealing with the catastrophic and disastrous events that an individual and collective group experience. Most important of all, the perspective of post-structuralist trauma study, including Cathy Caruth, became a paradigmatic model and it has been applied to almost all contexts of life. The perspective of this study model, which is called an “event-based model of trauma,” focuses on the literal registration of the traumatic event and the accurate and immediate recall of the past. The person directly involved in the event becomes the passive bearer transmitting the truth of a traumatic event. From this perspective, the traumatic subject only undergoes and endures the event and cannot play an active role in constructing trauma and dealing with it. Eventually, the truth of trauma has to be obtained at the cost of the traumatic subject’s autonomy and the possibility of his/her agency. The problem here is that the truth, which is reencountered through the literal return of the past, obtained at the cost of the subject’s autonomy, strikes a rather fatal blow to the person, than gives help for resolving many of matters surrounding traumatic experience and curing trauma. This suggests that the active way of dealing with trauma on the part of the traumatic subject, rather than the traumatic event itself, is demanded. Furthermore, because more recently, images of disastrous events were viewed “live” by audiences and an immediacy to the event is replicated in public discourse about them, the event becomes more immediately traumatic and there is a more strong presumption that people regard themselves as traumatic victims than before. This is the reason that we must explore an active way dealing with trauma on more human position at this time. This essay aims to examine the limits of the paradigmatic model of trauma study, an “event-based model of trauma,” critically through a literary, theoretical text in which it reveals how the literal return of the traumatic past have a fatal effect on the victim; and hopes to suggest “the narrative memory” as a way to deal with trauma from a more humanistic perspective.
  • 3.

    Two Different Perspectives of Contemporary Japanese Writers Tracing the Memories of Colonial Taiwan - Tsushima Yuko’s Too Savage and Yoshida Shuichi’s Road

    Jo YoungJoon | 2015, 41() | pp.57~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    During the Japanese rule, there was an abundance of Japanese writers using colonial Taiwan as the backdrop for their work. However, after Japan’s surrender and Taiwan’s independence, such writers became nearly invisible. With recent relations between Taiwan and Japan drawing closer, novels and films tracing the modern relationship of the two nations are continually being introduced. Tsushima Yuko’s 2008 novel Too Savage and Yoshida Shuichi’s 2009 work Road also sprout from the shift in the two countries’ and East Asia’s historic and political atmosphere. The two books are similar in the sense that they both use countries as the backdrop and recall colonial times. However, the perspectives of the two greatly differ. This paper will compare the meaning behind the narrative strategies that the two authors take in remembering colonial Taiwan and the relationship of the two countries. It will be quite meaningful for Koreans to research the recent works of Japanese writers depicting Taiwan, as Korea also shares a similar modern history. It will also be a good opportunity to ruminate on the entangled modern history of the East Asian region and review relevant literature and culture.
  • 4.

    A Study on Jin Tai Quan Zhuan (金臺全傳): A Narration in the Form of a Xylographic Book

    Myungsin Kim | 2015, 41() | pp.85~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article studies The Complete Story of JinTai(金臺全傳), a Korean and Chinese xylographic book, and wishes to makes a case for the value of this work. The Complete Story of JinTai, is an anonymous Xia-Yi (俠義) novel from the late Qing Dynasty. The oldest edition is atRare Book Library. This work was published in 1881 when Emperor Guangxu (光緖) ruled China. Currently, a copy of this book is at the Kookmin University Rare Book Library, however, it is somewhat different in form from that in the Nanjing Library. But. The Complete Story of JinTai narratives the life story of the hero, Jintai (金臺). Jintai's appearance, alliance, ordeal, contribution, and return proceed sequentially, thus, the story gradually explicates Jintai's heroic aspects. Jintai is a young hero. Exceptionally, he married an official dancing girl. He values honor, hangs out with friends, slays a wicked villain, to the defense of the country, and eventually becomes a king. The than is categorized as conductor, strategist, activist, intuitive type. They are from Geumsan Mountain, took a pledge of brotherhood, and try to resolve a national crisis. The remarkable Jintai fights wicked enemies and does battle with the villains in many conflicts.
  • 5.

