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2017, Vol.46, No.

  • 1.

    The Frustration of Desire and Envy: The Emotion of the Elite in the 1960’s Korean Society – Son Jangsoon’s The Koreans

    Kim, Youngmee | 2017, 46() | pp.1~20 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study tries to examine the emotion of the elite characters in Son Jangsoon’s early novel, The Koreans. In this novel, most characters are found to have an envy feeling, except for two female characters, Heeyeon and Sue Han. Although the writer does not consciously explore the envy feeling here, she excellently represents the harmful effects of the envy feeling. In this novel, the envy feeling is related to the desire for success and its frustration. In 1960’s, people had high expectation of improvement in their individual lives. The elite groups were more likely to have a successful life with good education. But in this novel, these elite people suffer from frustration of their desire and experience of the envy feeling. The impressive point in this novel is that not only females but also males are shown to have the envy feeling. Envious people have the tendency to compare themselves with people around them, to feel shame in an inferior position and to aspire for superiority. In these envious characters, the feeling of envy reveals their lack, their inferiority and it never provides them with the way to escape from their suffering situation. The writer suggests that the envy feeling can be overcome by pursuing other valuable things and focussing not on other people’s desire but on their own desire.
  • 2.

    The Envy and Suffering: Feelings of Characters Appearing in Self-Development Narrative – Focusing on a Soap Opera

    Suk Ja Park | 2017, 46() | pp.21~42 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at analyzing the trend of feeling under the neo-liberalism era through the soap operas. In particular, this article focuses on ‘envy’. Unlike jealousy, envy is the feeling of comparison appearing in people in similar circumstances that is displayed within the dual relation with its characteristic of having dynamics on the fortune (victory) of the other party for an unpleasant feeling, denial and interference. However, under the neo-liberalistic order with unlimited competition as its characteristic, ‘envy’ has the tendency to discourse with its passion of subjects participating in the limited share of competition. This begins in ‘envy’ under a soap opera to lead to competition to reproduce as the drama to dream of success for self-development. Under the circumstances, the feeling or behavior of characters not showing the general pattern but to individualize with the envious behavior of evil characters to turn away from the structural context for characters of issue of suffering originated within. For example, the soap opera imagines with ‘envy’ for the feeling of characters to reproduce the neo-liberalistic subject in darkness as well as to transfigure the suffering or context encountered by the characteristics to present the issues.
  • 3.

    "I Envy, therefore I Am": Justification of Envy - <Single White Female> and <Female Teacher>

    Jun, Soyoung | 2017, 46() | pp.43~61 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay interprets envy not as a form of conventional conflict between women but as a type of common response of self-preservation focused on envy represented in the American film, Single White Female, and the Korean film, Female Teacher. Although envy is traditionally classified as a feminine emotion, it is an innate human emotion regardless of gender identity. Especially in the competitive era of neo-liberalism, we recognize only its negative side while overlooking its positive side as envy originates from comparison with others. Hedy's mimicking of Allie in Single White Female is not the same as idealized identification because her envy is aggressive and a self-assertive response while transforming Allie's identity. Likewise, envy of a protagonist in Female Teacher triggers an action of self-preservation against irrational social and personal inequality. Accordingly, a type of resistant and critical power resides in envy between women in these films. Therefore, proper recognition of repressed envy is required in order to prevent its transition towards a violent outcome.
  • 4.

    Gloria Anzaldúa’s Borderlands/ La Frontera : From the Border to the Borderland

    Suk-Kyun Woo | 2017, 46() | pp.63~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes Gloria Anzaldua’s borderland proposal through her work Borderlands/La Frontera (1987). One of the strong trends of US geographical imagination started from the concept of 'city upon a hill'. It left an important footprint in the American history. In the area of international political history, it was the starting point of the isolationism policy. But, this imagination is contradictory because it has exercised the bordering power that demarcates the border and overpasses it as needed. Anzaldua’s geographic proposal consists of transformation of the border into the borderlands. This is a challenge to the bordering power and a challenge to the geographical imagination that has led to isolationism, and ultimately a history war. This is not only a nationalist war aimed at the Chicano’s restoration but also a war that can measure the American society’s possibility of change in the future.
  • 5.

