Cross-Cultural Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.6

Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2016, Vol.43, No.

  • 1.

    Gender, Labor, Emotion and Moment of Political Awakening -A Study on Life and Activities of Female Socialist Chung Chil - sung

    Roh Jiseung | 2016, 43() | pp.7~50 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In the capitalized Joseon Dynasty under the Japanese colonial rule, most Gisaengs (female entertainers) were waiting for men who would save them from financial distress, but others chose to seize the opportunity imposed by the modern times and capitalization to transform their lives. Socialist Jung Chil-sung was one of those who utilized such opportunity to transform themselves through political awakening. The political awakening of Chung Chil-sung was the result of two factors-the historical occasion of the March 1st movement and her personal labor experience as Gisaeng. The March 1st movement was not only a colossal political incident externally manifested in nationalism and but also an occasion which educed the microscopic anger of a woman named Chung Chil-sung. In the early capitalist society, women with jobs were forced to play not only vocational tasks but also to subject themselves to emotional roles of being obedient and generous. In other words, those early career women suffered feelings such as anger, shame and humiliation, when they were defenselessly exposed to gender hierarchy and gender power in the public sphere. As shown in the case of Chung Chil-sung, these emotions led to a certain political awakening. The political awakening through the labor experience and emotional problems was the fact that helped Chung Chil-sung have a concrete and realistic understanding about the issue of women’s economic dependence unlike other female socialists. But, although socialism was relatively the most appropriate language to explain Chung Chil-sung’s experience, what she experienced contained several elements that cannot be explained by the elite socialist language. Therefore, her life paradoxically proved the need of lower-class women’s lives to be divided and registered as a new emotion and to be politically visualized.
  • 2.

    Pussy Riot Affair and Gender Discourse in Russia - Gender, Nationalism, Soviet Nostalgia

    Ahn Ji Young | 2016, 43() | pp.51~77 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In February, 2012, three members of the Russian Feminist Rock group ‘Pussy Riot’ were accused of staging a ‘Punk Prayer’ in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and were imprisoned for two years. This case, which sparked widespread enthusiastic support from those in the West, was viewed in Russia in quite a different way. The Pussy Riot affair very effectively shows the historic base of contemporary Russian gender discourse and gives an explanation as to why Putin’s very conservative and masculine-centered nationalistic agenda works in Russian society with such great success. In this article, we introduce the Pussy Riot case and compare the reactions to the case published in the Russian and Western press; we then examine the historic causes of the masculine-centered nationalistic agenda of Putin’s government.
  • 3.

    Maternity, Suffrage, War, and State: A Diachronic Review of the Women’s Movements in Modern Japan

    Lee, Eun-gyong | 2016, 43() | pp.79~113 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to diachronically explore the women’s movements in modern Japan by focusing on three key words, ‘maternity,’ ‘suffrage,’ and ‘war,’ in uncovering how these concepts relate to Japan as a state. In particular, this study sheds light on the policies toward women not from the perspective of the state, but rather from women’s perspective and evaluates their expectations toward the ‘state’ thorough the activities of Fusae Ichikawa and Raichō Hiratsuka. Hiratsuka, who was devoted to establishing the ‘state protection of maternity,’ ended up casting away such expectations toward the state after the failure of the petition movement developed by the New Women's Association. On the other hand, Ichikawa, encouraged by the success of women’s suffrage movement in the U.S., remained active in the petition movement in the hope of attaining female suffrage. Because of this, Ichikawa was more vulnerable to the requests by the national authorities for the cooperation in war efforts—event though most of her activities were contained within the redressing of everyday life issues. The expectations toward the ‘state’ was a principal driving force of women’s movements in modern Japan, yet at the same time it was also the reason why—as purging of Ichikawa symbolizes—they came to be stigmatized with the promotion of invasive war.
  • 4.

    Latin American Native Indian’s Feminism in Claudia Llosa’s The Milk of Sorrow (La teta asustada)

    Eun-kyung Choi | 2016, 43() | pp.115~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Milk of Sorrow (La teta asustada) (2009) is a Peruvian-Spanish film by a young, female Peruvian director, Claudia Llosa (1976 – ). By applying the theories that feminist and subaltern scholar Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak presents in “Feminism and Critical Theory”, the present work questions the ironic term, “Feminism in the Third World” by considering the Latin American context. Would the term refer to the feminism of Native Indian women or white creole women? The present work raises this question via Llosa’s The Milk of Sorrow, in which a white creole woman, Aída, takes advantage of a quechua woman, Fausta. Through analysis of this film, this work demonstrates that in the Latin American context, even in a single country, there should be various types of feminism, since what Native Indian women fight against is different from what white creole women fight against. Thus, it insists that feminism in the Third World should develop in a deconstructionist manner, in which each woman has the ability to interpret her own social and political stance. Furthermore, it can be said that cultural appropriation is taking place in the “real” world as well as on the screen: a white creole director, Llosa, is taking advantage of a hot-button issue in our postmodern era, the violation of the human rights of minorities, especially those of Latin American Native Indian women, since Llosa became a success and won many prizes in international film festivals for her work.
  • 5.