    A Comparative Study on Joy in Russian and Korean

    Kim Jungil | 2015, 41() | pp.113~140 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explains how the basic and instinctive emotion “joy” is verbally expressed in Russian and Korean. In particular, the main concern of this pater is on the cultural context with which the emotion “joy” is related and the ways in which the emotion “joy” has a wide range of uses. The semantic and pragmatic characteristics of the uses of the expression “joy” can be explained through the cultural and historical backgrounds in both languages. In Russian, joy has two variants, radost’ and udovol’stvie. It is very difficult to distinguish a significant difference between them; however, the former is mainly connected with more mental, spiritual, cultural, and religious contexts, whereas the latter is mainly related with more concrete, instantaneous contexts and daily life. The former produces an impression that has a more wide, spiritual, and macroscopic attitude toward a situation, whereas the latter produces an impression that has a microscopic and instantaneous attitude toward a situation. Compared with the Russian expressions, the Korean equivalents, 기쁨 and 즐거움, have a very similar opposition like that of the Russian. The former is based on a more logical and causal relation between an anticipation or desire and the current situations, whereas the latter is based on the participation of speakers in a situation and has a very instantaneous characteristic, like a udovol’stvie in Russian. Thus, it can be reasonable argued that the Russian udovol’stvie and the Korean 즐거움 share many similar semantic properties. In brief summary, in both languages there exists two distinctive variants that show a privative opposition to express the emotional concept of joy.
  • 6.

    A Cultural Dimension of Sustainability -Focusing on Cultural Policy and Arts Management in Germany-

    Kim, Hwa Im | 2015, 41() | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    A fundamental understanding of “sustainable development” is generally related to a triptych of social justice, ecological integrity, and economic well-being. It aims at a development of human societies that would achieve the reconciliation of social justice, ecological integrity, and the well-being of all living systems an the planet. Furthermore, the quest for “sustainable development” focuses on economic, ecological, and social dimensions. interdependence of culture and sustainable development. The original syntax was not quite standard English, i.e., it was also unclear and vague. Ergo, this is a hypothetical edit. If you demur, then please rectify it. In Germany, th “Tutzinger Manifest” also includes the cultural dimension as a major dimension of sustainability, thereby arguing for the integration of culture in strategies for sustainability; and furthermore for the building of networks in order to overcome this gap. The cultural dimension of sustainability in Germany involves not only cultural policy, but also culture management
  • 7.

    A Comparative Analysis of the “SiMaZhiXi” Seal collected by “GuXiHuiBian” 0024

    Byungsoon Moon | 2015, 41() | pp.163~175 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent years, there has been significant interest and research on the Comprehensive Index of Character in the Warring States Period, which has resulted in many scholarly achievements. Hence, it is necessary to comprehensively categorize and summarize these achievements. Some researchers have already done a good job in this categorizing and summarizing. However, there is still work to be done in the comprehensive collation of the seal character research of the Warring States Period. The purpose of this essay is to regionalize the “SiMaZhiXi” Seal collected by “GuXiHuiBian (古璽彙編)” 0024. The number 0024 seal is an ancient seal collected by “Guxihuibian” (古璽彙編). In general, this is a Chu seal from the Warring States Period. But some scholars think that the seal is actually from the Qi or Yan States
  • 8.

    Galician Nature and People as Seen through La hija del mar by Rosalía de Castro

    Sunki, Song | 2015, 41() | pp.177~197 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study found that La hija del mar (1859) by Rosalía de Castro describes, as the background to the work, the lives of Galicians, along with the movement of the sea, scenes of the coast, storms, and lively plants in Muxía, a small city of Galicia and Cabo de Finisterre. It was shown that the nature of Galicia, as described in the work, is a beautiful site where fishermen and farmers live among the full aroma of plants and flowers, as well as being a subject of fear to the people there. Furthermore, it was also shown through the funeral process, along with a depiction of the natural environment, the unique place of Galicia is part of the traditional heritage that the Galician people have preserved, in which Roman Catholic rituals are mixed with superstitious rites. Moreover, the author shows through a description of the excessive drinking culture of Dionysian rites or Libation rites that Galicia is a land with longstanding and profound folk customs, as well as a special culture. It was proved that the work is a specific representation of the author's perspective. Thus, Rosalía depicts the lives of people and the natural environment, which have not been examined profoundly, although they always existed in Galicia. This provides space where the external reality of Galicia and part of the identity of Galicia can be elucidated.
  • 9.

