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2019, Vol.55, No.

  • 1.

    Korean SF Narratives and Cultural Sociology - From Narratives for Modern Times to Postmodern Narratives

    Jiyong Lee | 2019, 55() | pp.1~23 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The genre of SF that began with the modern scientific technology, was introduced for the enlightenment of scientific technology recognized as a symbol of westernization in Korea, in the late period of the Joseon Dynasty. So, Korean SF not has meanings and characteristics of narratives as a genre, as well as meanings by interacting with social phenomena. Thus, examining characteristics of Korean SF narratives could be a methodology of viewing changes in the perception of scientific technology in Korea, while also verifying the culture changed by scientific technology, and inflection points of the perception derived from it. Changes in Korean SF narratives, show different aspects in accordance with social changes. Working as a tool for the enlightenment of scientific technology in the late period of the Joseon Dynasty, is a remarkable characteristic. After that, it was not largely expanded or changed, by going through colony and war. It shows narrative characteristics such as playing a role as propaganda, or training aids for scientific knowledge, and learning for adolescents. Also, due to delayed perception of science and influence of special social phenomenon such as the state of division, diverse attempts of the genre were limited. However, in the 21st century, owing to influence of rapid development of scientific technology and institutionalized scientific technology, Korean SF narratives started showing possibilities different from the past. Sticking to diverse values to move forward after the modern age, Korean narratives are evolving towards becoming an avant-garde culture and arts genre. So, the statement of the expanded significance of Korean SF narratives will play an integral role in expanding the boundaries of Korean culture in the future.
  • 2.

    Cold War and the Literary Imagination of SF: System Competition and Literature War between the USA and USSR

    Choi Jin Seok | 2019, 55() | pp.25~53 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article is dedicated to the themes of the “Literature War” during the Cold War between the USA and USSR in 20th century. As we know, these two opposite ideological state systems fiercely competed with each other, to decide which system would achieve superiority in globally. After World War II, the USA and USSR worked to secure rocket scientists who had worked for Nazi Germany, because they wanted to take the initiative in international politics. When the USSR put the artificial satellite “Sputnik” into the space October 4, 1957, it was not surprising that the USA could not repress its astonishment. Americans perceived that Soviet science and technology, was second to America’s until that point in time. After that, the USA and USSR competed on all fronts, including politics, economics, science, military power, and culture. What we call the “Literature War”, is the representative by-product of the Cold War. We can identify indirect traces of system competition, when we read literary works (especially SF) from those days. The Cold War wielded a strong influence over the world situation, so it is very important to identify symptoms of the political (un)conscious in literary works, which claimed to symbolize the pure imagination of humanism. That’s why we have to investigate SF from the period of the Cold War.
  • 3.

    A Pragmatic Study on the Award Acceptance Speech in the Film Award Ceremony in Korea and China: Focusing on Thanking and Institutionality

    Park, Chan Wook | 2019, 55() | pp.55~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This purpose of this study is to examine similarity and difference between the award acceptance speeches by Korean leading male and female actors, and Chinese leading male and female actors from the thanking and institutionality perspectives. Corresponding to presenting an award as a public compliment, accepting an award is an active response to an award. Acceptance of an award leads to a vocal response to the award ― thanking. In analyzing this, we must understand the difference between conversation and institutional discourse first, on thanking by considering contents of the speaker's benefit, intention of the benefactor, uncertainty of the hearer on the film awards ceremony, role of participants in the ceremony, etc. Based on understanding this, this study analyzed award acceptance speeches by Korean and Chinese leading male and female actors on two aspects of such speeches. One is constructing the speech as a thanking discourse. The other is the order of people whom the speaker mentioned in the speech. This analysis shows that the speeches are almost similar each other in terms of the structure of the speech, but are slightly different in elaboration, before and after thanking. And it shows that, based on the result of examining the order of people whom the speaker mentions, Korean male and female actors seem to regard themselves as performers. They also regard the ceremony as a setting in which to share the public's compliment (in the form of an award) with colleagues and audiences. However, Chinese male and female actors seem to regard themselves as appraisees, and the ceremony as a setting in which to be appraised.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Types, the Characteristics and the Value of the Variant Forms in the Old Downtown Seoul Maps - with Trivial Discussion on the Errors of the Kyujanggak Browsing Service