    A Study on Korean Culture Education by Applying Numerical Symbols

    Kim Nang Ye | 2016, 43() | pp.139~170 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Through the process, it is possible to understand the meanings of specific numerical symbols that are present in our daily lives, rather than regarding them as abstract symbols. The symbols can be efficiently utilized for cultural communication between Korean teachers and foreign learners, and between learners with different cultural backgrounds. A symbol that intensively shows Korean culture can be applied efficiently to cultural education. This is because Korean identity can be understood by means of symbols that represent Korean thoughts and emotions. Therefore, this study intends to examine the contents of symbol education applicable to Korean culture education, centering on numerical symbols amid far-reaching symbol systems. For this purpose, this study analyzed how the application of numerical symbols is presented in Korean textbooks, with the intent to organize the symbols into 4 categories of myth, folklore, taboo, and idiomatic expressions, which might be actually helpful for understanding Korean culture.
  • 6.

    Interrelationship in the Translations of the Works of P. A. Kropotkin in East Asian Countries

    KIM MIJI | 2016, 43() | pp.171~206 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    Russian anarchist thinker P. A. Kropotkin had a significant impact on the school of thought, the literary field and the anarchist movement in East Asia in the early 20th century. This paper examines the history of the translation of Kropotkin in terms of the routes and paths of translation in colonial Korea in comparison with those in Japan and China. It is a known fact that the acceptance of Kropotkin in colonial Korea is owed to pioneering translation works in Japan, but it appears that there have been various transformations and magnetizations in the process of translating the texts into the Korean language. Despite a disturbing censorship, the works of Kropotkin, such as “I appeal to the youth (”Aux Jeunes Gens“ in French)”, were imported, translated and distributed by various routes throughout the 1920s and there were various versions of translated Korean texts. At this point, it is noteworthy that there are works which were translated from Chinese texts about Kropotkin, such as the works of Yu Seo (柳絮), and it can be said that there is a relationship between Korean translations and Chinese original texts. Since the 1930s, the phenomenon of the appropriation of Kropotkin as a litterateur and critic rather than an anarchist thinker is particularly apparent, and this allows us to understand that Kropotkin became a major pathway to interpret Russian literature in East Asia. In colonial Korea, translations of Kropotkin were generally via Japan and China, but the process of translation also showed the struggle to accept and adapt ‘the foreign text’ into the Korean language.
  • 7.

    A Preliminary Investigation on the Oral Epic Olonkho in Yakutia: Focusing on the Analysis of Nurgun Boutur the Swift

    Tschung-Sun Kim | 2016, 43() | pp.207~239 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Altai Humanities Belt connecting Siberia to Central Asia is very important to the history of civilization. It had a huge influence on the formation of an ancient civilization in the Korean Peninsula. Therefore, a variety of studies have been carried out in the field of folklore and anthropology as well as archeology. One of these studies is about the oral epic. The oral epic remains in the form of a unique transmission in Korea, but it wasn't that long ago when it was noted as the component of the Altai Humanities Belt. In that context, some epics from Central Asia, Mongolia, and Siberia were introduced to Korea. This preliminary investigation is conducted to introduce the oral epic Olonkho from Yakutia in Siberia to Korean academia. Although it was revealed recently, Olonkho is highly valued. The epic study has been buried from the Western point of view, but Olonkho is expected to provide a global perspective to the field of epic study. Above all, it contains a very significant clue to a new study because the content and the style of performance are considerably different from those of the West. Additionally, the original form is relatively well preserved. In particular, it explains how human thinking and behaviors have changed in the transition from the mythical age to the heroic age. This change appears in the ethnic history of Yakutia, as well as in the formation process for all Altai countries around the 10th century. Therefore, this preliminary investigation will be a foundation to facilitate the translation of the voluminous Olonkho into Korean, and to conduct full-fledged research on it. In particular, it can motivate a study on the differences and similarities in comparison to the tradition of oral epics between Central Asia and the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, it will serve as a foundation for the formation of the Altai Humanities Belt.
  • 8.

