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2018, Vol.50, No.

  • 1.

    A Becoming-Nonhuman Animal in the Neurological State of Exception: Black Swan and Birdman

    Je cheol Park | 2018, 50() | pp.1~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the contemporary American cinematic landscape, there is a distinctive tendency to depict the disturbing ways in which characters with brain damages perceive, remember, and think about the world. Despite its attempts to examine the socio-political implications of these characters' subjectivities, the previous scholarship on this trend of film was limited in being either too pessimistically deterministic or too euphorically optimistic. Critically reading neuroscientific discourses on the brain-damaged subject from the perspective of Giorgio Agamben's critique of biopolitics, this paper explores how the contemporary American cinema of the impaired brain attempts to mediate the neurologically inexplicable affects of those subjects who are in the neurological state of exception and to express their experiences of a becoming-nonhuman. By closely reading Darren Aronofsky's Black Swan and Alejandro González Iñárritu's Birdman in this regard, I show how the two films, by employing different sets of cinematic free indirect techniques, express the neurologically impaired subject’s affective experience of a becoming-nonhuman animal in different ways, and thereby to a more or less extent act as 'profaned' neuro-biopolitical apparatuses.
  • 2.

    What Is a Monster Narrative? Seven Fragments on the Relationship between a Monster Narrative and a Catastrophic Narrative

    Hyong-jun Moon | 2018, 50() | pp.31~51 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The concept of ‘monsters’ have become popular, again, in recent times. A number of ‘monster narratives’ that discuss monsters such as zombies, humanoids, viruses, extraterrestrials, and serial killers have been made and re-made in popular media. Noting such an interesting cultural context, this article attempts, first, to find out some essential prototypical elements of a monster narrative and, second, to relate it with a catastrophic narrative. Correspondingly, the word ‘monster’ has been used as a conceptual prototype category that denies universal and clear definition, which makes it as one of the most widely used and familiar subjects of the use of metaphor. The prototypical meanings of various monster figures can be converged on a certain creature of being in this way held out as bizarre, curious, and abnormal. The monster figure that surpasses existing normality is also connected to ‘abjection,’ such as something that is cast aside from the body such as the bodily functions seen in its associated blood, tears, vomit, excrement, or semen, and so on. Nevertheless, both the monster figure and abjection produce disgust and horror in the minds of ordinary spectators or readers of media using this metaphor to heighten excitement for the viewers. The abject characteristic of the monster figure also has something in common with the posthuman figure, meaning to apply to a category of inhuman others who are held outside of the normal category of human beings. In the similar vein, it is natural that the most typical monster figures in our times are posthuman creatures embodied in such forms as seen with zombies, humanoids, cyborgs, robots, and so on. In short, the monster figure includes all of the creatures and beings that disarray normalized humanist categories and values. The monster narrative, in the same sense, is a type of story that tells about others outside modern, anthropocentric, male-centered, and Westernized categories of thought. It can be argued that a catastrophic narrative, a literary genre which depicts the world where a series of catastrophic events demolish the existing human civilization, ought to be seen as a typical modern-day monster narrative, because it also discounts and criticizes normalized humanist categories and values as is the result of the monster narrative. Going beyond the prevailing humanist realist narrative that are so familiar with existing values, the catastrophic narrative is not only a monster narrative per se, but also a monstrous narrative which disrupts and reinvents currently mainstream narratives and ways of thinking.
  • 3.

