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2016, Vol.45, No.

  • 1.

    The Poet Kim Shi - Jong living in both Joseon and Japan: the Meaning of ‘Zainichi’ Expressed in Epic Poem Niigata

    KIM GAE JA | 2016, 45() | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article considers the meaning of 'Zainichi (在日)' expressed in epic poem Niigata (1970) written by Korean-Japanese poet Kim Shi Jong. Kim sets two points in his creation of poetry. One is summer of liberation released from Japanese colonial domination in 1945. The other is Japan where he lives as a Korean-Japanese. These two points have made him think about the meaning of living in post-colonial era and the national division of Korea, his home country. His thought like this is well expressed in his epic Niigata. Niigata was written in 1959 when the ship returning to North Korea departed from Niigata of Japan. However, Kim couldn't return to his home country at that time. He stowed away from South Korea to Japan in 1949. He participated in antigovernment activities occurred in Jeju Island to block the national division between the south and the north after the liberation in 1945, the so-called 4·3 incident. Besides, he was having conflict with the organization of North Korea at that time because it required a doctrinaire belief and creation in Korean. Kim was writing poems in Japanese and pursued the life of existence as a Korean- Japanese. Therefore, he decided to remain in Japan instead of returning to North Korea. Of course, he could not return to South Korea because he was a refugee. Kim imagined in Niigata, the place located in an extension of the 38th parallel and the spot of national division. He could not cross the division line when he was in his home country, but he could do it in Niigata through imagination. The life as a Korean-Japanese makes it possible. 'Zainichi', which means living in Japan, has been recognized as a worse situation compared to living in Korea. However, Kim changed his way of thinking. Zainichi can embrace South Korea, North Korea, and Japan. This is the very reason why he lives there as a Korean-Japanese. His thought like this is well expressed by symbolic representations and metamorphose as well as the imagination of spatial extension.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Analysis of the Calligrams of Apollinaire,Paul Eluard, and Lee Sang

    Lee Byung Soo | 2016, 45() | pp.33~54 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study presents a comparative analysis of the calligrammic poetic dictions shown in the poems of the French poets Guillaume Apollinaire and Paul Eluard and in those of the Korean poet Lee Sang. They were adventurers in the avant-garde movement who used experimental techniques that led to futurism, expressionism, cubism, dadaism, and surrealism. They applied a typographic technique that combined pictorial arrangements of fonts, shapes of compositions and between lines, letters of the alphabet, mathematical symbols, and graphical elements, such as circles or lines, to make up a poem that also looked like a painting. Their works, valued as visual lyric poems, break up language and combine anti-poems. They rejected traditional poetic dictions or grammar, but developed a paratactic poem that freely uses letters and symbols. Their calligrammic poetic dictions arouse dynamic images like space extension. Lee Sang's calligrams seem like abstract paintings that apply geometric symbols like those used in technical drawings. As a result, crossing the boundaries between language and pictorial art by using experimental materials and techniques, their poems deconstruct the creative standards of rational and traditional poetic dictions, creating an adventurous, expressive technique. Their calligrammic, avant-garde poems introduced a new spirit of art into both French and Korean modern poetic literature.
  • 3.

    Translation and Interpretation in Korean English Poetry Reading Classes

    Samchool Lee | 2016, 45() | pp.55~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    To provide a set of data with which instructors may boost the sagging demand for Anglo-American poetry classes, this thesis classifies the kinds of difficulties the students face in reading English poems. Asses to the classification is an analysis on the causes of the difficulties at different levels of the reading process, from the linguistic to the cultural. Arnoldian insight argues that poetry is the best of all forms of writing. Without an ample exposure to poetry, average English majors would barely sharpen the skills that they use to deal with other kinds of writing. To help ease the continuing need for a workable teaching model in English poetry reading classes, this thesis suggests focusing on the kinds of wrong translations produced by the students. According to the theory of cultural translation, any translation, even the wrong kind, is already a product of a very complicated process of interpretation that involves many cultural factors. With the analysis of these factors discovered in Korean college English reading classes, this thesis tries to explain the mechanisms through which wrong translations are produced, since these inevitably lead to wrong interpretations of given poetic texts.
  • 4.

