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2018, Vol.52, No.

  • 1.

    Paradox, Impossibility or Superabundance- Theories of Gift of Mauss, Derrida and Ricœur

    Kwangbai Byun | 2018, 52() | pp.1~29 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The notion of ‘gift’ is one of the effective and fruitful codes for understanding Western civilization. In this study, we will shed light on several meanings, especially by comparing among the three French philosophers that expressed interest in this notion: they are Mauss, Derrida and Ricœur. Called “father of French ethnography”, Mauss claims, in his famous article “Essay on the Gift”, that the gift is paradoxically a kind of economic exchange dominated by three obligations: to give, receive, and return. But he strives to establish a moral theory based on the obligation to give. Under the influence of Mauss, Derrida deconstructs the theory of Mauss by devoting attention to ‘time’, one of the determining elements in studies on the gift. Derrida observes that the gift is established just at the extremely short moment of emergence of the act of giving and that this act is transformed into an economic exchange with passing of time. From it, the impossibility of the gift is derived despite its concrete and real emergence and existence. Under the influence of Mauss, Ricœur, for his part, is interested in the notion of giving as part of the dialectic between ‘love’ and ‘justice’. According to him, whereas justice is dominated by the economy of gift, namely the logic of equivalence, love, by the logic of ‘superabundance’. He focuses on establishing ‘Supra-ethics’ by considering the fact that the gift is at the core of his religious and philosophical vision. Finally, let us point out that in Ricœur, this notion of gift (‘don’) is closely linked to forgiveness (‘pardon’), that holds in it the secret of understanding regarding the ‘fallible’ and ‘capable’ man.
  • 2.

    A Certain Socialism of George Sand- Dream of a Community of Love -

    Parkhaesook | 2018, 52() | pp.31~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis was to re-examine the utopian socialism of George Sand. In brief, her socialism is Christian socialism. She was heavily influenced by Leroux and Ramennais who insisted on Christian socialism at the time. This was socialism that differed from other utopian socialists of the time such as Saint Simon and Fourier. In addition, the socialism of Sand was similar to communism that was popular at the time. We can see in many writings portraying Sand as a Communist. Her novels were also written to spread her communicative ideas. However, the Communism of Sand is different from that of Marx. In this thesis, her novels, her letters, and her political pamphlets will be analyzed in comparison with Marxism in three ways. 1. If Marx's communism justified violence, her ideology is based on nonviolence. 2. Sand's Communism asserts equality for workers and capitalists. She says that if it is not the equality for all, we are not qualified to argue. 3. Finally, her Communism is based entirely on Christian values, love and solidarity.
  • 3.

    Love and Justice are Compatible ?- In Theory of Paul Ricœur

    LEE Kyung-Lae | 2018, 52() | pp.53~78 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the moral culture of the West, love and justice are two commands with roots in ancient times. One is the heritage of Hebraism, and the other belongs to the tradition of Hebraism and Hellenism. The two concepts are the most important virtues required for preserving stability in society. These two commands are compatible, in an exclusive relationship to each other. To ultimately seek their reconciliation, the precise concept analysis and understanding of each of them should be premised on, due to the multi-layered meaning of implications of the two concepts. To this end, we first have started with a lexical meaning and have done a conceptual analysis of what these two concepts are expressing. We have looked at Paul Ricoeur in his interpretation of the discourse of love and justice. Finally, we looked at how these two concepts are narrated in literature. Through the literary works of Stendal, Albert Camus, and Dostoevsky, we have seen examples of literary configurations that have been embodied in life. In this way, through conceptual analysis, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis of the two concepts, the following conclusions were drawn. Love and justice were not a matter of choice. We could see coldness and unrealism of a society lacking love or with a problem of unclean love, through Stendhal’s and Albert Camus' novels and their actual debate. In addition, in unclean paternalism, risk of the power of love blocking certain a certain touch of justice was also confirmed. So, it was necessary for a healthy future society to explore the possibility of the coexistence of love and justice. We confirmed the possibility of compatibility in a 'considerate balance' wherein the 'moral judgment in situation' is required, as Paul Ricœur expressed. This ideal situation may be realized when forms of love involving solidarity, mutual care, and compassion with pain like Dostoevsky are combined with the principle of distributional justice. When Albert Camus pursued justice and eventually faced reality and mentioned the need for mercy, he could have made a moral judgment based on this situation. In the end, love protects justice, and justice contributes to the realization of love. Justice reduces super-ethical love to moral categories, and love plays a role in enabling justice to exert its full force.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Concept of Forgiveness in Paul Ricoeur’s Eschatology

