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pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088
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2019, Vol.54, No.

  • 1.

    American Imperialism and Sentimentalism

    KANGYL KO | 2019, 54() | pp.1~18 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay explores the way in which American imperial policy and its counter discourse appropriate the nineteenth century American sentimental literature. I consider Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and its reception in the colonial context of the Philippines. In doing so, my essay critiques imperialistic impulses embedded in the politics of racialized domesticity advanced by Stowe's text. This essay then queries Carols Bulosan's semi-autobiographical novel, America Is in the Heart, in order to trace the trajectory of the discourse of American imperial domesticity in the early twentieth-century Philippines and the United States. Looking closely at Bulosan's portrayal of the Filipino colonial subject's negotiation with the discourse of “benevolent assimilation,” I read his novel as a cultural space in which the imperative of the racialized domesticity is endorsed or questioned. This essay concludes that America Is in the Heart offers a serious critique of racist and classed assumption of the imperial domesticity.
  • 2.

    The Ego and Emotion of Chinese Modern Literature

    Kim Kyung Seog | 2019, 54() | pp.19~34 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This is a disquisition of the emotional literature that first appeared in Chinese modern literary works. The <Corruption> of Yidafu is the first work to represent human affect as a theory of creation. This work is also considered an example of an emotional narrative, and an autobiographical novel. The shape of the lyrical figure of <Corruption> is derived from the ideology of liberation that advocates the ego - Yudafu deals with 'sexuality' as a narrative strategy that effectively portrays the self. Upon review, this was work not to be considered a depiction of a degenerate human being, but rather an attempt to find the self effectively by making the 'sexuality' consciousness in the inner human being a type of discourse in the work. This work is evaluated as an excellent work expressing modern personalities and emotions effectively and thoughtfully by the author.
  • 3.

    Forbidden Emotion: The Records of Censored Novels Monthly Report of Joseon Publication Police and Post/Colonial Sentimentalism

    Jinhee Ryu | 2019, 54() | pp.35~56 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates post/colonial sentimentalism by examining the records of deleted novels that were published in the Monthly Report of Joseon Publication Police (September 1928 to December 1938), compiled by the Book Division in the Police Bureau of the Government-General of Joseon during the Japanese colonial period. Thus, it is important to note that this study revisits the possibility of sentimentalism, which has been negatively discussed and subsequently reviewed as a feminine gendered feature in the history of Korean literature, and a core element of the post/colonial subjects. In addition, the present study highlights the relationship of the emotional response to the idea of sentimentalism, which is seen to have formed a base of sympathy among the colonized people. According to the incidence and influence of colonial censorship, the empty spaces left by the removal of political and ideological arguments were filled with the development and creation of love stories as experienced between men and women; and the empire was most sensitive to the colonized people raising these love stories to sentimental love stories about the plight of the people and the status of class in that society. The hegemonic ruling power kept the closest watch on the fictional imagination of the post/colonial subjects, and to determine the content, the colonial government took extra measures into monitoring the translating of all of the literature that was produced by local authors at that time in the region. They particularly paid attention to the scenes in which female characters intervened as the most sentimental literary device, including when the women shed their tears. This was often comprised of feelings that were forbidden by colonial modernity, and the possibility of sentimentalism becoming the topic of highlight as a gendered strategy of the post/colonial subject.
  • 4.

    Educational reality and emotional education of the 1780s in the Tableau de Paris

    Chung Hai Soo , JANG YUN WUK | 2019, 54() | pp.57~87 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This writing is not written to examine Mercier’s educational theory or philosophy of education. It is rather because the writer has often made contradictory claims throughout his work, we think he is unable establish a coherent system of ideas. In this paper, we focused examining only the fragmentary thoughts of the writer on education that was presented in the work Tableau de Paris. We had to identify the point related to education in the 1780s when this work was written. If the writer tends to deal with public and private habits, dominant thoughts of the time, things that would impress people such as the current situation of Paris in his own work, we can tell that this theory included an idea of the various happenings that have emerged in that era, especially the content related to education. On the other hand, the repeated message throughout the Tableau de Paris inspires community consciousness and patriotism. From a point of view, the work gives an impression that it recorded the history of emotions of the era during the 1780s. However, the history of emotions being stated here is not seen as different from what Rousseau claims. Mercier was strongly influenced by Rousseau, in a way that what Mercier pursued in his work could reflect Rousseau’s idea, which is seen as an example of the virtue of the Republican citizens. It is interesting to note that the virtue of the Republican citizens, which Mercier expressed, almost coincides with the virtue of the citizens which the Revolutionary Government claims immediately after the French Revolution. In this sense, the history of emotions can be said to be consistent from the late 18th century to the French Revolution, and what Rousseau and Mercier have argued about regarding the education is the way of cultivation of the Republican citizens and its methodology.
  • 5.