    Criticism on Cho Ji-hoon's Recognition of Han Yong-un

    Lee Sun-Hee | 2016, 45() | pp.58~107 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Cho Ji-hoon was a leading figure on the discussion of recognition on Han Yong-un, particularly the post-liberation period. During the Japanese colonial era, he addressed Han Yong-un as the representative of national poet, and evaluated Han’s poems as the models of rebellious nationalistic poetry. Such evaluation by Cho set the precedent of basic perspectives and methodologies on how to recognize Han Yong-un in the present day. This paper analyzes three studies on Han Yong-un, conducted by Cho ji-hoon. We also examine how Cho created his logic of recognizing Han as a national poet, and his poems as nationalistic poetry. Accordingly, this paper has separated recognitions on poet studies and work studies, and further explored how each recognition has consistency with Cho ji-hoon’s historical and literary perception. As a result, the following has been concluded: the basis of Cho ji-hoon’s recognition on the life and works of Han Yong-un was premised on Cho’s understanding of the world from a standpoint of history of ideas, the concept of nation was regarded as an absolute value that binds disparate ideas together, and the combination of nationalism and poetry has been expressed through the logic of nationalistic poetry and the notion which equalizes the poet to a classical scholar. It was further concluded that such equalizing logic contains some logical contradictions derived from integration between universal rights and national sovereignty, and nation and Buddhism. Therefore, it can be said that other possible interpretations on the role of a poet were not fully discussed, but remain bounded. Last but not the least, this paper critically tries to perceive Cho’s recognition on Han Yong-un, and accentuates the necessity of new interpretations of Han’s poems, apart from those based on nationalism.
  • 5.

    A Corpus-based Study of Translation Universals in English Translations of Korean Newspaper Texts

    Gwang-Yoon Goh | Younghee Cheri Lee (Cheri J. Lee) | 2016, 45() | pp.109~143 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines distinctive linguistic shifts of translational English in an effort to verify the validity of the translation universals hypotheses, including simplification, explicitation, normalization and leveling-out, which have been most heavily explored to date. A large-scale study involving comparable corpora of translated and non-translated English newspaper texts has been carried out to typify particular linguistic attributes inherent in translated texts. The main findings are as follows. First, by employing the parameters of STTR, top-to-bottom frequency words, and mean values of sentence lengths, the translational instances of simplification have been detected across the translated English newspaper corpora. In contrast, the portion of function words produced contrary results, which in turn suggests that this feature might not constitute an effective test of the hypothesis. Second, it was found that the use of connectives was more salient in original English newspaper texts than translated English texts, being incompatible with the explicitation hypothesis. Third, as an indicator of translational normalization, lexical bundles were found to be more pervasive in translated texts than in non-translated texts, which is expected from and therefore support the normalization hypothesis. Finally, the standard deviations of both STTR and mean sentence lengths turned out to be higher in translated texts, indicating that the translated English newspaper texts were less leveled out within the same corpus group, which is opposed to what the leveling-out hypothesis postulates. Overall, the results suggest that not all four hypotheses may qualify for the label translation universals, or at least that some translational predictors are not feasible enough to evaluate the effectiveness of the translation universals hypotheses.
  • 6.

    Formation of Military Dictatorship and Anti-Communism in Paraguay

    Gyoungmo Gu | 2016, 45() | pp.145~166 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this investigation was to determine the historical relationship between anti-communism in the United States and military dictatorship in Paraguay. Relations between the two countries have been of great importance since the U.S attempt to obtain hemispheric solidarity in World War Ⅱ, the Cold War in Latin America, and the balance of power in the La Plata region. The Archives of Terror are official documents of police repression between Alfredo Stroessner's dictatorship and the U.S. U.S provided support and aid to Paraguay dictator. Alfredo Stroessner spanned more than half a century. The course of Paraguay-U.S. relation during his regime is illustrative of the flow of real politics in both nations. Not only did Washington had definite diplomatic goals, so did Asunción. The relative disparity in power and wealth between the two nations did not necessarily hinder Paraguay's pursuit of international advantage in its relations with the United States.
  • 7.

