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2018, Vol.51, No.

  • 1.

    The antiwar consciousness in Korean poems based on the Iraq War

    Mun, Hye-won | 2018, 51() | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The real purpose of the Iraq War was to ensure that the United States took control of Iraq’s oil and retained its hegemony in the Middle East. Afterward, anti-American and anti-war movements spread around the world. The Iraq war is an important event. Korean poetry goes beyond the specificity of 'Korean War and division' and puts 'anti-war' and ‘peace’ at the universal level on the subject. It means joining the global and contemporary issues of 'anti-war' and 'peace'. Korean poetry based on the Iraq War is divided into three categories: poetry that accuses and testifies to the devastation, poetry that identifies the cause of the war, and poetry that presents alternatives and solutions. The poetry is linked to the idea of respect for life, and appears in the form of peace and nonviolence.
  • 2.

    Imperial Rescript (Chokugo), Imperial Rescript (Shousho) and an Anti-war Senryu

    Ken Kurumisawa | 2018, 51() | pp.25~44 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Modern Japanese “Anti-war poetry” originates from Sino-Japanese war and Russo-Japanese war period. Sino-Japanese war was started by an Imperial rescript of war declared and ordered by the Japanese Emperor to the Japanese citizens. With this declaration, the Emperor gave a message to the population that Objection was not acceptable. This Declaration of Imperial Rescript (Shousho) became justified as being a Crusade or Holy war. Any Anti-war stance was considered an ideology of revolt against the Emperor and his order of Imperial rescript (Okotoba). This was why when Akiko Yosano’s “Don’t you dare lay down your life” (1904) was published, it received harsh criticisms such as “be punished in the name of the nation”. Anti-war poetry as a way of free speech was suppressed. Short poem was especially targeted. Because it is seen as a minor genre, short poem has been passed over. It needs to be reappraised for its importance as a category of anti-war poetry. Notably, modern short poem (New Senryu) has been under oppression and relentless surveillance because of its stance of criticizing politics and society in general by making full use of satire and irony. A supreme example of satirizing of Imperial Rescript on education was the “An anti-war poetry” by Akiri Tsuru. This treatise is a study of how ironical technique from “An anti-war poetry” inverts the meaning of “Imperial decree” and “Imperial rescript”.
  • 3.

    The Politics of Eros in Louise Erdrich’s Love Medicine: Focusing on Lulu and Marie

    Jin Man Jeong | 2018, 51() | pp.45~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay explores Louise Erdrich’s politically resistant voice which interrogates and disrupts the long-lasting, pernicious misbelief about Native Americans as ‘vanishing people’. This essay chiefly focuses on the two female characters—Lulu Nanapush and Marie Lazarre Kashpaw—in the author’s widely acclaimed novel Love Medicine (1993). First, illustrating the Chippewas’ multifaceted resistances against white Americans’ colonialist dominance disclosed in their enforcement of governmental policy, law, religion, and culture, this essay investigates how Erdrich does not stop telling her story that the idea of ‘vanishing people’—another version of ‘Manifest Destiny’—is unfounded. Second, by referring to Freud’s and Marcuse’s speculation on ‘Eros’—the great unifying energy that preserves all life—as an alternative to the predicament caused by an oppressive civilization, this essay illuminates Erdrich’s vision of sustaining and regenerating the Chippewas’ tribal life and heritage that center on the embracing power of love reified in Lulu and Marie. Their undying energy consolidating their communal love and ties, despite the destructive, oppressive colonialist milieu inflicted on the Chippewa Indian reservation, sheds light on the author’s politics of ‘Eros’ predicated tightly upon her historical consciousness.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Goddess Demeter in The Homeric Hymn to Demeter

    Jeong, Jin-hee | 2018, 51() | pp.73~101 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay deals with The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, a aetiological myth about the Eleusis Mysteria. The narrative of the hymn shows how Demeter, the goddess of grain, became the deity of the Mysteria. In the hymn, Demeter is characterized as a mother: She is the mother of Persephone and the motherlike nurse of Demophone. As the mother of Persephone and Demophone, the roles of are nursing and mediating. She care her children and linked the earth and the world below, the heaven of gods and the earth of mortals. Demeter the deity of the Mysteria by a mother. The and the maternity of Demeter is connected with patriarchal politics. Demeter in the hymn is not so much the goddess who derived her character from The Great Mother as the goddess who had been characterized the influence of Greek-patriarchy.
  • 5.

