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2017, Vol.47, No.

  • 1.

    A Study on Narrative Response to the Lack of Family in the Chinese Contemporary Growth Novel After the 1990s

    Bong-Yeon Kim | 2017, 47() | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on three novels that reflect absence of family. Conflicts caused by absence of parents or lack of function and role of parents were principle drivers fueling growth novels. In Chinese growth novels, children in a long-standing tradition of emulsion and political pressure were unable to express their conflict with parents. Out of the collective interest and only until the late 1980s, which can be found of the individuals were able to fully appreciate the growth of children. Since the late 1990s, the creative individual cases to the growth is an important point of Chinese growth. Due to a close relationship of the literature and politics further noteworthy that the growth of state for personal growth for China's growth. Reform and opening up the end of the Cultural Revolution, the emergence of new generation of cultural sensitivity with a relatively free personal attention to the growth of the chance that can be. In this paper, created since the 1990s, the growth of the stories of yuhua(余華)’s 『Cry in the Rain』(『在細雨中呼喊』), sutong(蘇童)’s 『The Northern Part of the City』(『城北地帶』), wanggang(王剛)’s 『English』(『英格力士』), going to go through by focusing on how to respond in the lack of family. 『Cry in the Rain』 shows that a consciousness orphan child abandoned main actors 'consciousness from his birth parents and adoptive parents. 『The Northern Part of the City』 chronicles different growth stories of children who experienced a void because of their absent families and found comfort in peer groups. 『English』 is distinguished from the mainstream narrative of Chinese growth in terms of creating a role model. Individual growth through the role model in that it will eventually establish their own identities and further growth. Because of that, this novel is considered best practices of Chinese growth novels. This kind of narrative, which returns to the memory of the growth of growth, has a richer connotation amid various attempts by writers out of the past era of obsession and fatigue.
  • 2.

    Japanese Postwar Literary Trial and Pacific Constitution of Japan: Significance of ‘Chatterley Trial’

    Kim Jung Hee | 2017, 47() | pp.27~51 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper considers opposition between lawyers to defend human rights which the Pacific Constitution of Japan guarantees and the public power represented by the prosecution’s judicial power centered on sentencing in the ‘Chatterley Trial’ that was a Japanese representative literary trial which occurred after World War II. The lawyers’ assertion is against the public power which reminds us of the Press Act before the war defeat. Although censorship is banned in the constitution, and it can be said that it is not a dimension just to protest the check of custom but the struggle not to reenact the past Japan.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Tsushima Clan Who Invited the Envoy Munwihaeng in 1747

    TASAKA MASANORI | 2017, 47() | pp.53~76 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study on the tasks to be carried out by Tsushima clan who invited the envoy -the 38th Munwihaeng- from Korea in 1747, and the process and results. This envoy sent out for the purpose of congratulating Tokugawa, Yoshimune’s retirement and Tsushima lord’s return home, and also negotiate about Korean Diplomatic Envoys to Japan coming in the future. In late 1745, Yoshimune retired, and Ieshige inherited the position of Shogun. Then in 1746 the Edo Shogunate ordered the Tsushima clan to invite the Korean Diplomatic Envoy to Edo between April and May two years after. To the Korean Diplomatic Envoy’s invitation, many stages were necessary. In additon, Korea insisted on following the precedent in exchange with Japan. This time, throne of this new Shogun occurred due to retirement of the former Shogun. In the last 100 years, the history that the former Shogun died and the new Shogun reigned continued. For that reason, Korea had no record of sending letters and gifts to the old Shogun who retired. Because there was no precedent, Korea was unable to smoothly respond to Japan's request. This paper considers the negotiation process with Korea and the Tsushima clan, makes a prestige of the shogunate, in order to be recognized from the shogunate.
  • 4.