    “Main Enemies” in the Posthuman Era: Monsters in Three Spanish Films

    Eunhee Seo | 2018, 50() | pp.53~75 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It is commonly emphasized that the metaphor of the monster is a rhetoric universally used to identify the “main enemy” of a society, for its effective function is seen as useful for the uniting of citizens to bend together to survive or succeed before the external threat. The problem of this metaphor is that it homogenizes and dehumanizes the heterogeneous individual members of the subsequently identified enemy group. This study emphasizes the importance of some traits of the posthuman subject, such as the flexibility and the multiplicity of consciousness, to overcome the otherizing binary perspective which is commonly held regarding the concepts of good and evil. To observe specific dimensions of the posthuman consciousness, we analyze three films based on Spanish history and reality: The Spirit of the Beehive, The Day of the Beast and Pan’s Labyrinth. All of these films progress around the figure of the enemy-monster(s), showing how to transgress the dichotomous structure of consciousness that defines the self/good dividing it from the other/evil. The heroes in the films seek to overcome the fear about the monster, and approach him to discover new ethical horizons, that can emerge only when an individual’s consciousness chooses to stay on the border between the established beliefs and the unfamiliar voice of the dangerous stranger(s).
  • 4.

    Gender politics and the monster-abject representation method of the posthuman age. ─ Focused on works by Kim Eon-hee and Han-Kang ─

    Baik, Ji-yeon | 2018, 50() | pp.77~101 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Even in our modern era, the projection of monsters in the recent literature contains the critical imagination of human existence for the posthuman age. The meaning of the monster-abject, especially as from the perspective of feministic criticism, contains criticism of the violent and oppressive patriarch as observed in the modern times. This article focuses on the gendered imagination of the discussions of the "abject" discussed by Julia Kristeva, and the "monstrous femine" discussed by Barbara Creed. Kim Eon-Hee's poems and Han Kang's novels, which have been examined extensively for analysis, show that the practical strategy of abject that goes beyond hate and sublime, wonder and joy through the imagination and concepts of monsters. The monster-abject strategy of Kim Eon-Hee's poem can be summarized by the narrative method of mirroring and the imagination of the truncated body. Mirroring falsification, which mimics the male speaker, is a method that some feminists strategically utilize in relation to the problem of female aversion in recent years as noted in the literature. In Kim Eon-Hee's poem, "becoming a man" and "imitating a man," through the method of mirroring appear as an image of cutting to dismantle the body. In that way, the narrative strategy of the abject that draws out abominations and bizarre effects which contains a strong critique of the patriarchal dominant ideology. The monster-abject strategy of Han-Kang's novel is embodied through the being of plants and the process of vegetarian-anorexia process. The world of the adject which was oppressed in the Han-Kang's novel, returns to the senses of the body through the symbol of the body. It is noted that the fictional characters who realize the repressed desire through the pathological symptom expressed by the female, go on to body perform active transformation. The sense of a body in a novel is not only a rejection of the world of animal- man-civilization, but also a radically questioning of the noted and recognized boundaries between human beings and non-human being entities. The two writer’s works show that the imagination of the monster-adject is not limited to rejecting the existing gender categories, but also goes in the direction of exploring the possibilities of various associated gender actions.
  • 5.

    Discourse Analysis of Business Chinese and the Comparison of Negotiation Culture between Korea and China ─ Focused on Business Emails Related to 'Napkin Holder' Imports ─

    CHOI TAE HOON | 2018, 50() | pp.103~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research aims to explore the associated linguistic features and functions of Chinese as used for business trading purposes, and which is based on a discourse analysis through a case in which a Korean buyer and a Chinese supplier have exchanged Internet based e-mails. The research questions include first, the linguistic functions and characteristics of Chinese shown as identified in this trade case through e-mails, second, the use of Chinese trade specific terms, and third, the apparent and dynamic negotiation strategies that are identified as followed by the cultural value systems which are used for resolving interest conflicts and issues between the buyer and supplier in the course of negotiating business contracts between two parties. The participants of this research pertain to a Korean buyer, James and a Chinese supplier, Sonya. The associated data consists of 74 e-mails exchanged between the two parties, initiated in an effort to begin and complete a trade item, in this case namely the product of napkin holders. The research for the study is based on the discourse analysis and empirically analyses models of Chinese linguistic functions and features. The findings are the following. First, as identified, the specific Chinese functions used and sequenced in this trade case are of a procedure, request, informing, negotiation and persuasion. Second, the essential trade terms used in this business interaction involve the relevant issues of 1) ordering and price negotiating, 2) marking the origin of the products, 3) the arrangement of the product examination and customs declaration for the anticipated import items, 4) preparation of the necessary legal documents, and 5) the package and transport of the product in the final instance. Third, the impact of the similarities and differences in the cultural value systems between Korea and China on the negotiations and conflict resolution during a negotiated contract between two parties are speculated in terms of the use of culturally based techniques such as face-saving and the utilization of uncertainty-avoiding strategies as meant to prevent misunderstandings from developing between the parties. The concluding part of the study discusses the implications for a practical Chinese language education utilizing the linguistic functions and features of the Chinese culture and language strategies as useful in business associations for trading purposes, and the importance of intercultural communication styles based on similar of different identified cultural values as noted between two parties.
  • 6.