    LEE, KYEONG-WON | 2019, 55() | pp.83~107 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on collecting and examining (types of) variant forms of Chinese characters written in nine old Korean maps, and correcting problems in using the “searching for original material” service at the website of Kyujanggak. Types of variant forms in the maps are classified as follow: i) Adding or subtracting a few strokes, ii) Simplifying the part of the characters, iii) Coding the parts of the characters, iv) Coding the half of the characters, v) Replacing the original character with another character with the same sound, vi) Adopting only the outlines of the characters, and vii) Replacing phonetic-semantic compounds (形聲) with the late combined ideograms (會意). Features of various types of variant forms are summarized as below: i) Succession of the existing variant forms, ii) Development of the variant forms, and iii) Evolution of the variant forms. In addition, I also find out the existence of new routes of the genesis of new variant forms. I also discovered errors in “searching place names” for the Map Book of Korea (靑邱要覽) provided by the website of the Kyujanggak Institute For Korean Studies. For example, the searching service renders “魚物广” and “米广” of the original map as “魚物廣”, “米廣”, respectively, where 广 in the Map Book of Korea is, in fact, the variant form of 廛. Furthermore, “蚕(蠶)頭” is rendered as “천두”, “관공서(寺)” as “~사”, “廣智門” as ‘문지경’ and so on. Last but not least, this variant form (广) is assumed to be the highly rare variant form that is not found in variant forms used in Chinese literature. It can be considered as an evolutional variant form that the innovational way to render the variant forms of Korea is applied.
  • 5.

    Borders of the Homeland: From America’s “Battle Hymn of the Republic” to “Homeland Hymn” of the Republic of Korea

    Yu jung Lee | 2019, 55() | pp.109~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the transformation and adaption of the song “Battle Hymn of the Republic” known as the second American national anthem, as a way to assess how the act of music-making, is closely linked to nation-building in Korea. The notion and symbolism of the home/homeland is imagined, constructed, and performed through music. A closer look at this specific song reveals the influential role of music, in shaping a hegemonic notion of the homeland and national identity, by drawing a clear boundary with the other. The purpose of this paper is to provide new dimensions for consideration in the analytic discourse of the homeland and music, by tracing the transformation and adaptation of the song through ethnomusicological research. The connection between music and society, and the meaning of music in a society, have been a central focus of ethnomusicological studies, as well as investigation relative to national identity. Drawing on this scholarship, this paper explores how “Battle Hymn of the Republic” has been positioned as an ideologically-ridden song in the process of Korean modernization, since the notion of the homeland and home emerged as significant symbols of Korea since the division of the two Koreas.
  • 6.

    Cinematic Representation of Northeast Asian Folktales About Abandonment of the Elderly :On Koryeojang and the Ballad of Narayama

    Lee Yun-Jong | 2019, 55() | pp.133~158 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Kiro, which means abandonment of the elderly, is a unique custom that may have existed in Northeast Asia, transferred through each country's folktales as well as ancient documents of India, China, Korea, and Japan. Kiro folktales have forms of Koryeojang folklores in Korea, and the Legend of Mount Obasete in Japan, of which narrative structure all ends with abolition of the “evil” custom. The folktales of Kiro were filmed as Koryeojang by Kim Ki-young in South Korea in 1963, and in Japan by Kinoshita Keisuke and Imamura Shohei in the films, The Ballad of Narayama (1958 and 1982). The Ballad of Narayama is based on the 1956 novel of the same title, written by Fukasawa Shichiro, who recreated the legend of Obasute mountain. All three films depict the relationship between an elderly mother and her middle-age son, who practice Kiro customs for peace and well-being of their villages. In Koryeojang, however, the Kiro system is abolished by the son. In this paper, I will comparatively analyze Koryeojang with the two films, The Ballad of Narayama in relation with Kiro folktales and explore the cultural transformation of storytellings of two Northeast Asian nations, Korea and Japan.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Motif of Supernatural Birth: Comparison Between Korean and Turkic Folk Tales