    Hye-Ryung Kim | 2018, 52() | pp.79~110 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This purpose of this study was to address the issue of forgiving unforgivable crimes, inevitably raised in Paul Ricoeur’s thoughts. He explores the possibility of righteous historical representation of tragic events in Western history. Being aware of injustices of amnesty indiscriminately extended by the government, he studied the process through in which a genuine pardon should unfold before granting amnesty. He believes that this process called the “odyssey of forgiveness” presupposes the process of “imputability,” in which the perpetrator should acknowledge his/her wrongdoing as his/her act and take reasonable responsibilities for it in a modest position. However, such acknowledgement of wrongdoing cannot be any reason for the victim to necessarily grant forgiveness to the perpetrator. According to him, forgiveness is a gift and the power of love enabled by a complete forgiver only. The initiative of forgiveness is attributable to the forgiver only. To never relinquish tension between love and justice in the forgiving process, he devises a way of planning an equation of forgiveness in a vertical scheme. Finally, he explains the process of requesting and granting forgiveness in a form of a righteous historical representation against the oblivion of past tragic events. He contends that this event of forgiveness promises a new life and a new era to all seeking and granting forgiveness, and that write a righteous history in eschatological hope.
  • 5.

    The Relationship Between Love and Justice: Hegel's Theory of Recognition

    Yunho Seo | 2018, 52() | pp.111~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The way of approaching 'the relationship between love and justice' varies from person to person. We can argue for superiority of love or for superiority of justice by understanding the relationship between the two as conflicting. We can also argue that we need each other by understanding each other as a complementary relationship rather than an oppositional relationship. Hegel, however, sees love and justice as independent constitutive principles valid in different areas and does not regard the two as opposing nor complementary. This can only be understood when the structure of Hegel's theory of recognition is properly assumed. The relationship between love and justice will be considered mainly in Hegel's theory of recognition. Key philosophical points of Hegel's theory of recognition and consequences drawn on the relationship between love and justice on the basis of the theory will be examined. This can be summarized in the form of a thesis, roughly as follows. -Hegel presents love, justice and solidarity, that are various forms of recognition, to a family, a civil society and a state, that are three forms of social relations, as their constitutive principles. He does not grasp the relationship between love and justice as oppositional nor as complementary, that is different from many people's general perspective on the relationship of the two. -In Hegel's theory of recognition, love and justice differ in the areas in which they are valid. Love is a valid principle in the intimacy, and justice is a valid principle in non-intimacy. So, if justice and rights are asserted in intimacy, the area of intimacy is destroyed. Conversely, if love is asserted in non-intimacy, it cannot exercise real influence. -In the political community such as a state, where intimacy and non-intimacy overlap each other, the principle of solidarity is needed as a new constitutive principle, since a state does not stand on the principle of love as in a family nor on the principle of justice as in a civil society.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Aspects of Anti-Japanese and Pro-Japanese Literature Shown in Japanese Korean Literature History

    Ji-Youn SON | 2018, 52() | pp.133~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This purpose of this paper is to focus on anti-Japanese literature and pro-Japanese literature skills among Korean literary history written in Japan, and to observe the differences between Korean and Japanese perception surrounding anti-Japanese and pro-Japanese literature. Analyzed texts are “Taste Korean Literature” by Saegusa Dosikatsu and “The Footsteps of Modern Literature of Chosun” by Shirakawa Yutaka, the earnest modern Korean literary historians written from the perspective of Japanese writers, and though there’s no overall written history of literature, they were seen through with the perspective of Omura Masuo, at the forefront of Japanese researchers in modern and contemporary Korean literature. The main results of the review are as follow: First, In Korean literary history by Japan, the frame “pro-Japanese literature” is clearly embedded. It is clearly distinctive from the aspect of China or North Korea, and though it follows the narration system of South Korean literature, it also forms the breaking (turning) point of anti-Japanese and pro-Japanese literature relative to anti-Japanese and pro-Japanese literature. Second, even if it follows the narration system of South Korean literature, that question was constantly raised on existing Korean academic evaluation of anti-Japanese and pro-Japanese literature, and different interpretations of reading were practiced. For example, Korean academic circles highly regard literature of writers such as Kim, Jong han or Lee, Seok hoon, while Korean academics do not place much importance on Lee, Gwang Soo’s pro-Japanese elements that are important. The third point is that generous marks are credited to writers with outstanding Japanese or to Japanese creative writing. As a result, they dissolve internal logic in different pro-Japanese collaborators such as Chang, Hyuk Ju, Kim, Sa Ryang, Lee, Seok hoon, or Kim, Yong Jae by melting the same "Japanese literature" in a cage. The last point is reading different inner thoughts of Kim, Jong-han or Lee, Seok-hoon unlike outspoken pro-Japanese collaborators such as Lee, Gwang soo, Jang, Hyuk Joo or Kim, Yong je. These points require more in-depth analysis, and will be continued in follow-up tasks.
  • 7.