    Pedophilia of Destiny in Memoirs of Hadrian of Marguerite Yourcenar

    Sun-Ah Park | 2017, 47() | pp.77~100 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Memoirs of Hadrian is a representative historical novel of Yourcenar which focuses on the personal history of the Emperor Hadrian of Rome and on his inner side. This study focuses on the love story of Hadrian and Antinous, and examines the specificity of their love in relation to the homosexual culture of ancient Greece, especially pedophilia. Through this topic, we have analyzed the causes of the tragic death of Antinous by capturing the progression of a cycle of pedophilia, a young boy (Eromenos), that grows into manhood as Erastes. This study defines the emperor's efforts to restore Antinous in his own way after a failed love, as a passion toward totality. Therefore, we see the two figures as a process of mythology in which the pie of tragic destiny is transferred to the myth of androgyny that becomes one body and one unity in pedophilia. We see this ancient myth as a concept contrasting with the sense of pedophilia of the emperor, who arbitrarily distinguished between love and pleasure, and believed that the affection calculated with calmness and indifference was a harmony of love. This study explains the intention of Yourcenar in her work to present the value of empathic love, especially sacredness and sublime, which should be a part of sensual love. It also reminds us of the importance of sagacity that a person with power must hold in the happiest and most loving moments of life.
  • 5.

    Research on Guanyu’s Anthropolatry and Aspects of Religious Leverage

    Bae Kuy-Beom | Min, Kwan Dong | 2017, 47() | pp.101~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper presupposes that the reason for the development of Guanyu’s anthropolatry as a cultural phenomenon is derived from, along with Guanyu’s loyalism and valor, the people’s physiological effects longing for the emergence of a hero, and is closely linked with religious activities to provide the justification of their belief system. Based on this, the purpose of this paper is to study how major religions that is, Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism take the courses of Guanyu’s anthropolatry to their religious advantage and how Guanyu-god is applied to roots in Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. In Buddhism, it succeeded in the settlement by upgrading it to jialan-shen that guarded the Buddhist temple, while in Taoism, it was used as a guardian of the san-jie-fu-mo-da-di that chased the almighty devil and deviated from the disaster and suffering. In Confucianism, it was connected to Guanyu’s Confucian-commander image to that of chun-qiu-da-yi of kongzi. That is, by symbolizing Guanyu as God of Martial Power and War depending on the country, it was used as a means of governance to establish rules and order.
  • 6.

    Carmen Laforet’s Nada: A Canon of Polyphony

    Eunhee Seo | 2017, 47() | pp.131~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This work introduces Nada (1944) by Carmen Laforet in humanities in Korea, to add new knowledge about Spanish literature and therefore broaden and enrich humanities. When the opera prima of this Barcelonian author came to light, critics and the readers were shocked at a work that departed from the expiring Spanish novel under Franco’s anti-intellectual and anticreative regime, to renew it indefinitely. That was more than 70 years ago, and today the freshness of Andrea's story continues to be prevail, thanks to its most outstanding feature: polyphonic ambiguity in its text, which allows the novel to include and develop different and contradictory meaning. This investigation addresses several critical readings of Nada, produced and extended inside and outside Spain. These readings, together, reveal the exceptional flexibility and complexity of Nada, a work of fiction that reflects and recreates multiple aspects of the human being.
  • 7.

    Faith beyond Religion: A Study on the Faith-based films after 2010s in Hollywood

    SooJeong AHN | 2017, 47() | pp.163~190 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies the recent surge in the number of faith-based films in Hollywood, with the aim to explore the context and implications of this new trend. By using the theoretical framework of the study of the Tilich and Van der Leeuw, who have explored the relationship between religion, culture and art, this article discusses the meaning of the spiritual theme in the film. A couple of common points can be found among the faith-based films that have been produced since the 2010s. While these films attempt a universal approach to the fundamental theme of spirituality through popular narratives familiar to the audience, they also stress ‘historical truthfulness and credibility’ by representing the reality, such as a featuring real person or a true story in the film. The main characters are depicted as “victorious losers” that are distinguished from the typical Hollywood superhero and the films repeatedly show the human being constantly ‘asking’ questions to God. By analyzing these characteristics, the paper demonstrates that recent Hollywood faith-based films have successfully differentiated themselves from existing religious films while symbolizing the universal beliefs and values ​​beyond the religious message so as to attract more audiences to this field. The paper also suggests that despite the advances in modern science and knowledge, the public will always yearn for a spiritual recovery and salvation through the film medium, serving as a potential source that provides an outlet for spiritual experience.
  • 8.