    The Violence of Neoliberalism Represented in the Works of Eduardo Galeano

    WANGMOO YOO | 2015, 41() | pp.199~227 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the twenty-first century, one of the most controversial issues concerns neoliberal policies and its results. In particular, since the mid-1980s, the United States and international financial institutions have imposed their programs on Latin American countries. The result is a deepening social inequality in Latin America that puts an emphasis on financial stability instead of social security. Consequently, social inequality is worsened and an imbalance in income distribution took place. Because of the flexibility of labor, the middle class is destroyed. For the poor person deprived of the opportunity to rise, violence is a common occurrence in daily life. Thus, in this context, Eduardo Galeano raises the necessity of a critique concerning the values that neoliberalism regards as important. Furthermore, Galeano is also wary of the “militarization of neoliberalism.” This is because the neoliberal multinationals motivate a war without borders under the guise of peace. Neo-liberal policies also contribute to environmental pollution. However, environmental vandalism, which happens in partnership with large and international organizations, is not readily apparent to the public because those perpetrators wore a “green mask.” Hence, Galeano assiduously endeavors to undercover the false consciousness hiding behind the green mask. Thus, in brief summary, Galeano represents in his works a depiction about Latin America where violence often happens in daily life.
  • 10.

    A Research on Relative Cultivation through Appellations in Chinese

    Yu Hyun a | 2015, 41() | pp.229~243 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    When ancient Chinese people called their relatives, both the marriage system and their blood ties are reflected in the kinship terms. For examples, the ancient China's unique marriage system, “yingqiehun,” is reflected in kinship terms, like “shi,” “di,” and “zhi,” which reflect the fact that women relatives married the same person, and thus resulting from the polygamy. Furthermore, there are good reasons to assume that there are master-and-servant relationships, as evidenced through the kinship terms “yingqiehun” from the beginning of polygamy. In this paper we will study the feature of their unique marital culture, “yingqiehun” by analyzing each meaning of “shi,” “di,” and “zhi” and other examples, and will also examine the cause of its prevalence at that time.
  • 11.

    A Study on Some Forms that Originated from the Dependent Noun “것” [kət]

    Lee, Eunsup | 2015, 41() | pp.245~273 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of some forms, “거” [kə], “게” [ke], and “걸” [kəl], which originated from a dependent noun “것” [kət]. Nowadays, some studies have argued that these forms are allomorphs of “것” [kət]. However, they are not allomorphs because they do not show a complementary distribution with “것” [kət]. Moreover, we should not deal with “게” [ke] and “걸” [kəl] as at the same level of “것” [kət] and “거” [kə] because they respectively consist of “거” [kə], and the subjective case marker “이” [i] or the accusative case marker “ㄹ” [l]. In other words, they function as an element of a sentence. Therefore, just the “거” [kə] and “걸” [kəl] remain to be argued about concerning variation among them. Especially, the “거” [kə] is almost freely alternated with “것” [kət], whereas even though “걸” [kəl], which is not part of KP (N + case marker), is very restricted so as to appear to be from “거” [kə]. Of course, the restriction they show cannot be under the condition that corresponds to the conception of the alternation. In conclusion, only the “거” [kə] is just an optional variation morph of “것” [kət], whereas “걸” [kəl] is an optional variation morph of “거” [kə]. There is no allomorph of “것” [kət] in the forms originated from itself.
  • 12.

    A Study on Relevant Aspects of “Nature” and “Elegant Beauty” Appearring in Cho, Chi-Hoon's Poems and Poetics

    Lee, Chan | 2015, 41() | pp.275~298 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to examine in detail the relevant aspects of "Nature" and "Elegant Beauty" appearring in Cho, Chi-Hoon's poems and poetics. It uses the same context to explain the reasons and grounds for the inevitable, corresponding closely to his poetry and poetics. It is the core of Cho Chi-Hoon's poetry to determine “natural” new artistic views and his vision of ultra-modernism. This is consistent with the precise feature of “Elegant Beauty” in the midst of aesthetic categories profoundly discusseing his poetics. He regards a “lyric” as a vision of ultra-modernism, to overcome divisions and conflicts of values, “Truth⋅Good⋅Beauty”, which was caused by modern science. Furthermore, it includes many social issues in accordance with the differentiation and specialization of each area. It is inferred to have been attempted to produce specifically was found to shape new images of “Nature” in the dimension of his poems, “Elegant Beauty” is overwhelmed with the aesthetic excellence of the other categories in the dimension of his poetics in this context.
  • 13.

