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pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088
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2020, Vol.59, No.

  • 1.

    ‘Marvelous Real’ in Okinawa and Vietnam, the World against Violence

    Ko Myeoung-Cheol | 2020, 59() | pp.1~29 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Okinawa and Vietnam each experienced different wars in eastern Asia. Both wars showed war’s fatal aspects, which tried to root out all life beyond the limit of violence what no one t1o degree. Above all, Okinawa had a role as a USA military base in the Vietnam War. That’s why Vietnam War’s problem is so important agenda not to separate from Okinawa. What Okinawa wants to come back Japan, called the return movement to the homeland, tried to emancipate USA military Government and USA’s military base. Therefore, we should take particular take notice of the literal response to these wars. This article focuses on the ghost that appears in Okinawa War’s narrative and Vietnam War’s narrative. The ghost reminds us of the violence of war that happened in places related to the Great Nature (beach, ocean, forest, jungle, valley, brook, plateau, etc.). And the ghost creates a ‘Marvelous Real’ to fight against forgetting and being distorted by the violence of war in Okinawa and Vietnam. This ‘Marvelous Real’ makes a communication conduit between the dead and the living. As a political and moral subject, these features improve the ghost’s affections to concentrate on how to cement the world against violence in and after war. Hence this ghost’s affections are not described as a horrible, abnormal fictional existence but the existence for all of the living in Okinawa and Vietnam. In other words, as the literal response to post-colonial cold war, ‘Ghost Narrative/Marvelous Real’ in Okinawa and Vietnam emerges to retrospect the reason for literature existence, which hopes to the world against violence to be wrapped up all kinds of violence concerned war.
  • 2.

    The Imperialism and Violence in ‘the Southern Islands (남양군도, 南洋群島)’ in the Novel by Kim Jeong-han

    HA SANG IL | 2020, 59() | pp.31~54 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In Kim Jeong-han's novel, a sense of place has a very special meaning. His novel focuses on criticizing the colonial reality through the lives of indigenous people who have lived their lives around the Nakdonggang River. However, these regional reasons and placements must be expanded to a more Asian perspective, beyond the dimension of concreteizing an empirical place. Kim Jeong-han’s novel had this kind of problem when he took note of "Okinawa" in the 1970s. He wanted to read the historical reality around the Nakdong River and the history of Okinawa during the colonial period. This was caused by a problematic view of looking homogenously at various places in Asia that shared the scars of empires. Kim Jeong-han in Okinawa are part of the placeness in the great Japanese horse, the situation and attention in two respects reinforced since the mid-1960s to clarify the new imperialism which takes advantage of reality. The continuity in terms of nationalism by understanding the victims of Okinawa, criticizing the reality of a seasonal laborer, and second, in Okinawa in the mid 1970s. Migrant workers placed in the poor reality of the labor of women in Japanese central Okinawa, including China and the end, taken to the reality of the Japanese military sexual slavery and the Pacific. The fact connected. Which during the realities of the Japanese military sexual slavery and the Okinawa, a seasonal laborer by converting from the perspective of continuity about the reality that imperialist colonial violence is nationalism led to violence. Critically to do an issue of continuity problems. In this question-and-answer ceremony, this paper expanded the local location of Kim Jeong-han's novel to focus on the correct evaluation of colonial history and the novel task of the colonial liquidation based on it. In particular, we discuss the aspects of imperialistic violence at the end of the Japanese colonial rule, focusing on the unfinished unpublished work "Lost Tomb (「잃어버린 山所」)" in that the problematic consciousness of Kim Jeong-han's novel led to the South Sea Islands (남양군도, 南洋群島), a battleground of World War II, from Okinawa to the starting point. This outward expansion can be understood as revealing the change in the creative process of finding novel truth anew between the narrative of experience and the narrative of record beyond the limits of local placeability in performing the fictional task of colonial liquidation. Kim Jeong-han's novel reestablished the direction of the novel, in which he wrote and documented the aspects of imperialistic violence at the end of Japan's colonial rule, by testifying and accusing the limits of historical truth that the narrative of his experiences could not reach.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Current State of Academic English Journal Writing by Graduate Engineering Students

    Namhee Kim | 2020, 59() | pp.55~80 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated the current state of academic English journal writing by graduate engineering students. The data were collected from a survey of 101 graduate students in engineering from five universities located in Seoul. The survey inquired about the participants’ current state of English usage, their experiences with ESP courses, and their current state and difficulties with using academic English for journal writing. The results revealed that the participants had difficulties in areas of speaking, writing, listening, and vocabulary when using English in their academic contexts. Moreover, their previous experiences with ESP courses were not helpful in writing academic English. Also, they preferred an ESP class with personal assistance. In terms of publishing academic papers, they required more than twice the amount of effort to write in English as in Korean. The results also showed that logical connections in paragraph development were the most difficult and important feature in English journal writing. In addition, the students needed support in both grammar and vocabulary. Suggestions for further research and pedagogical implications are provided.
  • 4.