    A Critical Discourse Analysis Through Comparisons Between Editorials of The Global Times, Huánqiú Shíbào on the 2018 United States-China Trade War

    CHOI TAE HOON | 2018, 52() | pp.165~194 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Employing Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (CDA), the purpose of this study was to analyze linguistically significant features, intertextuality, and sociocultural practice focusing on selected editorials of The Global Times, Huánqiú Shíbào on the 2018 United States-China Trade War. The editorial titled “With the strong will of ‘the War to Resist America and Aid Chosun,’ let us go through the trade war against America” focused on the use of ‘war’ related vocabulary in the frame of ‘war.’ First, “Trade War” and “War to Resist America and Aid Chosun” are examples that reveal metaphors and a war frame. Second, “Strategy” is used positively for China but negatively towards America. Third, various war related words are used. Fourth, cases of allusion illustrate war. Intertextuality in terms of discourse practice pertains to two findings. First, The Global Times, Huánqiú Shíbào repeatedly uses the phrase ‘equivalent revenge.’ That is because the expression enables China to justify their counterattack and such war that China may wage can be interpreted as just counterattack much like a self-defense mechanism. Second, the expression, ‘the counterattack is not intended but it is not fearful’ is repeated in several editorials of the newspaper. The reasons are the following: 1) it is used to appeal to the public, 2) by invoking the feeling of fear, the public should be understand why they should unite, and 3) the expression, “it is not fearful” is used to preserve China’s global image and “the counterattack is not intended” is used to signal China’s will to America. The whole expression is a good example of intertextuality that repetitively illustrates the intended meaning of China in nine editorials in the newspaper within three months, March 23-June 17, 2018. Finally, sociocultural practice is manipulated through the editorial for disseminating the Chinese government’s hegemonic ideology. First, it is clear that the core national project, “China Manufacturing 2025” cannot be abandoned. Second, by calling for “War to Resist America and Aid Chosun” the editorial is manipulated to condemn and intimidate America, avoid dissent of the people, appeal to the people, and empower the government. Third, China somehow wants to open up the possibility of negotiation with the United Sates.
  • 8.

    Artifice of the Spider ‘Kacou Ananzè’ in The Black Cloth (Le Pagne Noir) by Bernard Dadié - Black African Morality and Satire

    YU Jai-Myong | 2018, 52() | pp.195~222 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Bernard Dadié expresses virtue, justice, and goodness by mixing reality and fiction through the life of the spider Kacou Ananzè in The Black Cloth (le Pagne noir). In Black Africa folktale, especially Côte d'Ivoire, virtue, justice, and goodness are important factors. The spider's life is full of imagination and tricks that reveal a variety of lessons: i) material abundance and frustration in the ‘Spider and the Tortoise’, ii) an autistic life that refuses to separate from the mother in the ‘Spider's Hump’, iii) leaving a trace of violating the taboo on the sheep in the ‘Spider's Ox’, iv) the failure of a ploy by hurting others to satisfy individual desire in ‘The Dowry’. These diverse stories enable us to understand human characteristics and imperfections by questioning customs of society and value of customs, reinterpreting folktale, and clarifying instructional intentions.
  • 9.

    Comparison of Perceptions on ‘Postwar’ Between the History of Korean Literature and the History of Japanese Literature

    Cho,Jung-Min | 2018, 52() | pp.223~251 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper comparatively considered how Korea and Japan address the concept of ‘postwar’ in descriptions of their literary history. In Japan, ‘postwar’ refers to the period after World War II (Asia-Pacific War). This word implies a variety of contexts such as collapse, poverty, confusion, calendar reform, reconstruction and restoration as well as a series of historical events such as war, war defeat, and American occupation; and so it has been treated in Japanese society a significant period. In the history of Korean literature, it is after national liberation that the word ‘postwar’ appeared; however, it has usually indicated ‘the period after the Korean War.’ The question is that although the term of postwar refers to periods after different wars, Koreans used the term of postwar also in the same way as Japan, and their concept of postwar overlaps with the concept of prewar or postwar used in Japan, and accordingly, side effects are produced that fail to grasp properly the independent characteristics and significance of the Korean War. In conclusion, the Korean War brought about contrasting effects on the history of Korean and Japanese literature. While the Korean War meant a start after the war in Korean literature, it became a turning point marking the end of postwar in Japanese literature. Such different perceptions on postwar also have major implications in that perceptions represent postwar discourses in today’s Korea and Japan.
  • 10.