    The Custom of Bride Wealth in Africa:The Context of Change and Reconstruction

    Byung-Soo Seol | 2018, 50() | pp.131~172 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It is noted that nowadays, the bride wealth custom takes an extremely distorted form in African society. Such a phenomenon is a result that the male-dominant culture, Western religions, and capitalist economic system have been negatively combined into dynamic factors seen as bride wealth. This means that the concept of bride wealth has been incessantly reconstructed in the middle of clash and conflict of tradition and modernity. There is also little doubt that the practice is inextricably tangled with the common and current ways of livelihood, early marriage, polygyny, kinship/family structure, poverty, and migration labor. Bride wealth has become an increasingly commercialized element under a capitalist economic system. Accordingly, its traditional symbolism is seen to be subsequently weakening, whereas a tendency towards the reification of women is strengthening more in modern society that embraces modern customs bent on the protection of women’s human rights. Its commercialization has produced a result, which instigates the noted violations of women’s basic human rights, gender inequality, and promotion of domestic violence. The ways that people perceive bride wealth vary according to their own sex, generation, stratification, and ethnic background. Those people who negatively recognize bride wealth will increase with the deepening of its commercialization due to the influence of capitalism. Its color and effect will deepen and depend on how its agents correspond to socioeconomic changes. They will constantly reinterpret and reconstruct it within their own environments, but the basic human rights efforts are constantly under review by concerned individuals seeking to promote equality for women as a global effort.
  • 7.

    Study on the Relationship between the Cultural Position of the Subject of Creation and Filmic Narrative ─ Focusing on A Quiet Dream by Zhang Lu ─

    Sung-Hee Jin | 2018, 50() | pp.173~196 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study, which works to develop a method of focusing on A Quiet Dream by Zhang Lu, explored the structural differences of films and the changes in Zhang Lu’s aim and perspective as noted in films, by a review to grasp his internal changes in texts and contextual factors. In A Quiet Dream, Zhang Lu made a filmic attempt that had never been made in the world of films prior to that date. He tried an aesthetic experiment on how films could reorganize the world, by using the effect of obscuring the boundary between reality and dream in films and generating a new narrative regarding filmic reality, actual reality, and the life and artistic truth of the Diaspora. Generally speaking, the changes in the narrative in A Quiet Dream seem to be his resistance against himself and the Diaspora. Thus, in the discussion about A Quiet Dream, relying on the external factors intervening in the relationship between the subject of creation and films is not a useful endeavor at this time. Consequently, it is noted that after settling down in Korea, Zhang Lu could directly approach the changes in the cultural position of films in multilayered ways, where films were the most dynamic part of his life. Due to the changes in the Diaspora, he could obscure the boundary for the first time in the world of films and experiment with how films could escape develop an interesting perspective that deviated from reality, and made a new goal to show new ideas regarding the individual’s awareness of the world.
  • 8.