    Motivations for International Students to Study Abroad at Korean Universities: Economics, Language, Culture, and Personal Development

    PEDERSON RODNEY W | 2018, 51() | pp.103~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines motivations for international students to study abroad at Korean universities. Employing qualitative and mixed methods, this study used grounded theory to analyse data obtained from student interviews, essays, digital storytelling videos, and student video representations to explicate the nature of study of six subjects. All subjects were enrolled in English Education courses during years 2014-2017. The researcher was the course instructor. Results from this study revealed that major codes that emerged from data analyses were those of economics, culture, language study, and personal development, corroborating with findings of most research literature regarding international students’ motivations (OUSO, 2015). However, survey of professional literature and study data showed that motivational codes presented in the literature and this study, were discursive in nature in that each code was not only connected to all other codes, but also mutually co-constructive. As such, this study suggests that motivational codes found in study abroad literature were discursive in nature, resembling Bourdieu’s (1991) theory of economic, social, and cultural capitals. Results of this study suggest that various motivations for studying abroad are subsumed under economic logic of expense and career development.
  • 6.

    The Semiosis of the Body in Modern Asian Cinema - A Comparative Study of Apichatpong Weerasethakul and Tsai Ming Liang Film

    Kim Ho-young | 2018, 51() | pp.133~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The films of Apichatpong Weerasethakul and Tsai Ming Liang expose one of the main features of modern Asian cinema: corporality. In their films, the various emotions of characters are expressed and exchanged through the body, not the language, so their film world is a world in which language has lost its function and symbolic order has collapsed. In Apichatpong Weerasethakul and Tsai Ming Liang movies, body language plays a more important role than general language. t=The body performs semiosis, pointing to wildness, anti-civilization, rite, alienation, illusion, etc. At the root of this variety of semiosis is the common denial of Western material civilization which has been rapidly transplanted in modern Asian countries. In addition, while the body of the two directors' films are seen as a sign of wildness, or anti-civilization that contains the intention of escaping from the oppressive and inhuman modern civilization, the body as a sign of illusion, and embraces the will of resistance to civilization. The illusion of experience in their films is ultimately a manifestation of the will to resist the physical and emotional pressures of reality and to continue the irrational persistence.
  • 7.

    Aimé Césaire's postcolonial thought as a ‘Non-Western resistance discourse’: In terms of speaker, language and counter-discourse

    Il-Sung CHOI | 2018, 51() | pp.161~191 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In the beginning of the 20th century, post-colonialism has directly raised questions about western-centered universalism. One of its main achievements is that the political liberation of a colonial society does not guarantee the social, economic and cultural liberation of a society. Therefore, the discourse of liberation in the Western society, in particular, Marxism, nationalism, feminism and postmodernism, cannot be directly applied to the non-Western society. As a result, Western and non-Western societies are unfortunately dreaming of different futures and liberation; therefore, a‘geopolitical dialogue’ is needed between them. However, the theorists' efforts for postcolonial liberation failed to distinguish themselves from the western-centric traditions. It is also true that they have, in conjunction with these traditions, established their own power. As we know, many of the postcolonial criticisms somehow had relations with the West. This study will re-read the postcolonial thought of Aimé Césaire, the father of the so-called Négritude, as a ‘non-western resistance discourse’. Through this process, we have a chance to reflect on Césaire and his postcolonial thoughts.
  • 8.