    V. Rozanov and N. Gogol Gogol in the Context of Rozanov’s Literary Criticism

    Minn Ah Kim | 2016, 45() | pp.167~194 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    V.V. Rozanov, a well-known writer and thinker, has wrote many critical essays about Russian literature and writers. The most famous literary criticism written by him is an essay about F. Dostoevsky - Legend of the Grand Inquisitor (1894), which has been highly appraised by N. Berdyaev. If Dostoevsky was the best and the most admirable writer by Rozanov, Gogol was one of the most condemned one by him. This paper, first of all, aims to analyze Rozanov’s literary essays about Gogol. At this time, our subjects of analysis included writer’s critical essays about Pushkin and Dostoevsky because Rozanov tried to investigate the nature of a creation of Gogol through comparative studies. Based on these analyses, we attempted to deduce an overall view of Rozanov about Russian literature. We also examined the influence of Rozanov on the later criticism.
  • 8.

    The Korean Dictionary and the Buddhist Language: Description of Popularity of Buddhism Terminologies

    Hansaem Kim | 2016, 45() | pp.195~218 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on the terminology of the dictionary as an encyclopedic element in the Buddhist language. The previous study on Buddhist language can be divided into a philosophical approach to the language itself, a review of the linguistic perspective of a specific monk, and a linguistic examination of the Buddhist language. The linguistic examination of the Buddhist language is further divided into analysis of certain Buddhist scriptures, and a study of vocabulary used throughout the Buddhist sphere. The Buddhist vocabulary in the existing Korean dictionary is found in specialized areas such as name, place name, history, and Buddhism. By advancing the generalized words of the terminologies, the meanings of the terminologies and the general words are described as polysemy. It is possible to identify the degree of transition from terminology to general word depending on the distribution of senses. In the case of Buddhist vocabulary, the usage as a general language and as a Buddhist term was given priority, and vocabulary was also derived from a Buddhist term, although it was described as a general language. If a dictionary is changed according to the language unit it contains, the difference in a Buddhist terminology for each dictionary, and a conflict between the existing academic research result and the prior description, will need to be resolved through the collaboration of religious experts, linguists, and lexicographers.
  • 9.

    A. Artaud or the Prisoner of Language

    PARK,HYUNG-SUB | 2016, 45() | pp.219~243 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The life of Antonin Artaud exactly reproduces a very cruel drama. He lived in constant anguish and suffered from severe mental pain. This research will trace his thoughts in his writings while he was a prisoner of language. Artaud was a poet filled with anxiety about language, things, being, and thought. Whenever he tried to explain the mystery of being by means of mundane language, he experienced psychological agony. His poetic thoughts began to break down, because of his identity loss. Nevertheless, he was destined to grasp the world through language. Artaud had suffered from mental illness during his youth. His mental illness was associated with his difficulty in creating poetry. In this research, the letter, Correspondance avec Jacques Rivière, is analyzed. The poet refers to “the collapse of the spirit’s core, and the erosion of the fundamental thought that slips away” to convey his linguistic incompetence. Hereafter, he constantly demonstrated anxious mental symptoms. Even though he became mentally deranged, he maintained his consciousness, as is apparent in his writings. Also, his spiritual belief is reflected in his mental uneasiness. While he was traveling through the Tarahumaras area in Mexico, he was obsessed with its primitive belief in the Peyote rituals, and he immersed himself in performing them. His unchristian belief was the product of his mystical personality. Until his last breath, he did not give up writing. Artaud’s mental derangement does not mean lunacy, but if one insists in calling it so, that is a metaphor. His derangement comes from his refusal to accept his limitations and from his aspiring to regard his body in the same light as his intellectual perceptions. His intellect could manifest more easily when his mind was elevated to the extreme. Artaud’s lunacy is no different from that of a profound philosopher. The lives of poets who suffer from mental derangement are more poetic than the lives of those who do not. Artaud’s atypical emotions provide a way of to measure our own limitations, helplessness, and resignation. His scream is nonsegmental but different from that of a mental patient. That difference is why people are interested in his works and wish to delve into his writings.
  • 10.