    A Comparative Study on the Administration and Utilization of UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage ─ Kimjang and Washoku in Korea and Japan ─

    Kim, Hyunjung | 2018, 50() | pp.197~224 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Korea's Kimjang and Japan's Washoku were listed in the UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2013. Kimjang and Washoku not only have the meaning of a long tradition or national representative food. Additionally, UNESCO admitted the value of Kimjang and Washoku that allows members of society to share together and strengthen their solidarity through the use of it. And the identity of each nation is well represented in the Kimjang and Washoku effort. The Kimjang is managed by the Intangible Cultural Properties Department of the Cultural Heritage Administration. Likewise, the Washoku is managed by the Department of Washokusitsu of Japan's Agriculture Ministry. In regards to festivals, they are the most representative of Kimjang's contents in Korea. Kimjang can participate with a consensus of all people and must do it before the coming winter months. In this way, it is very suitable for the presentation of a festival. And there are many festivals related to Washoku in Japan, mainly manifested with local specialties. We have seen that Japan has many kinds of festivals, which encourages it to be called and known as the country of festivals. And Washoku is being fostered as the core content of the ‘Cool Japan Strategy’ because it has become world-renowned since it was listed as an intangible cultural heritage.
  • 9.

    The linguistic and cultural phenomena derived from the interpretative ambiguity in the traditional Catalan time telling expressions

    Jaeyong Kwak | 2018, 50() | pp.225~259 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, according to the Institut d'Estudis Catalan, it is noted that the traditional Catalan time telling system is essentially based on delineating time by the use of the ‘quarts (=quarters)' of an hour. In this fasion, to tell the time 8:15, 8:30 and 8:45 they use ‘És un quart de nou.,’ ‘Són dos quarts de nou.,’ and ‘Són tres quarts de nou.,’ but do not use constructions such as ‘Són les vuit i quinze.,’ ‘Són les vuit i trenta/mitja.,’ ‘Són les vuit i quaranta-cinc.,’ because these expressions are considered to be as dialectal variants or international notation-based variants. Moreover, the traditional Catalan time telling system does not use cardinal numbers, except in the case of ‘cinc (five)’ and ‘deu (ten).’ These linguistic phenomenon cause the invention of a unique Catalan digital watch, and has noted special designs for the creation of a Catalan analogue watch. For this reason, the quarter system in colloquial Catalan provokes an enormous interpretative ambiguity in daily routine expressions with 'quarts' like ‘Són quarts of nou.’ or ‘entre dos i tres quarts’ whose meaning is not delineated between sixteen and forty-four minutes. We will argue that the traditional Catalan time telling expressions do not have the use of the subtractive system, and the fraction word ‘quart’ lacks a specific meaning of fifteen minutes because the Catalan word ‘quart’ is etymologically related to the classical public bell system, not definitively to the traditional clock system.
  • 10.

    Certain characteristics of Sade’s work that no one wants to allude

    Chung Hai Soo | 2018, 50() | pp.261~281 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This was originally from the preceding research, ’50 years of Sade’s Studies,’ and we have submitted this thesis by reorganizing it carefully in a paper format. To understand Sade, we had to go through and consider certain characteristics that the critics were reluctant to reveal. In other words, the revelation of the polythony throughout the work, the contradictory philosophical discourse of the characters, and the fact that Marquis’ work is a situational text are factors to consider in this case. People have studied Sade disregarding these characteristics for a long period of time. Especially those groups of professional critics, has taken only a certain amount of Sade’s work for their theoretical justification. As a result, the work of Sade became unreadable. Fortunately, researchers since 1990 have refused to continue the habitual of regarding Sade in the same light as his characters, and have instead focused on the process of researching the fundamentals based on the correct data, history and ideological context. We think that the research of those who have caused reverberations to the academic world would be the key point to the Studies of Sade in the future research.
  • 11.