    The study on the Chinese rare novel Mingyuetai(明月臺)'s fable-trait and Character

    Myungsin Kim | 2019, 54() | pp.89~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article focuses on the study of Chinese rare novel Mingyuetai(明月臺), where it is important to analyze the value of the work by analyzing the allegorical characteristics of the work, as well as the characteristics of characters and the narrative structure. Mingyuetai is a satirical novel made by Yanshuisanren(煙水散人) in 12 episodes. Yanshuisanren was alive in the mid-19th century, the time of creation was in the end of the Qing Dynasty (1856), whereby it seems to have created the work in the intention to imprint and enhance the value of the human race and its moral virtues, due to the confused era background and the rapidly changing social situation. The artist inserts the bat narrative in the beginning of the work to highlight the allegorical aspect of the work, and it has the purpose of emphasizing the theme of the Three principles and five aspects(三綱五倫), and the Causality Report(因果應報). In the development section and the ending section of the work, the various behaviors of Pei Jishou(裵旣壽) and Gan Baishan(甘百善) give an intense sense of contrast in the story. In this example, Yanshuisanren arranged the characters according to the purpose of their creation and cast their character for those purposes, accordingly since these figures are made up of personality or typical characters of Pei Jishou, Gan Baishan, Pei Siyuanwai (裵四員外), Cui Yuanwai(崔員外) and so on. Pei Jishou is described as a late regretful unfilial person, Gan Baishan is described as a handsome man who is also very passionate, Pei Siyuanwai is described as a father who believes the truth regarding his child to the end, and Cui Yuanwai is described as a person who has a burden to lean on others when events become challenging.
  • 6.

    Suggestions for the Education of Korean Idiom Focusing on Chinese Learners

    Jin, Meng , Lee Yeong-gyeong | 2019, 54() | pp.111~145 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Broadly speaking, since Idiom is not a combination of simple words but often utilizes a third meaning, it is difficult to interpret them in a dictionary only. For this reason, it is necessary for specific training on Idiom that must be made in order for Korean learners to communicate with each other and other people fluently and smoothly. The school aims to find effective Idiom examples and curricula for Chinese learners. To this end, we first looked at the reality and status of Korean Idiom through an analysis of major Korean textbooks that are widely used by Chinese learners. Among the Korean language education institutions, there are two widely used textbooks, produced in China, and published by Korea University, Seoul National University, Yonsei University and the National Institute of Korean Language. These textbooks, examined in the present state, offered a model of presentation and learning of Idiom, as well as examples of uses and analyzed problems within the text. As a result, I proposed an effective Idiom education plan for Chinese learners based on the level of vocabulary included in Idiom, transparency of meaning, and a learner-centered education on Idiom.
  • 7.

    Reading Love with ‘Beloved’ in Toni Morrison’s Beloved

    Mijeong Kim | 2019, 54() | pp.147~168 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In American history, African American people were not allowed to love and be loved on their own time during the era of slavery, while living on slave master’s lands as property. Toni Morrison’s Beloved describes dysfunctional love as the direct outcome of such historical trauma, and portrays individual characters who re-construct themselves by retelling their own poignant and personal traumatic histories. This paper focuses on the fact that ‘Beloved’ in Toni Morrison’s Beloved can be read in three distinct contexts. First, the title of the novel is entitled ‘Beloved;’ secondly, the name of one of the main characters is ‘Beloved;’ and thirdly, the last sentence of the novel is the word ‘Beloved.’ By reading the three contexts of ‘Beloved’ (with the concept of ‘delta’), this paper examines what kind and type of love Toni Morrison wants to talk about and highlight in her book, Beloved, and how she encourages her readers to participate in such love in their own lives.
  • 8.

    Korean Novels in the 1960s and Nihilism, the possibility of associated heavy depression

    Park Sung Jin | 2019, 54() | pp.169~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to offer an in depth analysis of the 1960s' nihilism through Kim Seung-ok's novels, and the possibility of coping with nihilism through the development of the concept of positive nihilism. The novels of Kim Seung-ok have faced the field opinion where values have been seen to have been collapsed, by the incidence of an individual or humanity’s in general meaningless situation. It is noted that in his books, Kim emphasizes that life is dominated by self-deception and self-rationalization. Thus, the author believes that life for mortals is an experience of disillusion. It means that nothingness is a state of being that is left behind everything as experienced in the individual’s life. Kim's thought is unique and considered similar to Nietzsche's philosophy which is trying to cope with the age of nihilism which is caused by the downfall of modern values. In this context, Kim notes that ‘God is dead’ as a slogan, which means that Plato's rationalism have been failed in the state of humanity, and it is a symbol of the end of the following of modern values in the general society. Nietzsche suggested that the concept of positive nihilism is available to anyone who follows it, and which can cope with the idea of negative nihilism. Nietzsche's philosophy which intends to follow a perfect downfall of modern values, is similar with Kim's struggle to overcome the societal beliefs in the1960s in Korean society. Both of them have proposed an alternative measure regarding how we can escape from the space of nothingness or nihility. They have said that we have to face our nihilism and complete it.
  • 9.

