Cross-Cultural Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.6

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pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088
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2018, Vol.53, No.

  • 1.

    A study of the Implications of French vocabularies and the de-locality in LEE Sang’s Poems

    Lee Byung Soo | 2018, 53() | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This following research is a study on the use of French and de-locality in the modern Korean poet Lee Sang’s poetry (1910–1937). His hometown was Kyung Sung, Seoul. He mainly wrote his works in Korean, Chinese character, and Japanese, using the language of education and his native language at that time. So then, what was the spirit that he wanted to embody through use of French words? By using words like “ESQUISSE”, “AMOUREUSE”, Sang’s French was not a one-time use of foreign words intended to amuse, but to him the words were as meticulously woven as his intentions. French words were harmonized with other non-poetic symbols such as “□, △, ∇”, and described as a type of typographical hieroglyphics. Instead of his mother-tongue language, French was applied as a surrealistic vocabulary that implemented the moral of infinite freedom and imagination, and expressed something new or extrasensory. Subsequently, the de-localized French (words) in his poetry can be seen as poetic words to implement a “new spirit”, proposed by western avant-garde artists. Analysis of French in his poetry, showed a sense of yearning for the scientific civilization, calling for his sense of defeat and escape from the colonized inferior native land. Most of all, comparing his pursuit of western civilization and avant-garde art to French used in his poetry, is regarded as world-oriented poetry intended to implement the new tendency of the “the locomotive of modernity,” transcending the territory of the native country.
  • 2.

    Mishima Yukio's Spring Snow and classics; Focusing on the reproduction of the world of Miyabi

    Kim Jung Hee | 2018, 53() | pp.25~49 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study describes how Mishima Yukio applied various classical motifs in his novel, Spring Snow, to reproduce the world of “Miyabi” of the Heian era. First of all, the author's perception of Japanese culture, focusing on his various critiques and essays was studied. Based on Mishima's cultural theory, analysis revealed that Spring Snow was not based on specific works of the Heian era, but rather on the use of the story form from that era. The background of this novel was the early Taisho era. This period coincided with Japan’s political transformation from military power to democracy, and miyabi, or elegance. Finally, the title of this work, “Spring Snow” is an expression found in Kinotsurayuki' Waka in Kokinshu. It represents not only the vanity possessed by the “Spring Snow” reflected in the novel, but also fascination with the beauty of Tsurayuki' Waka.
  • 3.

    Galicia’s Characteristic Elements in Camilo José́ Cela's Mazurca para dos muertos

    Sunki, Song | 2018, 53() | pp.51~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Camilo José Cela’s hometown Galicia has frequently appeared as the spatial background in his early and later works, revealing various factors related to the area in detail. It is in『Mazurca para dos muertos』that Galicia’s characteristic elements appear most strikingly among his works. Several distinctive elements of Galicia are revealed in this work. First, the author shows some of Galicia’s features by placing his characters in a Galician rural village and giving them the opportunity to speak local dialects. Second, Galician characteristic nature is specifically embodied through the dozens of depictions of nonstop rain. Third, the author has made the link between his work and Galicia by mentioning names of many Galician cities, villages, rivers and local writers and their works. Fourth, various Galician characteristic features, such as numerous myths, legends, and superstitions surrounding around this region are mentioned through the work. As such, almost all the sub-themes and materials of this work center on things associated with Galicia. This analysis provides for the realization that Cela reveals his identity as a Galician-born writer through this work.
  • 4.

    Ellen Olenska as the objet petit a and the Relationship Between Man and Woman in Edith Wharton’s The Age of Innocence

    Lee,Mi-Sun | 2018, 53() | pp.73~102 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to explain, using Jacques Lacan’s theory of desire, how Ellen Olenska functions as the object petit a in her relationship with Newland Archer and to connect the impossibility of Newland and Ellen’s love with the impossibility of desire, in Edith Wharton’s The Age of Innocence. In New York society in the 1870s, the unpleasant truth was avoided, personal opinions were excluded, no room for imagination existed, and other-ness was expelled. In that society, Newland realized that true love and true emotions were lacking in his life. For Newland, Ellen was the gap in New York society and the object that could fill that gap. Ellen functioned as the object petit a. But the romance between Newland and Ellen was forbidden in New York society, where everything was dominated by strict social codes, and especially because Newland was engaged to Ellen’s cousin, May Welland. Ellen became inaccessible to Newland and this set Newland’s desire for Ellen in motion. He idealized Ellen as the objet petit a, based on the fantasy that she would fill the void in his life. However, at every critical moment, Newland delayed unification with Ellen by resorting to social codes. His actions betrayed that the goal of his desire was not the fulfillment, but the reproduction of desire, with its circular movement. His decision not to see Ellen in Paris again at the end of the novel can be interpreted as Newland’s effort to maintain Ellen as the inaccessible object, objet petit a, forever. It is this impossibility of desire that the romance of Newland and Ellen is predicated upon. Another purpose of this study was to expand this impossibility of desire to the relationship between man and woman and to interpret The Age of Innocence as a story showing the characteristics of the relationship between the sexes. The relationship between Newland and Ellen shows that there is no harmonious relationship between the sexes and that woman exists only as a fantasy object, objet petit a for man.
  • 5.