    Creative Curiosity: Study of Alice Character in Lewis Caroll's Adventures of Alice in Wonderland

    Sungran Cho | 2015, 41() | pp.299~320 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland expands scope of Children’s Literature genre by introducing the discourse of pleasure as opposed to that of didactic discipline. Carroll’s narrative is important, not only for children’s literature, but also as a forerunner of post/modernism of James Joyce with its language play and linguistic invention. Its treatment of Alice’s body change follows the motif of body transformation in myth and literature. Comparing “stasis” of Susan Sontag’s character Alice (James) in her play Alice in Bed and “movement” of Carroll’s Alice, this study explores the issues of woman’s alienation and the dichotomy of mobility/immobility in reality and in their literary representations. Focusing on a female child’s double alienation as woman and child, I argue Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is a counter-narrative of alternative bildungsroman. Alice gains her subjectivity through her adventure by power of language and story-telling. Through representation of the dream/adventure of two desiring sisters, Carroll’s narrative exhibits subversion of social order and emergence of new order of “chaosmos” out of chaos. As a method of study, this study traces genealogy of “curiosity” in myth and literature as a motivating force that triggers adventure and argues “creative curiosity” is a dynamic energy propelling Alice’s adventure.
  • 14.

    A Comparative Study of the Feminist View of the World Between Na Hye-Sok and George Sand - Focusing on Conscious Vocation of the Artist -

    CHO JI-SOOK | 2015, 41() | pp.321~349 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to make a comparative study between George Sand and Na Hye-sok through their lives and works. The research found that George Sand and Na Hye-sok had similar views about the institution and social system of their age. Both women were aware of importance and necessity of education and the arts but showed a clear distinction between their beliefs in education and the arts. George Sand found that education was an indispensable part of women’s lives but found that educationforwomentotheageofSandwasuseless. For this reason she continued to assert a substantial reform concerning women’s education. In addition, she argued that everyone should have been given the same opportunities regardless of gender or class. Na Hye-sok, meanwhile, looked at women’s education in a more realistic perspective, that is to say to make money. The two women showed remarkable differences in the view of art. This is evident from the presence of a responsibility and a sense of purpose as an artist. George Sand was imbued with a sense of purpose and clarified her own belief at the beginning of her activities as a writer. She wanted to inform the suffering of the weak through her writing and to contribute to build a Utopia where everyone could be happy to live beyond the boundaries of gender. However, Na Hye-sok did not reveal her own clear sense of purpose to her art activities. Art is not just a job - it’s a vocation. Na Hye-sok was enthusiastic but didn’t have a sense of purpose. She should have had a vocation and a sense of purpose. Na Hye-sok was lacking of responsibilities and obligations as a pioneer of Western painting. If there were a distinct vocation and a sense of purpose to Na Hye-sok as an artist, she would have left a trail as valuable as that of George Sand.
  • 15.

    The Historical Origin of the Conflict of the Aymara of Peru and Bolivia, Centered on Puno

    Cha-kyung Mi | 2015, 41() | pp.351~379 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the Andes regions of Latin America continents, groups of diverse native tribes are intensively distributed.Among these tribes, the Aymara compose the most representative group of natives along with the Quechua. Especially, the Aymara who are concentrated on the border areas of Peru and Bolivia centered on Lake Titicaca have pursued common identity forming the same cultural area although they belong to different nations. In the meantime, the Aymara have maintained a sense of fellowship while emphasizing historicity and specialty, which are differentiated with groups of other natives based on a language constituting identity of the tribe. However, recently, focused on Puno State as the center of the border areas of both countries, the tribe’s conflicts come to the surface. After being divided by the artificial boundary line, which was formed in the course of building modern countries after the independence, natives of Latin America started to emphasize differences simultaneously with cultural similarity in the frame of cooperation and competition. Together with the historical contexts, lately, focused on the border areas of Peru and Bolivia, as the same tribe came to be bound by the frameworks of different nations respectively, a new tribal conflict is being developed. Though the Aymara unite emphasizing cultural and historical specialty and recognizing them as one tribe, when they conflict with each other over inner interest, a tendency to form the identity of differentiation and distinction appeared even in the inside of the tribe. Usually, disorder between tribes seems to be originated from intertribal strife, which coexists in one region. In case of the Aymara of Peru and Bolivia, centered on Puno State where both countries maintain the border, an aspect that the fellowship of the tribe, which was established through old history changes into conflict structures by realistic conditions comes out. In understanding this point, this study analyzed the historical origin of the conflict of the Aymara and the deepened cause of the tribal disorder.
  • 16.