    Language Games between Donald Trump and Gloria Anzaldúa

    Park Jungwon | 2017, 46() | pp.85~112 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Donald Trump, the 45 th president of the United States, has revived the ‘English Only’ policy since the beginning of his presidential campaign. The monolingualism not only underscores his extremely conservative ideas, but it also reflects the nativist tendency that prevents the demographic and cultural transformation of the US, which is accelerated by globalization and transnational migration. In particular, Donald Trump tries to reconfirm the mainstream American culture that is now thought to have been threatened by Hispanization and the growing number of Spanish speakers. This paper examines the effects of “code-switching” and the possibility of a bilingual community by contrasting Donald Trump with Gloria Anzaldúa, one of the representative Latina writers who created a “border language.” Borderlands/La Frontera (1987) includes Spanish glossaries and expressions to represent her bilingual realities, while attempting to translate from English to Spanish, and vice versa. However, the text occasionally demonstrates the impossibility of translation. In doing so, Anzaldúa indirectly states that it is indispensable to present both languages at the stage; she also invites monolingual readers to make more efforts to learn and better understand the Other’s language. A “border language” she attempts to embody throughout the text is created in the process of encounters, conflicts, and negotiations among languages of different ethnicities, classes and generations. It does not signify an established form: rather it appears as a constantly transforming language, which can provide us with new perspectives and an alternative way of communication beyond monolingualism.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Cultural Archetype of Kimchi in the Chosun Dynasty

    Yongjoong Kang | 2017, 46() | pp.113~142 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The goal of this paper is to analyze the vocabularies and cases related to Kimchi as a cultural history. For this purpose, we extract the vocabularies of Kimchi from the records of Korean Literary Collection in Classical Chinese, Annals of the Choson Dynasty, Records of Daily Reflection, and Diary of the Royal Secretariat. The existing literatures related to Kimchi are confined to some cookbooks, but in this study, we attempt to overcome the existing limitations and adopt a comprehensive and systematic approach. The classic literatures of the Choson Dynasty are mainly recorded in traditional Chinese characters; therefore, the readability is poor, and it is presupposed that a lot of time and effort will be needed for the translation work after securing the data. Therefore, we performed this research with a focus on this part. Next, we tried to reconstruct the archetype of Kimchi culture in the Choson Dynasty by classifying the above materials according to the subject and literature sources.
  • 7.

    The Concessive Conjunctive Phrase todavía que in Some Areas of Latin America

    Jaeyong Kwak | 2017, 46() | pp.143~171 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we present a morphosyntactic and semantic study of the concessive conjunctive phrase [todavía que] in the Andean and River Plate areas of Latin America. Real Academia Española(2009) describes that the adverb todavía occurs in a variety of focus-sensitive environments and specially, in the Andean and River Plate areas, the phrase [todavía que] participates in the concessive constructions and triggers an additive interpretation. It is well known that the Quechuan suffix ‘-raq’ and the Aymaran suffix ‘-raki’ have the meaning of todavía which is characterized as a additive particle. Due to the absence of the paratactic relationship between the mentioned Spanish adverb and those indigenous suffixes, the adverb todavía in [todavía que] is used as a additive focalizer. We assume that these morphosyntactic and semantic properties are derived from the language contact of Quechua-Spanish and Aymara Spanish. Based on this assumption, we will further assume that the etymological peculiarity of todavía as a universal quantifier is closely related to the reading of [todavía que] as a Scalar Additive Concessive Conjunctive Phrase.
  • 8.