    Aspects of the Urban Life in Tokyo!

    Junga Shin | Yong Ho Choi | 2016, 45() | pp.245~268 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Tokyo! is a 2008 French / Japanese / South Korean / German anthology film containing "Interior Design" by Michel Gondry, "Merde" by Leos Carax, and "Shaking Tokyo" by Joon-ho Bong, all of which were filmed in Tokyo. This cinematic triptych of three Tokyo-set stories is concerned with how the experience of self-alienation is related to urban life, that is, how to survive in a city as a self. The problem of life is the struggle for self-preservation. In Tokyo! the three film directors have shown that urban life is both self-deconstructing and self-preserving. In this paper, our purpose is to examine different modes of urban life by using two concepts reformulated by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida: the urban ipseity and auto-immunity. According to Derrida, ipseity is a system subjected to a circular structure. Such a system cannot avoid the general logic of auto-immunity; i.e., the structure of ipseity functions as both self-deconstructing and self-preserving. The three episodes contained in Tokyo! testify, each in its own way, to the function of that logic. In bringing to light the three modes of self: appropriation, dis-appropriation, and in-appropriation, we claim that the modality of urban life is confronted with the autoimmune reaction.
  • 11.

    Characteristics of the Traditional Family System in Black Africa

    YU Jai-Myong | 2016, 45() | pp.269~293 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This research studies the characteristics of the family systems of traditional societies in Black Africa. For this purpose, this study has chosen three subtopics: the distinctive features of traditional societies, marriage customs (polygamy and polyandry), and the societal features of patriarchal and matriarchal societies. First, we analyze men’s and women’s roles, ownership and management of the land, dowry, and social values of livestock as the distinctive features that support the family system in traditional Black African societies. These elements play an important role in increasing the number of family members. Next we analyze marriage customs—polygamy and polyandry—which increase the number of family members, on the one hand, and secure the labor force, on the other hand. Most traditional societies in Black Africa prectice polygamy. However, the Bashilélé and Bahima prectice polyandry. Polygamy in traditional societies in Black Africa is based on the traditional social customs that display the authority and dignity of the family head, who has control over all family members in both patrilineal and matrilineal societies. The authority and dignity of the family head are used to keep and increase the number of family members, that is, to secure the community firmly. Finally, most traditional societies are patrilineal. However, matrilineal societies are prevalent in the so-called Matrilineal Belt, which term refers to the savanna regions where Bantu peoples reside, that is, the coastal regions from the Angolan coast, bordering the Atlantic, to the Tanzanian and Mozambique coasts that border the Indian Ocean. These societies trace descent through the maternal bloodline. The traditional family system in Black Africa is based on economic social, and political factors, as well as on the community spirit of the members, which has resulted from the choices made to increase the prosperity and well-being of the people.
  • 12.

    A Dream of Communal Society for Parts Without Parts: On Thomas More's Utopia

    Myungho Lee | 2016, 45() | pp.295~324 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay attempts a contrapuntal reading of Thomas More's Utopia. Contrapunctual reading, proposed by Edward Said. attempts to make a text speak across temporal, cultural, and ideological boundaries to a topic of present. I examine two opposite readings of Utopia around 2011 by both pro- and anti- Occupy Wall Street positions. On the one hand, the opponents of Occupy find its limits as a utopian social movement echoing in the fictional character of Hythrodaeus and the alternative society verbally sketched by him in Book Two of Utopia. On the other, Occupy's advocates read More's text as embodying its radial possibility. However, each shares the tendency to denounce Book Two, praising Book One in which Hythrodaeus vehemently criticizes England; they read Hythrodaeus not as an utopian idealist but as a social critic. The Occupy, as a result, is seen here as having an ambivalent relationship to utopianism. I reinterpret the radical possibilities of Book Two criticized by both pro- and anti-Occupy invocations of Utopia. Book Two provides a utopian space in which the existing social contradictions are cancelled, revealing the limits of the three partial utopias proposed at the end of Book One. Following Louis Marin's argument, I argue, the "utopic" space does not lie in the so-called ideal society described in the text but in the inconsistencies between the text's description(discourse) and topography(map). In Book Two the existence of a king is described, yet his space is not found in the topography of utopia; likewise market is described as existing at the center of a city, yet its space is not found either. These inconsistencies create a neutral space in which the ideological contradictions of the text are cancelled, and the space opens up the possibility of communal society beyond modern sovereign power and capitalism I argue this utopian dream needs to be summoned once again in our time as a compelling alternative to the corporate, capitalist order.
  • 13.