    On "Utopia" Approached Through Conceptual History in Korea

    Kim, Jong Soo | 2018, 52() | pp.253~275 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The concept of 'utopia' in Korea was formed in the early 20th century. ‘There isn’t in this world but good world' could be found using science and it was an ideal place for science to realize in the 1900s of Korea. Utopia was emphasized as an ideal world of fantasy in the 1920s. It was an ideological world wherein socialism was realized by a purposeful science. Utopia, conversely, was the history of scientific socialism defined as past example of communism that could not be implemented but was fancied. There were works suggesting that it was a dark dystopia such as Society after 800,000 years written by H.G. Wells or Artificial Worker by Young-hee Pak, but there were implied at the will of utopia.
  • 11.

    Autopoietic Machinery and the Emergence of Third-Order Cybernetics

    Sungbum Lee | 2018, 52() | pp.277~312 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    First-order cybernetics during the 1940s and 1950s aimed for control of an observed system, while second-order cybernetics during the mid-1970s aspired to address the mechanism of an observing system. The former pursues an objective, subjectless, approach to a system, whereas the latter prefers a subjective, personal approach to a system. Second-order observation must be noted since a human observer is a living system that has its unique cognition. Maturana and Varela place the autopoiesis of this biological system at the core of second-order cybernetics. They contend that an autpoietic system maintains, transforms and produces itself. Technoscientific recreation of biological autopoiesis opens up to a new step in cybernetics: what I describe as third-order cybernetics. The formation of technoscientific autopoiesis overlaps with the Fourth Industrial Revolution or what Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee call the Second Machine Age. It leads to a radical shift from human centrism to posthumanity whereby humanity is mechanized, and machinery is biologized. In two versions of the novel Demon Seed, American novelist Dean Koontz explores the significance of technoscientific autopoiesis. The 1973 version dramatizes two kinds of observers: the technophobic human observer and the technology-friendly machine observer Proteus. As the story concludes, the former dominates the latter with the result that an anthropocentric position still works. The 1997 version, however, reveals the victory of the techno-friendly narrator Proteus over the anthropocentric narrator. Losing his narrational position, the technophobic human narrator of the story disappears. In the 1997 version, Proteus becomes the subject of desire in luring divorcee Susan. He longs to flaunt his male egomaniac. His achievement of male identity is a sign of technological autopoiesis characteristic of third-order cybernetics. To display self-producing capabilities integral to the autonomy of machinery, Koontz’s novel demonstrates that Proteus manipulates Susan’s egg to produce a human-machine mixture. Koontz’s demon child, problematically enough, implicates the future of eugenics in an era of technological autopoiesis. Proteus creates a crossbreed of humanity and machinery to engineer a perfect body and mind. He fixes incurable or intractable diseases through genetic modifications. Proteus transfers a vast amount of digital information to his offspring’s brain, which enables the demon child to achieve state-of-the-art intelligence. His technological editing of human genes and consciousness leads to digital standardization through unanimous spread of the best qualities of humanity. He gathers distinguished human genes and mental status much like collecting luxury brands. Accordingly, Proteus’s child-making project ultimately moves towards technologically-controlled eugenics. Pointedly, it disturbs the classical ideal of liberal humanism celebrating a human being as the master of his or her nature.
  • 12.

    Ethan Frome: The ‘Americanized’ Narrative of the Invasion Theory

    Meeyeon Kim | 2018, 52() | pp.313~339 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore the manner in which Edith Wharton’s Ethan Frome conveys contemporary, (culturally) imperialistic ideology. Especially by focusing on the difference between the European germ (or invasion) theory and the ‘Americanized’ invasion theory, this paper elucidates how the American 20th century fiction represents contemporary ‘fear’ of the immigration of non-whites, that generated anti-immigration public sentiment in early 20th century America. Also, this study investigates how racial or gendered biases contribute to attributing all (societal or individual) evils or illnesses to minorities such as (non-Nordic or non-white) immigrants, including women. Wharton’s Ethan Frome isn’t short of reflecting cultural imperialism.
  • 13.