    Beyond Humanism - The End of Modern Humanity and the New Transformations of Human Being

    Choi Jin Seok | 2015, 41() | pp.381~413 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to trace a historical trajectory of “Humanism” as a Modern scientific concept in the light of Michel Foucault’s genealogy. Generally, we believe that Humanism is a natural and eternal idea for mankind, because no one doubts that he or she is not included in the category of a “Human Being.” On the contrary, according to French philosopher Foucault, the Idea of Humanism, or anthropocentrism, appeared only in the Modern Age, from the 16th century downward. Before the Renaissance, human beings did not occupy the most important status in Nature, and only existed as natural beings. As soon as mankind was liberated from the superstitious of fear and religious dogma, the concept of “Human Being” is supplied with new meanings and values. The famous maxim, such as, “Man is the lord of creation” constitutes modern human science as an inviolable category of modernity. However, Foucault tried to illuminate the hidden sides of humanism, and gave us the strict warning on the end of the human beings, which turned out to be an object of Modern knowledge. If there would be no reason to maintain a knowledge system of Modernity, in other words, Modernity as knowledge would lose its validity and we could give up Humanism as a heavy burden. Moreover, it is very clear that we are confronted with the critical moments of radical skepticism on the meaning and value for Humanity. That means that we need to think about the new transformations of Human Beings, which will probably appear in the forms of “Non-Humans,” “Machines (Deleuze & Guattari),” or “Post-Humans” etc. At the present time, we cannot know if it will be positive, or negative for mankind. We should look back at the history of Humanism from a genealogical perspective, which is why we have to investigate the conceptual trajectory of Humanism in this moment.
  • 17.

    A Study on Tatyana Tolstaya's Rendezvous with Bird

    Haenggyu Choi | 2015, 41() | pp.415~442 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Through the comparison of "Rendezvous with a Bird" with "Araby", there were found to be well-explained psychological causes of the boy’s (Petya) behavior that closely discloses the concrete object of desperation and definitely confirmed the internal causes of heroes (vanity of the boys in "Araby" and "Rendezvous with bird"). Through the comparison of "Rendezvous with a Bird" with "A man in a boat" we also knew that Petya's indefinite fear of death was to some extent a sense of guilt. This study contains a full-scale review of Russian contemporary writer Tatyana Tolstaya's short story "Rendezvous with a Bird", which is one of the her earliest works. As many critics indicate, the works of Tatyana Tolstaya resonate with metaphor. "Rendezvous with a bird" plays an important role in understanding this metaphoric tendency. In order to understand the metaphoric tendency of her works we need our own reading strategy, and so we inquired into the grasp of the main motifs. Analysis of the main motifs can start from the understanding of meanings of the very figurative title 'Rendezvous with a Bird’. To understand the meanings of the title, we first of all analyzed the incidents of actual or figurative meetings with birds in this work, and through this we deduced two main motifs. We confirmed one main motif of 'desperation', which centers on the love of a young boy and woman. We confirmed the other motif as 'death', which developed into the rendezvous of the grandfather with inevitable death. Thus, the 'desperation' and 'death' with which we meet in childhood becomes a subject matter for the writer. To understand the deeper meanings of these main motifs, we compared "Rendezvous with Bird" with the short story "Araby" by James Joyce and with the short story "A man in a boat" by Eyvind Johnson, which very successfully deal with the motifs: 'desperation' and 'death'.
  • 18.

    The Analysis of the Distribution and Meaning of the Evenki's Clan Name: Centering on Baj, Kim, and Shama/Sama

    Suncheon Eom | 2015, 41() | pp.443~475 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The subjects of analysis in this paper, the clan name roots “Baj,” “Kim,” and “Shama/Sama,” while distributed commonly among the Altai, Ye i, and isolated language groups, are most widely distributed among the Evenki. The clan name root “Baj-” is widely distributed among indigenous Siberian nations, but is most frequently found among the Manchu-Tungus, especially the Evenki. Therefore, it appears that clans with this root originated from Pribajkal'e, known to be the origin of the Evenki, and spread widely among the nearby Buryats, Mongols, and Yakuts, later spread east to the Nivhi of the Amur River, to the Enisej Protoasiatic language nations such as the Yukaghir or Ket to the north, and the Samoyed language group nations such as the Ne and Selkup. According to the analysis results in this paper, the Evenki clan name “Kim” has the meaning of “person,” but also is somewhat associated with gold, metal, or stone. On one hand, while the origin of the clan name “Kim” cannot be clearly established, the clan was assimilated into the Evenki near in ancient times, after which the clan name became widely known among the Manchu-Tungus nations, and furthermore in the Turk nations. The clan name Shama/sama is widely spread across Siberia, including the Manchu-Tungus language group nations of the Altai language family, the Turk language family, and the Samoyed language groups of the Ural language family. Moreover, this clan name is not associated with famous mythic ancestors or heroes of historically famous Asian nations, and it cannot be translated into contemporary language; thus the identification of the meaning and origins of this word is by no means an easy task.
  • 19.