    Destruction of the Dignified Object Called Man in María Luisa Bombal and Kim Chaewon’s Works

    Eun-kyung Choi | 2018, 53() | pp.103~130 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Chilean female writer María Luisa Bombal (1910 - 1980)’s “El árbol” (The Tree) (1939) tells the process of Brigida’s epiphany. Brigida first tried to gain her father’s love and failed, and later her husband’s love and failed, then tried to substitute that love from men with solace from a tree. At the end of the novel, the epiphany occurs when the tree is cut down. In the present work, I explain the meaning of Brigida’s epiphany, by comparing this Chilean short story with the Korean female writer Kim Chaewon(1946 - )’s “Trick of Water: A Kiss with Nothing” (2015). In this Korean short story, Kim insists that a woman who tries to find comfort in life through love with a man is destined to fail. I also examine the errors of the female characters’ behaviors in these two short stories that led them to their self-destruction, trying to modify their behaviors in order to be loved by a man and their tendency to consider the man as everything in their life, and not as a part of their life. In order to explain the fated failure of finding comfort in life in the love of a man, I analyze the fleeting characteristic of acquiring an object of desire using Jacques Lacan’s “Theory of Desire” and “The Destruction of the Elevated Object into the Dignity of the Thing.” Thus, I conclude that women need to acknowledge that comfort in life cannot be found in the love of a man and that they should stop confining themselves to this fictitious characteristic of the dignified object called man.
  • 6.

    A study about the aspect of translation on ‘Hu(怖)’ in novel 『Kokoro』- Focusing on novels translated in Korean and English -

    YANG JUNGSOON | 2018, 53() | pp.131~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Emotional expressions are expressions that show the internal condition of mind or consciousness. Types of emotional expressions include vocabulary that describes emotion, the composition of sentences that expresses emotion such as an exclamatory sentence and rhetorical question, expressions of interjection, appellation, causative, passive, adverbs of attitude for an idea, and a style of writing. This study focuses on vocabulary that describes emotion and analyzes the aspect of translation when emotional expressions of ‘Hu(怖)’ is shown on 『Kokoro』. The aspect of translation was analyzed by three categories as follows; a part of speech, handling of subjects, and classification of meanings. As a result, the aspect of translation for expressions of Hu(怖)’ showed that they were translated to vocabulary as they were suggested in the dictionary in some cases. However, they were not always translated as they were suggested in the dictionary. Vocabulary that described the emotion of ‘Hu(怖)’ in Japanese sentences were mostly translated to their corresponding parts of speech in Korean. Some adverbs needed to add ‘verbs’ when they were translated. Also, different vocabulary was added or used to maximize emotion. However, the correspondence of a part of speech in English was different from Korean. Examples of Japanese sentences that expressed ‘Hu(怖)’ by verbs were translated to expression of participles for passive verbs such as ‘fear’, ‘dread’, ‘worry’, and ‘terrify’ in many cases. Also, idioms were translated with focus on the function of sentences rather than the form of sentences. Examples, what was expressed in adverbs did not accompany verbs of ‘Hu(怖)’. Instead, it was translated to the expression of participles for passive verbs and adjectives such as ‘dread’, ‘worry’, and ‘terrify’ in many cases. The main agents of emotion were shown in the first person and the third person in simple sentences. The translation on emotional expressions when a main agent was the first person showed that the fundamental word order of Japanese was translated as it was in Korean. However, adverbs of time and adverbs of degree tended to be added. Also, the first person as the main agent of emotion was positioned at the place of subject when it was translated in English. However, things or the cause of events were positioned at the place of subject in some cases to show the degree of ‘Hu(怖)’ which the main agent experienced. The expression of conjecture and supposition or a certain visual and auditory basis was added to translate the expression of emotion when the main agent of emotion was the third person. Simple sentences without a main agent of emotion showed that their subjects could be omitted even if they were essential components because they could be known through context in Korean. These omitted subjects were found and translated in English. Those subjects were not necessarily humans who were the main agents of emotion. They could be things or causes of events that specified the expression of emotion.
  • 7.