    A Study on Teaching Japanese Modern Novels by Audiovisual Materials - Focusing on the Films Based on Original Novels

    Hwalran Kim | 2016, 43() | pp.241~264 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to devise teaching goals for Liberal Literature Lessons in college through the class <Reading Modern Japanese Novels>. Lots of domestic and foreign novels have recently been turned into films or TV series. As cinematized novels become hits in movie theaters, the original stories ascend to the bestseller list due to the success in the box-office, which proves once again how powerful the visual media is. In this study, 10 works of cinematized literature were explored for one semester in a Liberal Literature class called <Reading Modern Japanese Novels>, aimed at increasing students’ interest in novels in the era of digital images. The literary works chosen for the study were novels that had won the Akutagawa Prize, which is given to writers in the field of pure literature, the Naoki Prize, which is awarded in the field of popular literature, and the Japanese Bookstore Grand Prize, which the employees at Japanese bookstores award to the novel they want to sell most. Afterward, a survey was conducted on students in the class to determine their satisfaction with the lectures. Despite the fact that they had little interest in Japanese Literature before taking this lecture, they indicated greater interest in Japanese movies and culture as well as novels due to the class.
  • 9.

    The Definition of a Catastrophe as Trauma by Visual Media and the Resultant Problems: A Critical Analysis of the “Antimimetic Theory"

    Gilwan, Seoh | 2016, 43() | pp.265~288 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay begins by discussing the issue of the definition of a catastrophe as a trauma by visual media and the problems that result. We assume a concrete approach towards these problems by examining the process through which 9/11 was defined as a “national trauma” in the exclusion of images of bodies falling from towers, which were some of the most shocking images in the media coverage of 9/11. The choice to exclude images of falling men from American visual media representations of 9/11 goes hand in hand with the tendencies of a contemporary trauma theory. This essay assumes that the representations in the U.S visual media depend on “antimimetic theory," one of the leading contemporary trauma theories, in order to validate its logic, and examines the limitations and problems of the theory. This work aims to examine the issue of the definition of a catastrophe as trauma by visual media on the basis on the “antimimetic theory" and the danger that results. Because the antimimetic theory, which the visual media in the United States uses to define 9/11 as trauma, emphasizes literal and unmediated representation of an external event, it lacks an understanding of the human aspects of the event. There is no way to intervene in the construction and interpretation of the trauma. As a result, the theory discourages active attempts to find a solution to the problems of the people directly connected with the event. Thus, it provides an opening for manipulative intervention of an external power. This essay attempts to provide a critical analysis of the “antimimetic theory” in order to help people who witness catastrophic events through various types of visual media, and to seek an alternative means of experiencing and responding to the trauma, that does not stem from the perspective of specific media outlets or external powers.
  • 10.

    Mega-Sporting Events from the Perspective of Russian Cultural Policy in the 21st Century

    Song Jung Soo | 2016, 43() | pp.289~326 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The strategy of "soft power" in the foreign and internal policies of modern Russia is one of the important factors in the implementation of public policies, and the influence of soft power is increasingly becoming stronger and gaining new forms and methods of implementation. The Russian government exerts efforts to form a positive image of Russia in the international arena, in order to strengthen the country's competitiveness, based on active use of "soft power." Currently, Russian cultural policy is developing in two main directions. In the internal policy sphere, the Russian government emphasizes national unity and civic solidarity, and fosters a sense of patriotism and national pride. In the sphere of foreign policy, the Russian government is attempting to regain its status as a great power and to create a new image of Russia that is different from that of the former Soviet Russia. In this article, we examine and analyze various aspects of the hidden political mechanisms involved in mega-sporting events, in particular the Sochi Olympics, from the viewpoint of Russian internal and foreign policy. We address the major functions of mega-sporting events and their influence in the political realm. The political impact of mega-sports projects can even compensate for economic losses incurred during the preparation and hosting of the Olympic games. In this respect, we can define mega-sporting events as one of the main components of soft power; such events reflect the basic directions of internal and foreign policy in post-Soviet Russia, which are to form and promote an image of Russia using national branding. In order to fairly and objectively analyze the recognition and perception held by Russians of the significance of mega-sporting events, in this work, we carefully studied the results of various surveys conducted by the Russian research organization VCIOM (Russian Public Opinion Research Center) before and after Russia hosted the Winter Olympic games in Sochi (2014) and the Summer Olympic games in Kazan (2013). Furthermore, on the basis of the ranking of national brands by Simon Anholt (Anholt Nation Brands Index - NBI), and on the basis of the ranking of 100 national brands conducted by the British consulting company "Brand Finance" (Brand Finance Nation Brands 100), we minutely trace the development and qualitative change in Russia's image and the role of the mega-sporting projects. This article also examines the Kremlin's internal and foreign policies that were successfully carried out in practical terms. This study contributes to the understanding of the value of mega-sporting events from the point of view of cultural policy of the current ruling party of Russia. This standpoint allows us to outline the main directions of Russian cultural policy and to suggest perspectives on the branding strategy of modern Russia, including strategies related to consolidating Russia's position in the international arena.
  • 11.