    Existential Consciousness and the Meaning of Characters in André Malraux’s Literary Works

    Oh se-jung | 2017, 47() | pp.191~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Among 20th century Western ideologies (Western civilization), existentialism is a spirit of the times to restore humanity as rationality and advanced technology have driven mankind to impoverishment and death, experiencing the First and Second World War, Great Depression, Fascism and the Spanish Civil War. In his literature, André Malraux records his existential agony of how mankind lives and faces death by questioning the fateful life and death of characters. For Malraux’s characters, the absurdity of existence related to the human identity means self-examination. Malraux explores existential consciousness and actions of characters in the presence of a concept known as death relative to terror, revolution, and adventure. Malraux deftly addresses the concept of death in his literary works, and it has being emphasized as a central subject for philosophical speculation. In Les Conquérants(1928), La Voie Royale(1930), La Condition Humaine (1933), L'Espoir(1937), Malraux suggested a philosophical thesis of the meaning of life through characters in tragic situations, and sought out the consciousness of being and the existential meaning through how the characters control their fate. Malraux, in such a tragic perspective of the world, portrays humanity, affirmation of life, and characters’ consciousness and actions in denying death. The agony of death triggers escapist behavior such as having unpredictable instinctual desires such as gambling or smoking opium, but these are desperate struggles to flee from frustration and related to the question of one’s existence. What is always emphasized with respect to Malraux’s existentialism is the tragic metaphysics of the inevitable destiny of the human condition eventually leading to the question of how humans ultimately confront death. But as characters unite in times of war, revolution and adventure in the novel, such cooperative actions symbolizes a keen sense of solidarity reflecting a camaraderie that transcends individualism. Fellowship among people who voluntarily gather for the common cause of philanthropy and restoring humanity is possible because of the underlying human greatness to sacrifice for such a noble cause. Therefore, Malraux’s camaraderie includes the victory of existentialism in creating a world of humanism.
  • 9.

    A Contrastive Study on Korean and Chinese Passive Expression: Centered on Korean Act Subject Marks and Chinese Passive Marks

    YU Tong-Tong | Inkyun Kim | 2017, 47() | pp.217~240 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is based on a comparative analysis of the Korean act subject marks ‘-에게(한테), -로, -에' and Chinese passive marks ‘被[bèi]/让[ràng]/叫[jiào]/给[gěi]’. Each distribution’s aspects and characteristics were examined and corresponding relationships were analyzed by comparison of these forms. The method of this comparative analysis focused on three aspects such as tangible characteristics of the two languages, selective restrictions on the ‘act subject’ or ‘passive subject’ in the passive expression, and constraints on the use of the act subject (passive) marks in the Korean passive expression by ‘받다’. In this comparative analysis Korean act subject markers ‘-에게(한테), -로, -에' and Chinese passive markers ‘被/让/叫/给’ are always as an adverb in passive expression in combination with the act subject. Despite this common point, some differences were revealed relative to the use of the two languages. First, we reveal that the ‘act subject’ and the conjoined manner follow the passive expression according to characteristics of the two languages. In addition, the act subject marks of Korean passive expressions ‘에게/한테, -에/로’ only serve as an investigative role. They are limited only to [±animate] of the act subject. But Chinese passive markers ‘被/让/叫/给’ are often restricted by [±animate] of passive subject, existence and non-existence of act subject. In the Korean passive expression by ‘받다’, it is used as act subject marks ‘에게/한테, -에/로’ but the Chinese passive marks are restricted by the meaning of lexical items in a sentence.
  • 10.