    The Meaning of Space in Los bravos

    Son-ung Kim | 2017, 46() | pp.173~197 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The present work aims to analyze the concept of space in Jesús Fernández Santos’ work Los bravos. Throughout its pages, one can observe the multidimensional possibilities of space in literature. Throughout time, the concept of literary space has developed and it has been modified constantly in order to meet the needs required for the evolution of narratology. In the past, Aristotle stated that space is the place where characters and physical objects happen to exist. This remained almost unchanged until the Renaissance. In the 19 th century, space stopped being considered just a mere scene where the action takes place as it was given more importance by romantic authors in their works. Realism intensified the spaces as the interior of the house. In fact, the descriptions of space became more important. In this article, I focus on the various meanings of space in the novel Los bravos. First, I analyze the dichotomy between real and ideal spaces, and continue with the cathartic dimension of the fictional space. Then, I present and analyze the opposition between urban and rustic spaces in this novel, and, finally, I show the confrontation between the spaces of men and women. Through this analysis, we can observe that characters have a space where they feel more comfortable and how, occasionally, they leave their “usual space of action” to reach their “ideal place”. Women want to stay in their kitchen to chat with each other, while men prefer to leave the house to visit a cafe with their colleagues. The door and the window divide the border of the worlds of men and women. However, that line is not only dividing the structure of the house, but it is also of a psychological house.
  • 9.

    Deterritorialization of Memory in Death and the Maiden by Ariel Dorfman

    Chan-kee Kim , Hwang Soo Hyun | 2017, 46() | pp.199~225 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Death and the Maiden(1990), by the Chilean playwright Ariel Dorfman, directly addresses the issue of liquidating the past that the transient democratic government of Patricio Aylwin faced, the government established right after the end of the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. This article focuses on analyzing the aspects of conflicts and discords between memories of individuals as reflected in the conversations between characters of the play. For example. we look into the effects of traumatic memories of Paulina, tortured and raped by the past government, on her everyday life and examine the relationship between her personal memory and the collective memory. We also look into the discourse of the dominating memory through the confession of the rapist doctor Roberto, and observe how Gerardo, a lawyer appointed as a member of the investigation committee, exposes the truth of the case and mediates the conflict of the memories between the two characters. We uncover the problems inherent in the state memory as it tries to intervene in the strife in memories between assailants and victims and explore the possibility that the concept of memory deterritorialization would be an alternative to overcome these problems.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Origin of The Triple Value(三達尊) in Ancient China-Mainly with the Aged Consciousness in the Book of Odes

    SangKeun Ro | 2017, 46() | pp.227~251 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article is designed to study the conceptualization process of one of the ancient Chinese classical literature heritages, the so-called, the Triple Virtue(三 達尊). By showing the principle meanings and the newly embodied symbolism of this Triple Virtue, this article is prepared to encourage revitalization of the moral virtues and self-identical pride among the elderly and to promote the young people's social consciousness of respecting the elderly. The author identifies the philosophical origins of the Triple Virtue, implying that the virtuous trinity is composed of morality, position and age, by analyzing poems in 「Daya(大雅)」, 「Xiaoya(小雅)」 of the Book of Odes and archives in 「Zhoushu(周書)」 of the Book of Documents(尙書). The author especially emphasizes that the concept of Triple Virtue was created by governing classes for meeting the political needs in the Zhou Dynasty. Moreover, by regarding King Wen of the Zhou Dynasty as the symbolic representation in the beginning era of the Western Zhou Dynasty and Shao BoHu as the embodiness representation in the end of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the author performs an in-depth study related to the above two great men. Finally, the author sheds lights on how symbolic and embodiness representations had played significant roles in formulating a typical model of the Triple Virtue in the following generations.
  • 11.

    A Study on Diversification of the Ancillary Materials for Chinese Education: Focusing on Some Songs of Jay Chou

    Park, Chan Wook | 2017, 46() | pp.253~279 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine how the Chinese popular culture, especially music, can contribute to diversification of the ancillary materials for teaching Chinese language, literature and culture, based on the analysis of some songs of Jay Chou. For this purpose, this study analysed 10 songs that have been used in the tests or the text contents in China or Taiwan in terms of rhyme, words relation to the ancient poems, and the Chinese culture. Consequently, the songs of Jay Chou show that they can be used as an ancillary material in the Chinese class from the linguistic, literary, and cultural angles. For use in the Chinese language, literature, culture class in the future, there is a constant need to discover and analyse new materials from the Chinese popular culture.
  • 12.