    Cognitive Analysis of the Meaning of (se) casser la tête

    Park Jungjoon | 2019, 54() | pp.193~228 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The fundamental issue is that the idea of the metaphor was not often considered to be a subject of linguistics, but Lakoff and Johnson considered metaphor as a subject of linguistic analysis through the theory of conceptual metaphor, arguing that metaphors are not only prevalent in our everyday language, but also in the world of thought. Generally speaking, cognitive linguistics also takes the view that an adequate conceptual framework for linguistic analysis should view figurative language not as a problem, but as part of the solution. Conceptual blending is one of the methodologies of cognitive linguistics that deals with how the meaning is structured, and it is a rather complex cognitive process consisting of input spaces, cross-mapping and projection that are brought into the blend. The blend develops the emergent structure that serves as a clue to the composition of the meaning. The conceptual metaphor theory focuses on the abstract conceptual metaphor itself, but the blending theory focuses on how the metaphorical meaning of an individual expression is constructed in those cases. The conceptual theory works as a cognitive model stored in an individual’s long-term memory, but the blending theory works through the mental space that is constructed during real-time processing in the brain. We use this blending theory to analyze the metaphorical meaning of (se) casser la tête through the conceptual integration network model. This analysis confirms that the conceptual metaphor {The head is a container} that presents in long-term memory is expressed in metaphorical meanings, which are at once considered to be distinct by the conceptual integration network configured in real time, according to the different contexts provided in the sentences.
  • 10.

    A comparison of female desire and subjective consciousness in Eun Hee-kyung and Li Ang's works - Centered on Beigang Incense Burner of Lust and The Butterfly in the Dust

    Shen Chunlan , Jo YoungJoon | 2019, 54() | pp.229~250 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Both The Butterfly in the Dust by the Korean writer, Eun Hee-kyung and Beigang Incense and Burner of Lust by the Taiwanese writer Li Ang, are novelettes that convey the idea of women's subjective consciousness by writing extensively on the subject of female-desire. The heroines Choi Seon-hee and Lin Lizi in those works, advocate the upcoming sexual rights and a beginning of the idea allowing women to gain control of their bodies, regardless of the opinion of the society and the people around them. Choi Seon-hee had an unrestrained and free attitude towards sex in the book. She also wrote an essay about the complex sexual relationship between a woman and several men. Choi Seon-hee's rebellious consciousness has a huge impact on deconstructing the ethics through which the society differentiates men and women when it comes to sexual problems, and the societal allowances afforded to each sex in the resolving of those problems. Nonetheless, by deliberately reproducing male's behavior means an affirmation on male's societal standards. Lin Lizi actively participated in politics, preaching openely for women to seize their personal power back from the men who oppressed them. In the subversion of women's previous absence or subordinate status, Lin's initiative was considered as progressive. Yet, she failed to make a break in the hopes of influencing the differences of thought regarding the situation of a woman's body as an object as seen in the eyes of men.
  • 11.

    The Decline and Restructuring of Chieftaincy in Botswana

    Byung-Soo Seol | 2019, 54() | pp.251~282 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is initiated to examine how the chieftaincy institution in Botswana has been declined and restructured in the historical process throughout the past years. In the traditional Tswana society, the highly respected and revered chiefs wielded mighty authority and power as symbolic and real beings to the people they governed. During the British colonial period, however, traditional leaders continuously lost their power and were downgraded to becoming or acting as the degraded agents or tools of the colonial government. The colonial authorities, which emphasized modernity, supported the emerging elite group, standing apart from traditional rulers and encouraged the people to lose respect for the power of the chiefs as well. As a result, the new elites could anchor to become key forces in post-independence Botswana. With the democratization of political systems since independence, the hereditary rule of chiefs has increasingly lost its legitimacy among the people of that region. The Botswana government has continually weakened their power and authority through diverse laws aimed at negating the rule of the chiefs. There is also no doubt that the negative recognition of the modern elites on the chiefs did not appear. In regard to a series of these types of situations, the stance of chiefs is becoming more narrowed today. Notwithstanding, the chiefs are playing a pivotal role in varied local development projects related to agriculture, education and health, bolstering the faith in the chiefs to help the plight of the people today. Besides, the chiefs are being utilized as an important source in both local and central politics. Chieftaincy is needed to be reconstructed in order to survive in socioeconomic change, and is actually being reconstructed in modern times. It is clearly verified that both the broad support of the local people, and its resilience and adaptability have been a prime mover in the process of its restructuring.
  • 12.