    Ang Lee Film and Politics of Representing 'Women'

    Shin-dong soon | 2018, 51() | pp.193~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to explore how Ang Lee depicts Asian and Western women in his films. We focus on two parts of his consciousness First, Ang Lee does not consider himself a feminist, he understands the world in terms of women who play societal roles. Second, Ang Lee's films reflect his identity in a juxtaposition model, in which he is a member of mainstream American society and also holds an onlooker's viewpoint at the same time. He depicts women, who are often marginalized or considered the minority, and their feminist ideals, as means that break down the authority of the father and the man, the traditional ideology, and the male dominant nationalism. Chinese women in movies divide apart traditional Chinese patriarchal ideology and male-dominated anti-Japanese sentiments. Also, the Western women in his films reveal the non-stereotypical appearance of Western society in the 1970s and 1980s, with daily tension, anxiety, abdominal pain and anger, silence and anxiety about homosexual husbands, and excessive obsession. The director’s portrayal of women not only separates the male-centered and Western-centered discourse, but also reveals a self-division of internalized masculine patriarchal Asian thought consciousness.
  • 9.

    The language world of dystopia : focusing on the “Fuji-no-shima” and "Gentoshi" of Yoko Tawada.

    NAM Sang-wook | 2018, 51() | pp.213~233 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Representing the future of language is a very difficult but important issue, because it signifies a world of language different from the present; at the same time it secures the identity of the present language between the future changed language and the present one. This paper examines the linguistic world of dystopia, focusing on the “Fuji-no-shima” and "Gentoshi" of Yoko Tawada. First of all, “Fuji-no-shima” shows that, for Yoko Tawada, who was crossing the border between German and Japanese as a bilingual writer, the accidental Fukushima nuclear power generation in 2011 was accepted as the destruction of verbal order between signifiant and signifié, due to physical changes caused by radiation leaks. "Gentoshi" tells that human ties can be maintained through language activities that can capture multiple meanings, even in a world where traditional language order is destroyed through a policy of seclusion. From the above discussion, the novel Distopia, can actually be called Utopia as long as humans rely on the power of various languages to sustain it.
  • 10.

    Comparative Study of Research for Bronze Ware Decorative Patterns

    JaeJoong Oh | 2018, 51() | pp.235~256 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to compare the academic achievements of these two eras with the content and performance of the bronze ware decorative patterns in the Song dynasty and age of the Minguo. We investigated the origins and developmental process of the bronze ware decorative pattern research in Chinese bronze research history and examined their academic value. Studying bronze ware is a scholarly study. In the past, research focused on classifying letters on bronze ware. However, research on bronze ware decorative patterns was neglected. Bronze ware decorative patterns are associated with archeology and mythology studies and provide important clues as to the imagination of ancient people. The study of bronze ware in China began with the Song dynasty. Since then, research on bronze ware has been revived in the Qing dynasty, although there has been no academic achievement regarding bronze ware decorative patterns. However, at the age of the Minguo, the achievements of bronze ware decorative patterns continued to follow the Song dynasty.
  • 11.

    A Bibliographical and Literary Research on the Xinxu(新序) of the Published edition in Joseon

    Suenghyun You | Min, Kwan Dong | 2018, 51() | pp.257~290 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Xinxu(新序) was published in Korea by 1492. Among the existing editions, the editions that can confirm the realities are the collections of Keimyung University, the Korean Studies Central Research Institute, Kyonggi University, Hujodang(後彫堂), and the National Assembly Library of Japan. The Keimyung University’s precious book is the 'first published book', and the old book is the 'later published book' which covers pages 69-70 and 71-72 of the first published book. It is the 'later published book' that has the same side inscribed. The second books, the Central Research Institute of Korea Studies and the Kyonggi University Collection are the first published books, and the Hujodang and the National Assembly Library of Japan are on pages 9-10, 63-64, 87-88, 107-108. The corresponding side is the 'later published book'. Comparing the editions, it can be concluded that the existing editions of the previous editions have been withdrawn two times, and in the latter editions, the existing editions of four editions can also be confirmed to have been edited three times. In this paper, the literature based on the existing editions was studied and features of the Korean edition were presented. First, we examine the types of paragraphs. In principle, the text is composed of '11 lines and 18 characters', but on the actual version, the number of characters is shown in the table. In the Korean edition of the Joseon dynasty, a blank space appears in the original text. The erroneous letter in the Joseon book was identified the reason for the error was explained in detail.
  • 12.