    Migrant Representation in the English-language Media during the Brexit Campaign

    Jae Seung Lee | 2016, 45() | pp.325~348 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to identify the representation of migrants in the English-language media during the Brexit campaign period. For the purpose of this study, the methodological tool of corpus-assisted discourse studies(CADS) was employed and a collection was compiled of articles mentioning Brexit in British, American, Canadian, and Australian media from April 15 to June 22, 2016 in order to compare their portrayals of migrants. To examine how IMMIGRANT, MIGRANT, and REFUGEE are represented in the media, their collocates were analyzed by MI score and categorized by social actor categorization(Van Leeuwan, 1996). The results show that IMMIGRANT is related to collocates that refer to legal status and provenance, MIGRANT associated with economic terms, and REFUGEE relates to terms expressing quantities. The results also reveal that migrants are frequently depicted by functionalization, classification, and appraisement categorization and are more negatively portrayed in British and American media. This paper claims that corpus-assisted linguistic analysis of words enables one to identify salient linguistic patterns or lexical choices in the discourses about a particular phenomenon or group of people.
  • 14.

    French Society and Culture of the XVIIIth and the XIXth Centuries as Viewed by the Goncourt Brothers

    JANG YUN WUK | 2016, 45() | pp.349~380 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this article we tried to discover the predilection of the Goncourt brothers for the noble culture of the eighteenth century. It is well known that two brothers sought to bring forth the aristocratic world formerly reigned by Louis XV and Louis XVI. The favorite themes of the Goncourts included rococo, rocaille, Kings’ mistresses, and antiques. Were the brothers fascinated by the culture of the eighteenth century only because they were themselves in the lineage of an aristocratic family? Are there any other reasons behind their predilection for the eighteenth century? This research started from these questions, because we believe that, in their preoccupation with such culture, there must be other reasons beyond their aesthetic predilection. We first studied ideological grounds to answer these questions. Our attention was particularly drawn to the relationship between their attachment to aristocratic culture and their rejection of bourgeois culture in their time. We then attempted to discern the meaning of their studies on the French Revolution, in the wake of the revolution of 1848. By means of this approach, we found that they overestimated the vibrant and energetic culture of the eighteenth century, and they wanted to propose such culture to their contemporaries, in an effort to forget the terrible memory of the year 1848. We can therefore say that the Goncourt brothers proposed a remedy for the psychological torment of their time.
  • 15.