    René Char : poetry, love, action

    Sim Jae-Jung | 2019, 54() | pp.283~307 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    René Char is a poet who believed, like Rimbaud, that poetry and love must be the only laws of life and world, and the most important influences on man. He pursued the idea and model of unity of poetry, action, and life, and regarded resistance against the violence of contemporary history as a poet's duty to uphold. In particular, the experience of Résistance against German occupation further strengthened his principle of immediate effectiveness of his poetry. Char's poetry and love were a matter of the relationship of the human being with the world in which he lives. Char saw the biggest enemy that threatens human life in the scientific rationalistic material civilization of the present day, and found the power of resistance to fight against the enemy in the wisdom learned at the school of Nature, and upheld in the hearts and minds of simple men. To him, poetry was an art of trust and love for the nature-world law beyond human reasoning. The nature-world exists instantly and transparently, but its transparency and immediacy itself constitute a mystery to resist human language. For this reason, his poems shape the face of truth and beauty of the world through its myriad ubiquitous traces in nature. In this respect, the characteristics of the rupture and fragmentation of the words shown by his representative love poem, "Lettera amorosa", in describing the iris are consistent with his principle of the ultimate concrete effectiveness of poetry and love on the hearts of mankind.
  • 13.

    El mayordomo de la duquesa de Amalfi, a Tragedy by Lope Viewed from the Aristotelian Perspective

    Yoon Yong-wook | 2019, 54() | pp.309~331 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Generally speaking, it is known that an Aristotelian tragedy is known for its 3 distinctive characteristics: 1) the highlighting of the main character’s unconditional destiny, 2) the use of hamartia as a specific method that realizes that unconditional destiny, 3) and the showing of the main character’s resistance based on their free will against that unconditional destiny. Lope based his cultural foundation on such an Aristotelianism theory. Accordingly, Lope’s representative tragedies such as El castigo sin venganza and El caballero de Olmedo, clearly reveal this type of distinctive characteristic as noted in an Aristotelian tragedy. El mayordomo de la duquesa de Amalfi, is a play by Lope examined in this study, and it is one of Lope’s early tragedies, which does not quite reflect the distinctive factors of an Aristotelian tragedy as explicitly as his other representative tragedies have shown the audiences. However, in this play, the characteristics of an Aristotelian tragedy are revealed to a certain extent, as made by the following points. Namely, the unconditional destiny that Camila, the Duchess of Amalfi, and Antonio, the butler of Amalfi, eventually die in a tragic end after sharing a treacherous love that transcends their differences of social status, is reflected throughout the play. The point that this unconditional destiny is realized as a result of a fatal mistake made by the servants of the main characters, and the point that the two main male/female character’s heartbreaking resistance for achieving impossible love against unreasonable social customs is portrayed, are expected to be considered characteristics similar to those of a Aristotelian tragedy.
  • 14.

    Águila Roja: The Demythification of Black Legend and the Will to Overcome

    Juin Lim | 2019, 54() | pp.333~370 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Águila Roja concentrates on Spain’s dark history and societal influences and through this, it reinterprets the reality of Black Legend which were instances and events in their history that they had wanted to hide. In this process, this drama features many incidents: such as the Inquisition and the judge’s injustice, persecution and massacre of Native Americans in Central and South America, conflicts with English pirates, persecution and the deportation of Morisco. Through the main character Gonzalo’s perspective, this drama tries to reinterpret history not in an Ethnocentrism view, but in a relativism view that reviews and interprets the dimension of humanism. The leading characters in this drama are the common people of the time. In a society where the nobility was known as being notably corrupt, the commoners sought to preserve their honor despite their poverty, and formed a stance that was opposed to the nobility. Even though they weren’t of fancy dress or of means and suffered from poverty, their pure love and passion was embodied as Águila Roja. As the drama drew active participation from the public through Twitter, Facebook, and a computer game of Águila Roja, the history was reinterpreted in a broad and modern perspective. The drama, which was broadcast not only in Spain, but also in the Arab world, has a flexible approach to the expulsion of Morisco due to its prominent religious conflicts. Torture because of the Inquisition and the Native South American massacre, which was the main point of Black Legend, was accepted in society, and European’s critical view found that it stood to change and denounced the Catholic’s rigidity and inhumanity. But at the same time, the tolerance of the commoners and the image of humanitarian experiencing a reconciliation at the pagan and the natives review of the theories, establishes a new benchmark for correcting the history which was fabricated by politicians at that time.