    Abstruseness of Rimbaud's Barbare : Autotextuality and Meaning

    SHIN Okkeun | 2016, 43() | pp.327~354 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Rimbaud’s prose poem, Barbare in Illuminations, is known for its abstruseness with regard to forms, themes, metaphors. This paper first analyzes the poem’s grammatical structure to make sense of such an inscrutable piece of work, then discusses its autotextuality in order to decipher its meaning by comparison with Rimbaud’s other works. Autotextuality, a method of literary interpretation of Rimbaud's prose poem presented by Steve Murphy, refers to the intertextuality between the author's works. Despite some previous researches focusing on the intertextuality of Barbare, previous authors have failed not only to find its meaning but also to determine its significance. The abstruseness of Rimbaud's Barbare is sometimes considered an example of the meaningless of Rimbaud’s work. However, examining the textual structure and the autotextuality builds meaning, rather than rendering the work meaningless. Barbare which consists entirely of noun phrases and metaphors means destruction, fusion and the pure power of regeneration in the original context of Rimbaud's work. This poem is Rimbaud's answer to Baudelaire's poetic question, Any of where out of World, and presents a strange scenery that uses 'the eternal female voice' to reach the Vulcan in the North Pole. Interpretation of Barbare could provide a methodology for reading the difficult Illuminations. The kind of analyses used are, for example, analysis of the text, analysis of verbal indicators, autotextuality, and an understanding of the joy and the solitude in the silence of the poem. Understanding Barbare may provide a method of interpreting the abstruseness of Illuminations. Through this approach, we can connect and combine every fragment of the Illuminations, so that we can reconstruct the story and the adventure contained therein.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Two Big Theories of Music Culture in China's Ancient Times

    LEE TAE HYOUNG | 2016, 43() | pp.355~376 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study looks into the relationship between Chinese philosophy, with a focus on Confucianism and Taoism, and music. Kong zi’s Confucius supported, 'Enjoyment without being licentious and grief without being hurtfully excessive', and 'hatred of the music of Zheng'. These ideas do not emphasize the function of music as an expression of emotions, feelings, or desires, and are instead conclusions based on Confucian ideals such as harmony between classes and the spread of benevolent government. Music must coincide with Justice. The hatred of the music of Zheng was a conclusion founded on the idea of a place for Justice in music. Zhuangzi is the source of the spirit of Chinese art; specifically, Zhuangzi's idea of music in relation to its influence on East Asian history of art is extremely influential. In fact, the concept of yuelun is considered the most original and important concept in the history of the East Asian philosophy of art. The most distinctive features of Zhuangzi's theory of music can be summarized as follows. He attempts to liberate music from the restrictions of form and to let music express authentic human feelings and emotions. He also argues that music should not be subjected to politics, as he thinks that the creative mind of an artist can exist only when music is freed from political influence. Confucianism takes a humanistic perspective, while Taoism takes a more naturalistic one. In sum, Confucianism gives weight to the logical and ethical aspects of music, while Taoism emphasizes the intuitional and naturalistic ones.
  • 13.

    The Limitations of Holocaust Narratives and the Possibility of Healing Narratives Suggested by Smith’s Fires in the Mirror

    Sun-Kug Jung | 2016, 43() | pp.377~404 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I intend to focus on the 1991 racial tension and violence portrayed in Anna Devear Smith’s book Fires in the Mirror, which was published in book form in 1993. I make use of a series of interviews with many of those involved in the conflicts, which were based on the Jewish Holocaust and the history of African American enslavement. In Crown Heights, the black community and the Jewish community have each suffered terrible losses, but individuals and communities become rhetorically attached to foundational historical traumas that lie at the center of each group’s cultural identity rather than try to understand each other’s pain. Smith lets this rhetoric dominate Fires in the Mirror by putting contradictory monologues side by side in order to show how discourses on ‘slavery’ and ‘the Holocaust’ still have control over specific ethnic communities. My intention is not to delve into the conflict between the Jewish and black communities exclusively. Rather, I attempt to form an understanding of the problems of the critical/theoretical tenets proposed by ‘the rhetoric of holocaust,’ including the Jewish Holocaust and the black experience of enslavement. Such an understanding will help us see the failure in the theories, illuminating the ways that such rhetoric should have recognized its own violence and helped to forge a new relationship between racism and anti-Semitism. Fires in the Mirror mirrors back to us the ways that ‘the Holocaust’ betrays the possibility of error to indicate its own susceptibility to blindness. The cracks brought forth by conflicting narratives enable readers to observe wounds being healed and the possibility of new narrative looming up.
  • 14.