    A Phonetic and Semantic Analysis on the Annotations of Li ShangYin (李商隱)'s Poetry

    Yum Jaeung | 2018, 52() | pp.341~369 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Li ShangYin (李商隱) was a poet who represented the late Tang period and authored more than 590 poems. In this paper, I have searched for various phonetic and semantic relationships through the attention of scholars' annotation about Li ShangYin (李商隱)'s poetry. As a result, we found 12 types of "examples that explain the phonetic and semantic relationships of poetic words" and five types of "examples that explain the features of poetic words and prosody." Especially, through analysis of "examples that explain the phonetic and semantic relationships of poetic words", it is divided into two types. The first type is that the scholars' annotation about Li ShangYin (李商隱)'s poetry and phonetic and semantic relationships of poetic words are matched, and the second type is that the scholars' annotation about Li ShangYin (李商隱)'s poetry and phonetic and semantic relationships of poetic words are inconsistent. In this study, I applied the theory of level and oblique tones for more detailed analysis of each type.
  • 14.

    An Ethic of Global Fiction: David Mitchell’s Cloud Atlas and Min-gyu Park’s Dinner with Buffett

    Soo Yeon Kim | 2018, 52() | pp.371~392 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Beginning with ethical nature inherent in the novel, this paper argues that ethical responsibility of 21st century global fiction lies in its invitation to readers to rethink the status quo in a globalized world. While David Mitchell’s Cloud Atlas and Min-gyu Park’s Dinner with Buffett use international settings, these works exemplify how global fiction fails at, or succeeds in, the ethical task of challenging the contemporary world, respectively. This is because Mitchell’s 500-page novel, although a felicitous embodiment of globalization and hybridity, does not challenge dominant ideologies and instead ends up reproducing a conventional humanist ideology against the backdrop of exotic places and diverting literary pastiches. In contrast, Dinner with Buffett, a novella about a Korean average Joe who wins a charity meal with tycoon Warren Buffett, perplexes the reader with counterintuitive turns and, in doing so, uncovers what we believe to be common sense today that serves global capitalism.
  • 15.

    Resolving the Ambiguities of Negative Stripping Construction in English: A Direct Interpretation Approach

    So-Jee Kim | Cho Sae Youn | 2018, 52() | pp.393~416 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Negative Stripping Construction in English involves the disjunction but, the adverb not, and a constituent NP. This construction is an incomplete sentence although it delivers a complete sentential meaning. Interpretation of this construction may be ambiguous in that the constituent NP can either be construed as the subject, or as the complements including the object. To generate such sentences and resolve the issue of ambiguity, we propose a construction-based analysis under direct interpretation approach, rejecting previous analyses based on deletion approaches. In so doing, we suggest a negative stripping construction rule that can account for ambiguous meaning. This rule further can enable us to explain syntactic structures and readings of Negative Stripping Construction.
  • 16.

    Memory of Slavery in France and the "Mémorial ACTe" in Guadeloupe

    Kaya LEE | 2018, 52() | pp.417~446 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The culture of memory in France regarding slavery and slave trade has slowly been expanding its horizons: from limited perspective focusing on abrogation of slavery to inclusion of discussion on real experiences and suffering of African slaves. This change has been particularly noticeable since the 150th anniversary of abrogation of slavery in France in 1998. It was the year that citizens of French overseas territories that had internalized this painful and shameful history of suffering formed a visible social movement. For the last two decades, the French government has also demonstrated consistent, proactive and prompt response to discussions of issues rooted in slavery in overseas territories, wherein slavery is the root of fundamental problems. In particular, when the Taubira Law (2001) was passed in the Senate, the Committee for the Memory of Slavery was established. This committee has since contributed to better assessment and understanding of French history of slavery and slave trade. Such was the profound as well as significant change in public perception as well as in legal and social aspects that culminated in the 2015 establishment of Mémorial ACTe, Caribbean Centre of Expression and Memory of Slavery and the Slave Trade in Guadeloupe. Reflecting on those historic moments in recent French history, this paper examines major debates in French society regarding establishment of the Mémorial ACTe. It assesses how Aleida Assmann's "cultural memory" was created with the establishment of Mémorial ACTe and how it has contributed to the new cultural identity of French overseas territories.