    The Literary Discourse of Media Published in the Gaebyeoksa and Medium Topography of Colonial Chosun

    Kang Yong-hoon | 2018, 51() | pp.291~327 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Hyesung’ and ‘Jeilsun’ are media that reveal the new searches of the Gaebyeoksa Publishing Company of the 1930s. However, studies in the past did not sufficiently analyze their significance. Furthermore, there are no analyses on how the critical minds of ‘Hyesung’ and ‘Jeilsun’ were linked to ‘Gaebyeok’, which continued publications in 1934. The 1930s when ‘Hyesung’ and ‘Jeilsun’ were published, was a time where the media of colonial Chosun was rapidly changing, and it was a time where literary magazines were increasing in quantity. In the 1930s, Gaebyeoksa attempted to actively respond to such changes reflected in the media. This was demonstrated through the publication of the new media ‘Hyesung’ and ‘Jeilsun’ and continuing publication of the ‘Gaebyeok’ magazine in 1935. This study analyzed the literary discourses shown in the magazines published by Gaebyeoksa in the 1930s based on ‘Hyesung’, ‘Jeilsun’, and the continued publication of ‘Gaebyeok’. Through such analysis, this study examined how the magazines published by Gaebyeoksa perceived the culture and literature of colonial Chosun in the 1930s and in which direction it tried to reorganize this.
  • 13.

    A study about the aspect of translation on ‘Kyo(驚)’ in novel 『Kokoro』 -Focusing on novels translated in Korean and English-

    YANG JUNGSOON | 2018, 51() | pp.329~356 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Types of emotional expressions are comprised of vocabulary that describes emotion and composition of sentences to express emotion such as an exclamatory sentence and a rhetorical question, expressions of interjection, adverbs of attitude for an idea, and a style of writing. This study is focused on vocabulary that describes emotion and analyzes the aspect of translation when emotional expression of ‘Kyo(驚)’ is shown in 『Kokoro』. As a result, the aspect of translation for expression of ‘Kyo(驚)’ showed that it was translated to vocabulary as suggested in the dictionary in some cases. However, it was not always translated as suggested in the dictionary. Vocabulary that describes the emotion of ‘Kyo(驚)’ in Japanese sentences is mostly translated to corresponding parts of speech in Korean. Some adverbs needed to add ‘verbs’ when they were translated. Different vocabulary was added or used to maximize emotion. However, the corresponding part of speech in English was different from Korean. Examples of Japanese sentences expressing ‘Kyo(驚)’ by verbs were translated to expression of participles for passive verbs such as ‘surprise’ ‘astonish’ ‘amaze’ ‘shock’ ‘frighten’ ‘stun’ in many cases. Idioms were also translated with focus on the function of sentences rather than the form of sentences. Those expressed in adverbs did not accompany verbs of ‘Kyo(驚)’. They were translated to expression of participles for passive verbs and adjectives such as ‘surprise’ ‘astonish’ ‘amaze’ ‘shock’ ‘frighten’ ‘stun’ in many cases. Main agents of emotion were showat the first person and the third person in simple sentences. Translation of emotional expressions when a main agent was the first person showed that the fundamental word order of Japanese was translated as in Korean. However, adverbs of time and adverbs of degree were ended to be added. The first person as the main agent of emotion was positioned at the place of subject when it was translated in English. However, things or causes of events were positioned at the place of subject in some cases to show the degree of ‘Kyo(驚)’ which the main agent experienced. The expression of conjecture and supposition or a certain visual and auditory basis was added to translate the expression of emotion when the main agent of emotion was the third person. Simple sentences without the main agent of emotion showed that their subjects could be omitted even if they were essential components because they could be known through context in Korean. These omitted subjects were found and translated in English. Those subjects were not necessarily human who was the main agent of emotion. They could be things or causes of events that specified the expression of emotion.