    A Study on Pushkin’s Self-Portraits

    Sim Ji Eun | 2018, 50() | pp.283~311 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Russian poet A. C. Pushkin left more than a hundred self-portraits in his lifetime. These self-portraits are the subject of a special research project. Pushkin liked to sketch himself disguised in various shapes in his manuscripts. Besides Pushkin, many authors have portrayed themselves, but in terms of their quantity and fame, it is difficult to find self-portraits that transcended those which are as detailed and revealing as that of Pushkin's. Focusing on this point, this paper first examines the position of the poet's self-portraits in the context of the tradition of the self-portrait, as a painting genre full of romanticism as manifested and revealed in the 19th century. Subsequently, this article explains the meaning of the Pushkin's typical self-portraits in profile, which were mostly drawn in his manuscripts. Finally, in order to explore the philosophical implications contained in this poet's self-portraits, this paper attempts to read poet's self-portrait in comparison with Rembrandt's self-portrait, and Montaigne's Essais as well for a comprehensive comparison of the three entities.
  • 12.

    On the ‘realization’ meaning of possibility expressions - ‘-ul swu iss-’ and its counterparts in Japanese and Chinese-

    Kang, Yeongri | Xu, Cuie | Park, Jinho | 2018, 50() | pp.313~346 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    It is noted that generally speaking, the expressing of actualization or non-actualization of events is not the main role of possibility for the utilization of expressions. In spite of this fact, it is possible to see many examples in which possibility expressions represent actual events, and impossibility expressions represent a type of non-actualization in relation to events. This effect can be described as a semantic extension, by which the participant-internal possibility is extended to actualization due to participant- internal factors, and the participant-external possibility is extended to the actualization due to participant-external factors. When the related possibility expressions are used in this extended sense, they express the dynamic evaluative meaning of ‘desirability’ of the realized event, while it is determined that when the impossibility expressions are used in this extended sense, they are seen to express the evaluative meaning of ‘regretfulness’ about the non-actualization of the event. In Modern Japanese, it is noted that there are a few expressions of ability and possibility. They can be largely divided into four types of expressions, according to their origins or uses of expression, which are ‘ability verbs’, affixes ‘-れる/られる(-reru/rareru)’, ‘-できる(-dekiru)’, and ‘-得る(-eru)’. They can all express participant-internal possibility and participant-external non-deontic possibility. While ‘ability verbs’, affixes ‘-れる/られる’ and ‘-できる’ can express participant-external deontic possibility, ‘-得る’ cannot. However, ‘-得る’ is the only possible element to designate the event of a epistemic possibility. Also, the four types of expressions have the usage of conveying ‘actualization/non-actualization,’ as is the case of the Korean language. However in Japanese, in fact adjectives cannot be associated with ‘ability verbs’ or ‘ability affixes.’ Thus the expressions of ‘regrets’ should in that case depend on the use contexts, unlike the expression ‘adj+-지 못하다’ as noted in Korean. The ability and possibility in Modern Chinese are mainly expressed by means of the four auxiliary verbs ‘能(néng)’, ‘会(huì)’, ‘可以(kěyǐ)’ and ‘可能(kěnéng)’. ‘能’ and ‘会’ along with ‘可以’ can all convey participant-internal possibility. In this way ‘能’ and ‘可以’ can express participant-external possibility. Only ‘会’ and ‘可能’ can express epistemic possibility. As for ‘actualization,’ among the four auxiliary verbs, only ‘能’ can represent actualization. Also, among the negatives of the four auxiliary verbs, only ‘沒能’ can represent non-actualization.
  • 13.

    Thick Description as a Methodology of Comparative Literature

    SEONJOO PARK | 2018, 50() | pp.347~370 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes a new direction for Comparative Literature which has been deeply Eurocentric and even colonial ever since its birth. ‘Comparison’ in Comparative Literature has been in fact the ideological mechanism for containing, classifying, and eventually controlling all differences in the world. Literature has naturally served as a national institution of the West at epistemological and discursive level with hidden adjective “comparative”. To re-conceptualize the discipline and practice of “Comparative Literature”, we need to revolutionize methodology itself based on Wai Chee Dimock’s idea of “Weak Theory”, Foucault’s “disappearance of author”, and Clifford Geertz’s “thick description”. “Thick description” as a methodology of comparative literature re-establishes the discipline as a field of “weak theory”, defusing the centrality of linguistic identity and re-making it as a “long network” of loose and missed connections. “Thick description” poses the publicness of nation-state within “confusion of tongues”, problematizes the legitimacy of modern knowledge, and puts (the western) nationalism in question. With this idea as a starting point, we can re-imagine Comparative Literature anew as a field of ceaseless discourse of longer, weaker, and thicker networks of interpretation and re-interpretation of differences.
  • 14.