    Lee Jae Jung | 2019, 55() | pp.159~188 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Ancient people regarded nature as a holy entity, manifesting mystical power. At the same time, nature was a realm, that shared similar status with humans. So, ancient people perceived that humans could acquire mystical powers, through interacting with nature. This is well-shown in heroic folk tales. In general, a hero is portrayed as an offspring of nature and a human. This type of story line is often found in folk tales of many ethnic groups across the globe, and have been perpetuated through generations. As such, this article investigated types and characteristics of the above- mentioned motif, by analyzing heroic folk tales of Korean and the Turkic people (Kazakhs, Yakuts, and Bashkirs), who live in the Eurasian region. Throughout this study, it was found that a number of similarities, despite minor differences to meanings, exist between Korean and Turkic folk tales. First, both groups worshipped trees, and shared a common belief, that plants have the power of fertility and fecundity. Additionally, worshiping of a heavenly god is also portrayed in both folk tales. The heavenly god descends to Earth disguised as sunlight or moonlight, to conjoin with a human. As a result, heroes are born. In Korean folk tales, humans conjoin with the god of heaven, or the god of water. However, in Turkic folk tales, humans conjoin only with the god of heaven. Also, animal worshiping is also a common feature found in Korean and Turkic folk tales. However, there exist differences in certain aspects. Such difference may have evolved as a result of different socio-economic systems that Koreans and the Turkic people relied upon. As for Koreans who lived in an agrarian society, water was an integral source of sustenance. Meanwhile, for Turkic people who relied on a nomadic economic system, water was not as integral as for Koreans.
  • 8.

    Diderot in the tradition of leibnizian philosophy

    Lee Choong Hoon | 2019, 55() | pp.189~216 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is well known that philosophers of the 18th century were under the Leibnizian influence, of which fundamental thoughts are summed up as such: all phenomena in nature are related to each other. According to Leibniz, knowledge of nature is linked, and new discoveries fill missing links that remain insoluble and incomplete, until then. So, it is undeniable that the idea of the Encyclopédie led by Denis Diderot, is based on the optimistic epistemology of Leibniz. It should be noted that Diderot was leibnizian, not on mathematics and metaphysics, but on contemporary experimental sciences. The publisher of the Encyclopédie reproduces, in his bold system of materialistic atheism, leibnizian thoughts: beings are chained by degrees to each other, and no one is completely like another. Our study focuses on the recurring notions of Leibniz, in Diderot’s works concerning natural history and natural philosophy. Diderot continually criticizes the preformation and embedding of germs that have been widespread among philosophical and scientific scholars, since the last century. It should not be forgotten, however, that our author also criticizes contemporary naturalists, Buffon and Maupertuis, for having always used equivocal notions, and that he tries to positively welcome contemporary Leibnizian naturalists: Bourguet, Haller, Bonnet, and Robinet. What Diderot wanted to draw from the Leibnizians of his time, is the idea of a chain of beings in nature, including minerals. With this idea, he enterprisingly accepts the principle of organization, and development of organized bodies. He emphasizes the dynamic relationship between unity and variety, and he questions limits that artificially classify species and reigns in nature.
  • 9.

    The Norms of the Reader Acceptance Shown in Chinese Mystery Novels – Focusing on 『13.67』 -

    Choi Eun Jeong | 2019, 55() | pp.217~241 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This manuscript notes quick developments of literary genres shown in modern Chinese novels’ national acceptance in the last three years, and examines national readers’ acceptance norms on modern Chinese novels through Chinese mystery novels, receiving good responses throughout the nation. Common grounds of Chinese mystery novels receiving good responses from readers, are that such novels are fun to read as ‘mystery’ novels, and meaningful as mystery ‘novels’ which have resulted in the success of these novels. If there is only a fun element, novels don’t endure. If the meaning is excessively emphasized, it is difficult to attain popularity. Chinese mystery novels quietly gaining popularity throughout the nation, prove that these two key factors are what readers anticipate experiencing through reading such novels. Because this is about finite objects within Chinese mystery novels, national readers can’t explain the universal appeal of modern Chinese novels. However, readers’ responses on Chinese mystery novels imply that literary genre reading doesn’t seeks fun as well as the meaning of such literature. This also explains why the two key factors in such literature, can be more widely embraced, beyond national readers’ acceptance norms on modern Chinese novels. That’s why the two key factors noted, relative to national acceptance of such novels, should be noted.