    Poetics of the Absurd in Andrei Amalrik's Dramaturgy

    Hyun-Seop Park | 2017, 46() | pp.281~296 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Andrei Amalrik 's plays are a unique phenomenon in the 70 years' history of Soviet drama. Half a century after the Soviet theater had intentionally forgotten its own achievements of avant-garde dramaturgy in the early 20th century, his bizarre plays suddenly emerged in the Soviet theater environment, completely separated from contemporary Western practices of the experimental theater. Surprisingly even now, Amalrik’s plays have almost been forgotten not only in Russia but also by foreign Russian literary scholars. Amalrik's autobiographical essay is his only book published in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet regime. There is no collection of his works, and reevaluation of his work is not found even in Russia. However, Amalrik is a writer who should get a proper evaluation. The purpose behind studying his plays is to restore the tradition of Russian grotesque-absurd dramaturgy, which has been inherited from Gogol, Khlevnikov, Mayakovsky, and Oberiu. In this paper, we will analyze the mechanism of composition in Amalrik’s plays.
  • 13.

    Reconsideration of the Linguistic Category of Mediation in Language: a Comparative Approach between French and Korean

    Suh, Jungyeon | 2017, 46() | pp.297~325 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I would like to reconsider the evidential category (or the mediation category) in languages with language specific values, especially in Korean and French evidentials. We tried to analyze how the evidentials are represented in both languages including their linguistic markers (grammatical, lexical or discursive) and their semantic meanings. According to the precedent studies from the general linguistic point of view, we would like to reconsider the semantic meanings of both languages’ grammatical markers, the so-called Korean retrospective marker ‘-te-’ and French conditionals in the framework of the enunciative operation theory suggested by Desclés & Guentchéva (2000), which proposed to classify the type of discourse by the language-independent description tools conceived after the enunciation theory suggested by Bally (1965), Benveniste (1956), Culioli (1973). Through this approach, we would like to contribute to establishing the linguistic basis not only for the general linguistic research to determine the invariant meaning of linguistic evidentials and their system, but also for the applied linguistics to the language engineering field.
  • 14.

    Aspects of Korean and English Translation of ‘KURERU’ in the Novel - about NATSUMESOSEKI 『KOKORO』

    YANG JUNGSOON | 2017, 46() | pp.327~353 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed how an aspect of translation can be shown on the ‘Kureru type(くれる類)’ verbs in 『Kokoro』, which was a Japanese modern novel when it was reproduced by translators. It focused on ‘the use in accordance with a subject of expression and the other person’ and ‘the object of movement’. ‘The use in accordance with a subject of expression and the other person’ could be summarized as follows: The ‘Kureru type’ verbs were not translated only in accordance with the use of vocabulary in a dictionary. ‘Kudasaru’ was used in many examples of letter writing when ‘the giver’ was younger and it was translated to a polite form in Korean. ‘Kureru’ had a characteristic when ‘the giver’ was older in Korean translation. The act of parents was translated to an honorific form if parents were ‘givers’ regardless of whether a listener was an internal character or an external character in parent-child relationships. The degree of politeness was different in English translation when the ‘Kureru type’ verbs were used for asking a favor・request・command. ‘Please’ was used more for ‘Kudasaru’ than ‘Kureru’. An aspect of translation in accordance with ‘the object of movement’ could be summarized as follows: The ‘Kureru type’ verbs were used as main verbs. ‘Kureru’ and ‘Kudasaru’ were translated to ‘Juda’ ‘Jusida’ in Korean translation, but they were translated to various vocabulary words in accordance with the characteristic of ‘the object of movement’ and were translated to imply a specific act, the process of possession and the result of possession in English translation. The ‘Kureru type’ verbs were also used as auxiliary verbs. The translated vocabulary words for Korean translation and English translation were different in accordance with whether the movement of things other than the movement of act was included or not. Examples were translated predominantly to expressions of profit such as ‘-Jada’ ‘-Dalla’ ‘-Jusida’ when there was a movement of act as well as specific things in Korean translation. Also, some examples were translated to expressions of profit when there was the movement of act with an abstract matter and there was only the act of the object of movement, but many examples were translated to the act of first verbs. Examples were translated predominantly to the act of first verbs when there was the movement which included specific things and abstract matters or there was only the movement of act in English translation. Expressions of asking a favor・request such as ‘Kureru’ and ‘Kudasaru’ were translated to ‘-Dalla’ ‘-Juseyo’ in Korean translation, but they were translated to expressions which specify an act while focusing on the structure of sentences or the function of language, such as ‘must’, ‘ask’, ‘wish’, ‘would’, and ‘would like to’ ‘please’ in English translation.
  • 15.