    Study on Tragic Characteristic in Lope’s Drama La estrella de Sevilla

    Yoon Yong-wook | 2018, 50() | pp.371~394 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    La estrella de Sevilla, is a representative masterpiece of the Golden Age of Spain, and is a tragic work of Lope de Vega, who was a representative drama writer living in the 17th century. However, regardless of its great literary value, there are insufficient researches on this drama even in Spain, due to several controversies surrounding the truth about Lope’s creation. Here, this research concretely investigated the tragic characteristic of this drama, by largely dividing it into the viewpoint of Aristotle and Shakespeare. Thanks to the noble social status of the characters and proper dialogue of the hero Sancho Ortiz in trouble, there seems to be no problem in performing the cathartic function that Aristotle mentioned regarding the work in his review. However, there are a few problems in the aspect of the ‘hero’s free will to resist the absolute fate,’ which is fundamentally the essence of the associated Aristotelian tragedy. Because, there’s no Hamartia in this drama, the core mechanism that forms the absolute fate, makes the statement that accordingly, no absolute fate or irresistible force of destiny is established. Rather, the tragic characteristic of this drama can be more properly investigated from the viewpoint of Shakespeare. As noted differently from Aristotle, Shakespeare considered that the tragic characteristic came from the hero’s characteristic. According to him, tragedy starts from the hero’s value view and personality, instead of the external factors such as an absolute fate. Actually, Busto’s death and separation between Sancho Ortiz and Estrella, two tragic affairs of La estrella de Sevilla, were caused by the crooked selfishness of King Sancho IV, who abused his authority, and Sancho Ortiz’ excessively blind loyalty to the King, rather than the irresistible event. In conclusion, in light of a lethargic and hopeless situation, with no eventual choice of options before the injustice of absolute power, is must have been a significant tragedy for the audience, witnessing the play's tragic ending.
  • 15.

    The Present Situation and Challenges of the Russian Music Industry:Centered on the Digital Sound Sources

    kwon Ki Bae | SE IL KIM | 2018, 50() | pp.395~424 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current situation and background of the Russian consumer music market, where digital music sources are making great strides in the noted recent years. In addition, music storage technology, media and change are considered together in this report. Moreover, Russia is the 12th largest music market in the world. The Russian music industry is following the recent trend of the global music industry, where the digital music market is growing rapidly on many different levels. The explosive growth of the digital sound sources in Russia's music industry is attributed to the explosive increase in available consumer downloads, streaming sound source service, and the increase in the number of digital sound sources using mobile technologies due to the development of the Internet. In particular, the sales of the available and accessible streaming sound sources are expected to grow explosively by the year 2020, which is expected to account for more than 85% of total digital music sales. In other words, the spread of smartphones and the resulting changes in the lifestyle of the Russians have created these changes for the global consumer of music. In other words, the time has come for anyone to easily access music and listen to music without a separate audio or digital player. And the fact that the Russian government's strong policy on the eradication of illegal copying of music is becoming an effective deterrent, as is also the factor that led to the increase of the share of the digital sound source to increase sales in Russia. Today, the Russian music industry is leading this change through the age and process of simply adapting to the digital age. Music is the most important element of cultural assets, and it is the beneficial content, which drives the overall growth of the digital economy. In addition, if the following five improvements(First, strengthen the consciousness of the Russian people about copyright protection; Second, utilizing the Big Data Internet resources in the digital music industry; Third, to improve the monopoly situation of digital music distributors; Fourth, distribution of fair music revenues; and Fifth, revitalization of a re-investment in the current Russian music industry) are effective and productive, Russia's role and position in the world music market is likely to expand.
  • 16.