    Discourse Deixis and Anaphora in Slavic Languages

    Jungwon Chung | 2016, 45() | pp.381~431 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with Slavic discourse deixis comparing Russian, Polish, Czech and Bulgarian demonstrative and personal pronouns. In general, the Slavic proximal pronouns have precedence over the distal ones. Proximal pronouns, such as Russian eto, Polish to, and Bulgarian tova, are employed more frequently and widely than their distal counterparts to, tamto and onova. The distance-neutral pronoun to in Modern Czech was also a proximal pronoun in the past. These Slavic proximal and former-proximal pronouns function as a discourse deixis  marker, whereas, in most other languages, the discourse deixis is mainly a function of distal or non-proximal demonstrative pronouns. However, the Russian, Polish, Czech, and Bulgarian discourse deixis differs in distal demonstrative and personal pronouns. In general, the Polish and Czech discourse deixis does not employ the distal demonstrative pronoun tamto or the personal pronoun ono. The Russian distal demonstrative pronoun to is actively used as a discourse deixis marker, and the personal pronoun ono can also be used to refer to the preceding discourse, though it is not frequent. In Bulgarian the distal demonstrative pronoun onova is rarely used to refer to a discourse, but the personal pronoun to frequently indicates a discourse that is repeatedly referred to in a text. The discourse deixis, which is a peripheral deixis and can be both deixis and anaphora, reveals different characteristics in different Slavic languages. In Russian, where all of the proximal, distal, and personal pronouns function as a discourse deixis marker, the deixis itself plays a crucial role in distinguishing these three pronouns from each other, revealing the speaker’s psychological, emotional, temporal, and cognitive proximity to or distance from a given discourse. In Bulgarian, the most analytic Slavic language, the personal pronoun is used more as a discourse deixis marker to reveal the highest givenness of a discourse, and it seems that Bulgarian discourse deixis is more anaphoric than the other Slavic discourse deixis is.
  • 16.

    A Study on the Consumption of Nordic Design as Japonisme

    Hwang Sung Hee | 2016, 45() | pp.433~478 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigates the role of Japan in Korean consumption of Nordic design. In spite of the development of greater access to wide information and global markets, the popular trends in Korea have been mediated by Japan. The cultural power of Japan comes from otaku subculture. Japanese influence can be discussed by two sides. One is the images or symbols composing the Nordic style in Korea. The other is the way how to consume the Nordic design. Japanese neopop images combined with the Nordic design. Japanese ‘slow movie’ has combined American Kinfolk style with Nordic style. ‘Database consumption’ from otaku subcultre conceptualized by Azma Hiroki can be applied to Korean consumption of Nordic design.
  • 17.

    An Examination of the Theoretical Foundations of Cross-Cultural Studies through an Analysis of Cross-Cultural Research in ELT

    PEDERSON RODNEY W | 2016, 45() | pp.479~496 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper interrogates the theoretical foundations of Cross-Cultural Studies across the Social Sciences through an examination of the field ELT. Through an examination of ELT’s major theoretical and pedagogical moves, this paper illustrates how ELT is by nature a field of cross-Cultural Studies. A closer examination of the history of ELT shows how the colonial genesis of the field indicates a skewed representation of power between native English speaking nations and non-native speaking nations both in terms of academic theories and pedagogies, as well as socio-cultural relations of power. A further analysis of how the field theorizes and represents various relations of power between disparate cultures in ELT literature explicates the dilemma of the objectivity and neutrality of Cross-Cultural research in ELT. In doing so, the analyses included in this paper thus necessarily raises questions regarding the theoretical foundations of research methodologies of Cross-Cultural Studies in terms of the reflexivity of researchers and the problematic of how, or if, relations of power are included in the studies. This paper questions whether studies that do not include these research perspectives properly represent the disparate cultures under study, or are more of a biased, or Orientalized (Said, 1979) interpretation of cultures.
  • 18.

    Constructions of Totalitarian Subjectivity in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness

    KOO SEUNG BON | 2016, 45() | pp.479~496 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this essay was to investigate Marlow's desire for constructing enlightenment subject of knowledge and power sustained by the collusion of imperialism and patriarchy in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. Marlow's narrative, based on his journey up the river in Africa to retrieve Kurtz, attempts to conceptualize himself as the subject of the enlightenment reason and rationality. In the novella, collusive network of ideologies of empire and gender contributes to the making of a Western Enlightenment subject. Marlow eulogizes himself for realizing the harsh realities of imperialism, political domination and economic exploitation of the natives in Africa. However, Marlow is a colonial subject who has been ruled by the hierarchical system of thought in the Western logocentrism. He is not aware that his narrative has already been infiltrated by the ideological discourse of the totalitarian enlightenment. His narrative in effect is not a self-congratulatory testimony to truth and realities but a narcissistic and self-defeating document. Marlow unconsciously employs the totalitarian ideologies of empire and gender in order to relegate the African natives to the inhuman existence and to consign women to the sphere of illusion.