    A Comparative Study of Case Markers in Korean, Japanese and Ryukyuan Languages: Focusing on Nominative Case Markers and Accusative Case Markers

    Li, Jia | 2017, 46() | pp.355~377 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Compared with other Altaic languages, Japanese and Korean languages are much closer to each other in grammar, and also to Ryukyuan language. According to the literature, Korean people are the first foreigners to record Ryukyuan language in a written form. In the passage “pronunciation interpreting the Ryukyuan Kingdom” from A Journey to the Eastern Countries (1512), Korean people perfectly preserved the pronunciation and meanings of words and sentences in Ryukyuan language in both Korean and Chinese languages, which is an extremely valuable material. Unfortunately, the later time period witnessed stagnation after a prominent beginning. In order to clarify the language family to which Korean belongs to, it is necessary to thoroughly compare Korean language with Japanese and Ryukyuan languages. Different from lexis, grammar underwent a slow and gradual process of variation. A comparative study of the three languages can provide strong evidence for defining the language family of Korean. Based on this rationale, this paper starts from the comparison of grammar elements of these three languages, aiming at case markers including the nominative case markers and the accusative case markers, and observes the procedures and functions diachronically. Based on the examples from the medieval data, it is found that the nominative case markers and the accusative case markers of these three languages vary from each other in forms and origins. Although they show some similarities in functions, it can be conjectured that there is no cognate for the three languages in the history.
  • 16.

    “The Burning of Hospitals”: Sade's Thoughts on Hospitals from the Ancien Regime to the End of the 18 th Century

    Lee Choong Hoon | 2017, 46() | pp.379~409 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The villainous characters of the Marquis de Sade do not regard pity and consternation that one usually feels at the sight of poor people as natural. Such feelings are simply rejected. Therefore, Sade’s characters immediately suggest that the hospitals established by religious congregations under the Ancien Regime should disappear. However, it is important to note that enlightened thinkers are aware of the abuses caused by hospitals at that time, claiming that they are to be blamed for the worsening situation of the poor. Thus, the General Assembly of the Constituents tried to nationalize the possessions of the hospitals, going as far as abolishing every charity institution. This article aims at linking Sade’s hatred for hospitals to the issues his contemporaries raise about charity institutions. More particularly, revolutionary thinkers want to replace the considerably rich hospitals with small hospices or domiciliary care. Such actions will help reduce national budget spending and simplify the administrative procedures. Sade’s libertines view poverty issues in the society from different perspectives: philosophical, political and economic. Let us not forget that they insist on social assistance systems which would suit both the ideals and the circumstances of the new Republic. We understand that Sade took precautions against the impending return of religion and monarchy, which were expelled by the Revolution. Under the Ancien Regime, people tolerated hospitals on the pretext that they arouse natural feelings such as beneficence and compassion. Well, to say the least, Sade is not wrong in raising awareness on this issue.
  • 17.