    On Doublets

    Eun-Gyeong Yi | 2018, 50() | pp.425~451 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we examined the issues of the discussions on the subject of doublets. In general, as a definition, the use of doublets refer to a pair of words which have a common etymon, but also to a pair of words or grammatical morphemes that have the same meaning and similar forms of the word. In this paper, we have seen that a typical pairing word is a pair of words with a common etymology. Generally speaking, it is possible to divide doublets into subtypes depending on the identified similarities or differences in the meaning or form. The most distant type from the typical type of doublets is a pair of words that do not have a common etymon, but have the same meaning and are similar in form. The second issue about doublets is whether doublets include only words. For example, if some josas (postpositions or particles) have a common etymon, then it is noted that they can be accepted as a kind of doublets. In the case of suffixes, it may be possible to recognize the suffixes as doublets if they have a common etymon. In other words, it is not necessary to recognize the suffixes as doublets because the derivatives which are derived by the suffixes can be accepted as doublets. In the case of endings, it may be possible to recognize a pair of endings which have the same meaning and the common etymon as a doublet. Otherwise, the word forms to which the endings are combined can be accepted likewise as doublets. However, considering the fact that the endings typically in use in the Korean language may have syntactic properties, the endings should be considered as doublets rather than the words which have the endings. Finally, we conclude that there may be some debate as to whether stem doublets or ending doublets belong to a lexical item in the lexicon. It can be said that they are plural underlying forms and may be deserving of further research.
  • 17.

    The Semantic Structure and Grammaticalization of the French Preposition de

    Park Jungjoon | 2018, 50() | pp.453~482 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about the French preposition de. This preposition is considered to have no meaning in the French language, and to have only the grammatical function in its use. This study begins with doubts about such views regarding this preposition. We organize and classify general descriptions of the uses of this preposition. The uses are classified as ‘expressing starting point,’ ‘giving characteristics’ and ‘performing grammatical functions’ and this data is analyzed in terms of the associated cognitive grammar. In the case of expressing the starting point, it is assumed that the trajector moves from the starting point, to the destination point, in the domain of space and in the domain of time. Therefore, it is noted in this case that the preposition de has a dynamic concept. On the other hand, it is significant to understand that the preposition of the ‘giving characteristics’ defines an outline of a particular class by giving the class's characteristics. The preposition de has a static concept in this case. For the preposition de which introduces the infinitive, all of these dynamic and static concepts are faded and extremely grammaticalized.
  • 18.

    Shylock as the Abject

    Lee,Mi-Sun | 2018, 50() | pp.483~507 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Shylock in Shakespeare’s play, The Merchant of Venice has been considered as either a devilish villain, or as a victim who was persecuted unfairly by the Christian society in Venice. By focusing on the matter of the Other, which has been summarily overlooked in literary texts and the literary criticism, it is noted that the New Historical and Cultural criticism interpreted Shylock as the racial, religious, and economic Other in the Venetian society which at the time was dominated by Christian ideals. The purpose of this paper is to show how Shylock becomes an abjected Other, that is, the abject, based on Julia Kristeva's theory of abjection. According to Kristeva, an abjection is the process of expulsion of otherness from society, through which the subject or the nation tries to set up clear boundaries and establish a stable identity. Shylock is marginalized and abjected by the borders drawn by the Venetian Christian society, which in a strong sense tries to protect its identity and homogeneity by rejecting and excluding any unclean or improper otherness. The borders include the two visible borders like the Ghetto and the red hats worn by the Jews, and one invisible border in the religious and economic fields. By asking for one pound of Antonio’s flesh when he can’t pay back 3,000 ducats owed, Shylock tries to cross the border between Christians and Jews. Portia frustrates Shylock's desire to violate the border by presenting a different interpretation of the expression, ‘one pound of flesh,’ from Shylock’s interpretation. And in doing so she expels him back to his original position of abject.