    A Case Study on Universal Dependency Tagsets

    Han Ji Yoon , LEE JIN , LEE CHANYOUNG and 1 other persons | 2018, 53() | pp.163~192 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper was to examine universal dependency UD application cases of Korean and Japanese with similar morphological characteristics. In addition, UD application and improvement methods of Korean were examined through comparative analysis. Korean and Japanese are very well developed due to their agglutinative characteristics. Therefore, there are many difficulties to apply UD which is built around English refraction. We examined the application of UPOS and DEPREL as components of UD with discussions. In UPOS, we looked at category problem related to narrative such as AUX, ADJ, and VERB, We examined how to handle units. In relation to the DEPREL annotation system, we discussed how to reflect syntactic problem from the basic unit annotation of syntax tags. We investigated problems of case and aux arising from the problem of setting dominant position from Korean and Japanese as the dominant language. We also investigated problems of annotation of parallel structure and setting of annotation basic unit. Among various relation annotation tags, case and aux are discussed because they show the most noticeable difference in distribution when comparing annotation tag application patterns with Korean. The case is related to both Korean and Japanese surveys. Aux is a secondary verb in Korean and an auxiliary verb in Japanese. As a result of examining specific annotation patterns, it was found that Japanese aux not only assigned auxiliary clauses, but also auxiliary elements to add the grammatical meaning to the verb and form corresponding to the end of Korean. In UD annotation of Japanese, the basic unit of morphological analysis is defined as a unit of basic syntactic annotation in Japanese UD annotation. Thus, when using information, it is necessary to consider how to use morphological analysis unit as information of dependency annotation in Korean.
  • 8.

    Chronotope and Feeling: Gangnam Blues

    Miehyeon Kim | 2018, 53() | pp.193~218 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this essay, I examine the interactions of chronotopes in the narrative of Gangnam Blues, a film written and directed by Yu Ha and released in 2015. Bakhtin’s chronotope, the connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships in literary narratives, provides the background for the representability of events and becomes the organizing center for the events. Each chronotope offers a different way of acting, interacting and understanding experience, and chronotopes can interact with each other in a single text or between the reader and the represented world. Gangnam Blues is a gangster movie, first of all, showing an individual’s illusion of an unlimited possibility for achieving wealth and power. At the same time, the film describes the government’s project to transform Gangam, a rural area in the south of the Han, into a new downtown and residential area for Seoul. As the world in the narrative and the world of the author or the reader are all chronotopic, we can see the interactions of chronotopes between the narrative of an individual and the historical narrative, as well as between the narrative about the beginning of Gangnam and the audience’s perception of the present Gangnam. In this film, the main character’s ambition is shown as part of the social desire for rapid economic achievements in the 1970s, along with high social mobility. The social desire can be explained as envy, as it is fueled by social comparisons and competitions. The main character’s pursuit of money and power through the possession of Gangnam land overlaps with the envious desire for the present Gangnam shared by many. The individual’s exceptional ambition and violence are not fully examined in this text. Moreover, the film’s dependence on the feelings of envy to represent the individual’s choice and violence can be a symptom of the lack of critical distance from social desire and envy.
  • 9.

    Novel and Sentimental Education: Sympathy and Empathy

    Myungho Lee | 2018, 53() | pp.219~249 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This essay attempts a historical examination of educational function of the novel. It pays attention to the eighteenth century sentimentalism, and its historical vicissitudes up to early twenties century. The eighteenth century is the period in which debates on the nature of emotion and its moral and aesthetic role have passionately taken place and the modern paradigm of thought on affect has been formed. This is why “affect revival phenomenon” in the late twenties century goes back to this period. This essay finds in Adam Smith the most sophisticated arguments on sympathy in their relation to the development of the novel; it examines the relationship of Smith’s argument with modern novel in the tradition of sentimentalism, and its revision in modernist novel. Through this examination, it discusses how cognitive and non-cognitive approaches, the two representative positions in contemporary thinking on emotion/affect, have revised and transformed the eighteenth century sentimentalism.
  • 10.

    A study on English-medium instruction programs in Korean universities: Based on the importance of English for academic purposes program

    Taeho Kim | 2018, 53() | pp.251~277 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate ways to improve the effect of English-medium instruction (EMI) in Korean universities by comparing EMI lectures in two Korean universities with those in a Japanese university. Some universities run all courses in English while others do so for only part of them. This study comparatively investigated how EMI courses were run by these two groups of universities. For the purpose of this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with EMI instructors and students to find out what merits and problems that such EMI programs had in EFL environment of Korea and Japan. Another important goal was to correct problems and improve the Korean programs. The result showed that the most important issue of EMI programs in Korean universities was students' low English proficiency. It also demonstrated that English for Academic Purposes (EAP) was necessary to overcome this problem. It is a key to the success of MI programs. Hopefully, this study will stimulate continuous discussions on limitations and ways to improve EMI in Korean universities in various aspects.