    Ngugi wa Thiong'o's Cultural Theory and Its Significance in Translation

    Lee, Hyoseok | 2017, 46() | pp.411~434 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With emphasis on various local cultures to confront the Western central culture, Ngugi wa Thiong'o proposes them 'to move horizontally' so as not to repeat the oppressive culture of the West. We need not only dialogues between dominant languages and peripheral languages, but also between marginal languages. With respect to this point, Ngugi thinks that translation itself could be very effective. Ngugi wants to stimulate writing and speaking in marginalized languages and promote translation as a means of making these languages visible. He regards translation as a conversational tool among languages and cultures in the multicultural global community. As is already well known, his determination to write his later works only in his native Gikuyu language has a great meaning in his anti-colonial as well as anti-neocolonial movement. Its proof is his recent effort to cooperate with Jalada Africa. Simon Gikandi criticized the English translation of Matigari as a denial of cultural hegemony of Gikuyu language and its subordination to the global cultural market. However, the concept of 'thick translation', helps us move from Gikandi's doubt of the 'epistemology of translation' to a meaningful strategy of postcolonial translation. Facing some of the scholars' doubts related to his over-stressing language problem, Ngugi points out that the world has managed to function well through translation: the possibility of translation between cultures and translation as a mediating tool for communication nationally as well as internationally. Based on this two-sided solution of translation, he believes that we can overcome the opposition between relativity and universality, center and periphery, and the dominant and the subordinate.
  • 18.

    The Structure of Trans-Culture and the ‘Emperor of Civilization’

    Gong JianZe , JunSungKon | 2017, 46() | pp.435~463 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to identify the structural characteristics of Okawa Syumei(大川 周明), Wakamiya Unosuke(若宮卯之助) and Okakura Tensin(岡倉天心). In fact, after Okawa Syumei studied the Principles of Wakamiya Unosuke and Okakura Tensin, he derived a conclusion and wrote a book named "yeolseongjeon". This book talks about the emperor dynasty. Based on this, the theory presented by Wakamiya Unosuke and Okakura Tensin described the characteristics of the East European culture. Okakura Tensin crossed the western part and discovered that western culture is only western culture and not a universal culture. Western culture has developed from its own experience. Wakamiya Unosuke translated a book by William Knox, The spirt of the orient. They have the same point of view, but they have a different culture and they must follow their own culture. Okakura Tensin insisted that culture is dynamic and it improves by adapting different cultures of different countries. Wakamiya appealed and he opposed Tensin's studies about culture. Wakamiya's definition of culture has not changed or is fixed from the past, which still exists in the modern times. Culture must be cultivated and it must be introduced to people who have forgotten their own culture. Despite such methodological differences, the commonality between Okakura and Wakamiya is that Western civilization is nothing more than a regional culture, as the West is not a universal civilization, but as a whole, it is a regional culture. Okawa Syumei learned the Okakura and Wakamiya's theory about culture and derived a conclusion. He stated that both opinions are correct as culture can be adapted as explained by Okakura. For example, Japanese people are now adapting and embracing the culture of Chinese people and Indian people. On the other hand, he also learned Wakamiya Unosuke’s theory that culture does not change. Japanese have their own culture that was created in the past or it was developed by their ancestors; for example, the emperor dynasty. Okawa Syumei learned different cultures of different countries and Japanese people are adapting those cultures, and Wakamiya stated that the emperor dynasty must be instilled and it must be universal. Japanese emperors have different cultures, especially the Meiji emperor who is willing to accept different cultures of different countries. Finally, he claimed that the emperor dynasty created a new Japanese civilization and they are now embracing the new adapted culture.
  • 19.

    ‘Time’ in French Cultural Education

    Jung Woohyang | 2017, 46() | pp.465~495 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to verify whether the concept of time conveys meanings similar to nonverbal communicative elements in foreign language education. This study surveys cultural traits of time from the French cultural education perspective. Anthropologist Edward T. Hall points out that each cultural community has developed a different perception of time and experience, and that time conveys the meaningful message nonverbally similar to the nonverbal elements such as space, gesture, eye movement, and facial expression. I investigated the time experiences of a drinking party in France and in Korea, from a cultural relativistic point of view. The subject of a drinking party was chosen on the ground that a drinking party is highly related to most people’s daily lives and it also indicates how they have a relationship with others. I sought a new direction in foreign language cultural education by analyzing how cultural differences between the two communities, especially the relationships between individuals and organisations, ways to separate leisure and labor, and the nonverbal elements, are presented in the two drinking parties.