    Post - Historical Description and Spatial Attribute - Focusing on the Movie Paradise in Service -

    Sung-Hee Jin | 2016, 43() | pp.405~428 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the narrative-building method and the post-historical descriptive aspects of the movie Paradise in Service, which deals with the modern history of Taiwan. Although Paradise in Service tells the history of a certain time period, it focuses on the anguish and agony felt by people who lived during that age rather than on the meaning of historical events or interpretation of the past in terms of official historical discourse. That is, as it avoids looking at the present by composing a narrative in the descriptive historical context and from bearing weight from the viewpoint of realism, it gains the possibility of establishing a new field of discourse through a post-historical discussion using descriptive historical texts. However, the movie tries to create fantasy through a special type of licensed prostitution as a means of post-historical description. In other words, when this movie tries to reproduce the microscopic history of common people in trouble because of a historical tragedy, it considers only men and excludes “weak” women. Thus, although Paradise in Service has meaning in that it gives an example of how movies can disrupt official historical discourse and group memory and rewrite history by focusing on individuals, it is limited by its male-centrism.
  • 15.

    A Study of Chinese Translation and Reader Reception of the Modern Korean Novel, Focusing on the Last 5 Years

    Choi Eun Jeong | 2016, 43() | pp.429~457 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article is an analysis of the status of the modern Korean novels translated into Chinese over the past five years and how they are perceived by readers. Translation of modern Korean novels over the past five years has a few important characteristics as the following. The first characteristic is diversity. Books written by the most representative modern Korean writers, like Lee Gwang-soo, Kim Yu-jung, Kim Dong-ri, and books of the authors with very unique ideas, such as Park Kyung-ri, Lee Mun-yeol, Shin Kyung-suk, Gong Ji-young, Kim Young-ha, Park Min-kyu, Cheon Myung-gwan, and Kim Ae-ran have been translated and introduced to the Chinese population. Secondly, there are active translation of the books written by female writers. Lastly, without the support of the Literature Translation Institute of Korea or the Daesan Foundation, the number of works translated and published is slowly increasing. As a result of the increasing number of translations, the quality of translation is improving. However, interest on the part of Chinese readers in the modern Korean novel is not very high. But, the works of authors like Kim Young-ha, Cheon Myung-gwan, Kim Ae-ran, and Park Min-kyu, who began their literary careers after the mid-90s, are drawing relatively more attention. The common features of such works are the novelty of the narrative methods, attachment to reality, and readability. The interest shown by Chinese readers is significant in explaining the two following factors. First, it is true that many modern Korean novels are available in China, but only those that have been read will continue to be read. Second, the indifference of Chinese readers to modern Korean novels is because they are not yet aware of the existence of such works. It is important to train professional translators who can properly translate literature and also to focus on introducing the differences in modern Korean novels through canonical translation. To achieve this aim, not only supportive policies, but also cooperation between researchers in the field of modern Korean literature, translators, and publishers is essential.
  • 16.

    Effects of Lexical Aspect on the Interlanguage of Ibibio ESL Learners: Later than Sooner

    Willie U. Willie | 2016, 43() | pp.459~483 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The main objective of this paper is to test the major prediction of the Aspect Hypothesis on interlanguage narratives collected from 171 Ibibio ESL learners in a classroom setting using sets of picture stories. Aspect Hypothesis predicts that lexical aspectual classes of verbs would determine the pattern of acquisition and distribution of tense-aspect morphology at the very early stages of L2 acquisition of tense-aspect verbal morphology. That is, telic verbs would be marked with the past tense-aspect verbal morphology before atelic verbs in the interlanguage of ESL learners irrespective of their L1 background. The results of our data analyses show a significant effect from the lexical aspect on the acquisition and distribution of tense-aspect morphology with chi-square statistics of (x2=196.92,df = 6, n = 1664, p = <.0001). However, the effect of the lexical aspect is shown to be more prominent among Ibibio ESL learners at higher levels of proficiency. This is contrary to the prediction regarding Aspect Hypothesis. The paper concludes that the influence of the lexical aspect on the pattern of acquisition and distribution of tense-aspect morphology may be universal but the actual point along the developmental pathway when such influence is obtainable is yet to be determined. This calls for more research into the pattern of the L2 acquisition of tense-aspect verbal morphology.