    Semantic Analysis of Color Terms in Chinese Neologisms: Focusing on Black, White, and Gray

    LEE, MYUNG A | Han, Yong Su | 2017, 47() | pp.241~260 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    A multitude of neologisms has entered the lexicon of modern Chinese society as a reflection of the changes modern Chinese society has undergone, and amid this trend, a variety of color terms has emerged. However, these neologisms of color terms in modern Chinese society are used somewhat differently from their roots. First, the achromatic color terms used in Chinese neologisms include black, white, and gray. The significance criteria generally used in these neologisms of color terms only partially express their meaning in the modern Chinese language. Second, the frequency usage of significant criteria of color terms that have emerged in Chinese neologisms reveals a relative distribution between color terms referring to black and white. The color term “black” is the most active neologism to connote its expanded meaning, followed by its basic meaning. However, the color term “white” is most actively used to connote its basic meaning, followed by its expanded meaning. Third, among the achromatic color terms used in Chinese neologisms, black and gray exhibit expansion of meaning. For example, in the context of neologisms, the color term “black” is used to symbolize “in disaster areas” and “socially discriminated against,” while “gray” is used to symbolize the “social aspect.”
  • 11.

    The Concept of Philosopher/Writer and Its Change in the Age of Enlightenment : Expansion of the Publishing Market and Philosophers, Man of Letters and Writers

    Chung Hai Soo | 2017, 47() | pp.261~289 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is a follow-up on the concept of philosopher/writer and its transformation in the Age of Enlightenment – 1. the dictionary meaning of the term ‘philosopher/writer’ and the origins of ‘literary fields’ of the Enlightenment era. In this article, we analyzed changes in the literary field in the late 17th century after the expansion of the publishing market. We examined the conflict surrounding philosophers’ identifying between modern and traditional philosophers. We have validated that the formation of new readers has made traditional philosophers more sensitive to the ‘horizon of expectations’ of readers. Some biographical works are also one of our concern. By the end of the 17th century, philosophers and writers suddenly became objects of biographical works unlike in the past. Through our research, we found that readers have sought the arrival of a new hero, a great philosopher or a great writer, that will lead a new era, and due to this anticipation, it has led to the publication of biographical works. In this process, we have revealed conceptual changes about authors, writers, philosophers, and so on. In the next article, we will continue advanced discussion on the concept of philosopher/writer.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Meaning of ‘House’ in Chi Li’s Novel

    Choi Eun Jeong | 2017, 47() | pp.291~312 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines how 'house' is meaningful in Chi Li’s novel. Chi Li focuses on the house as a symbol of status, and the house as a place of gender performance. First, as a sign that symbolizes an individual's identity, 'house' is divided into intellectual and petit bourgeois, and constitutes binarism into civilization/non-civilization, knowledge/non-knowledge, spirit/anti-spirit and superior/inferior. In recognizing the irrationality and unfairness behind house symbolizing intellectual and petit bourgeois, Chi Li shatters the boundaries of the binaralized house as a sign of identity. Second, it dismantles the house as a place where gender is (re)produced. This is accomplished through two aspects. One is to re-define a private area house as a public area in which economic activity occurs. The house, as a public area in which economic activity occurs, becomes a place where women are reborn as economic entities. Passive, dependent femininity is reconstructed as independent and subjective. The other dismantles the definition of the house which is identified with masculinity. The house identified with masculinity is a place that symbolizes the socio-economic capacity of men. According to the socio-economic ability of males, the house is a place symbolizing the realization of masculinity, and it becomes a place to fix the gender order while reproducing masculinity. It may become a place to experience the weakening or defamation of masculinity. At that moment, the house becomes a place where the gender order of masculinity and femininity is overturned. Through this, Chi Li reconstructed, and in a sense revolutionized the definition of the house as a place where traditional gender is (re) produced by dismantling the definition of fixed femininity or masculinity.