    The relationship between mobility and ‘politics’ seen through the Folding Beijing by HaoJingfang

    Bong-Yeon Kim | 2020, 59() | pp.81~106 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper seeks to establish a correlation between mobility and ‘politics’ through the appearance of the ‘future’ Beijing, following the separation of space and time, as shown in the novel Folding Beijing by the Chinese science fiction writer HaoJingfang(郝景芳). Folding Bejing maintain a state of security by dividing time and space and prohibit moves to another space. Security hierarchically distributes the positions and duties of the individuals in the community by designating the way they speak, feel, and think, and giving each place the right words and actions. This eliminates variables in society and aims for a more efficient management system by excluding identity and other possibilities that are fixed to individuals. The act of creating cracks and niches in discord within this system of public security is called ‘politics’, and movement is the nucleus that makes politics possible. Mobility has its own nature of requiring social renewal. Incoming disparate elements and social changes resulting from movement cause instability and uncertainty, and raise fundamental questions about regime maintenance. Changes in systems due to movement and intersection serve as a foundation for fostering individual politics. Mobility is a series of "politics" processes that call out those who have been excluded and overshadowed by public security, present them with new social contracts, and push through contracts to produce different systems. The work only shows the process of "politics," and is skeptical about its feasibility. Even with Even with the imagination of science fiction, the" Here Now" system is solid and it is hard to handle the daily burden of escaping the structural aspirations of individuals.
  • 5.

    A Linguistic Analysis of Children's Speech Errors in Korean Speech Production

    Taeho Kim , Lee Han-gyu | 2020, 59() | pp.107~136 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Taeho Kim. & Han-gyu Lee, 2020. Journal of Cross-cultural Studies xx-xx. A Linguistic Analysis of Children's Speech Errors in Korean Speech Production. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean children produce speech errors (or slips of the tongue) during speech production and show that their errors are not arbitrary but systematic, which reflects their language knowledge and abilities. To achieve this goal, we collected 122 speech errors from the spontaneous, casual conversations of two groups of children, pre-schoolers and primary schoolers, and classified them according to three dimensions: linguistic components, directionality, and forms of errors. The rates of errors were compared carefully, not only between the two child groups, but also between children and adults. Such comparisons provide a linguistic clue for language production and language development processes. This study will be linguistically significant in that there have been no studies of children’s speech errors in Korean, although there have been many in other languages.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Cinematic Exchange Between North Korea and China (1956-1966)

    LIU YU | 2020, 59() | pp.137~196 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article focused on the history of the movie exchange between North Korea and China for approximately 10 years from the “August Incident” that debuted in North Korea in 1956 to the just before the cultural revolution began in China in 1966. In North Korea and China, all films are regarded as highly appealing art forms, such as editorials in the newspaper operated by the Communist Party. The movie exchange between North Korea and China occurred in a politically and diplomatically interdependent relationship between the two countries. However, the meaning of political communication was greater than exploring artistry or commercialism in both countries. The films strengthened friendship and solidarity between the nations, and at the same time, showed its influence as an auxiliary means to promote and incite common political ideology. Although the Korean War erupted in 1950, the movie exchanges between North Korea and China continued, which had been practiced since independence. However, as the relationship between North Korea and China temporarily cooled which had been cold since the ‘Blood Alliance’ through the war in the past due to the outbreak of the “August Incident” in North Korea in 1956, the movie exchanges met with an unusual suspension because of the intense political differences. Since then, the two countries have experienced cooperation and close contact, as well as cooling and refraction. In particular, North Korea and China experienced cracks and sutures regarding historical events since the late 1950s such as the complete withdrawal of Chinese troops stationed in North Korea and conflicts between China and the USSR. Different aspects in the development of movie exchanges between the two countries were shown. In terms of the characteristics of film exchange, that is, in terms of acceptance, movies on two themes such as “Anti-imperialism” and “Construction of the Socialist Country”, are emerging as mainstream thought. In this period when ideology and system could not be overcome, enhancing the loyalty to the Communist Party and the country, which had always been important, shows the mass culture aspect of the movie in connection with the re-illumination of history through socialist realism techniques and the capture of reality.
  • 7.

    The Effort and Task of Latin America’s Government to Improve Inequality of Forced Displaced Persons: From the Cartagena Declaration to the Plan de Acción de Brazil

    Cha-kyung Mi | 2020, 59() | pp.197~227 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The civil war, which spread across Central America in the 1970s and 1980s, led to the expansion of forced displaced persons, so Latin America faced various problems. And so, the local countries adopted the Declaration at the Summit of the Organization of American States held in Cartagena, the Caribbean coastal city in Colombia. The Cartagena Declaration extended the range of existing refugees and defined even victims from civil wars or massive human rights violations as refugees. After this, the Latin American local government established the San Jose Declaration in 1994 and the Mexico Declaration and Plan de Acción in 2004 to establish policy efforts for the continuously growing forced displaced persons. In Latin America, the forced displaced people were growing constantly due to armed conflict over drug terrorism, economic and political crises, and conflict over the development of mines and the Amazon since 2000. The forced displaced people were mainly from the area of indigenous people and African-ethnic groups. In considering this, the issue of forced displacement is thought to be the result of the structural inequality in the Latin American society in which various conditions overlapped. On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the Cartagena Declaration in December 2014, the governments of 31 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean discussed the cooperation schemes regarding the refugees and forced displaced persons with an assessment of the Declaration’s implementation. And they adopted the Plan de Acción de Brazil for the next decade under the goal of mitigating stateless persons. This study examined the efforts and future tasks of the Latin American local government to improve the inequality of forced displaced people based on the building process of the Plan de Acción de Brazil from the Cartagena Declaration.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Encounter with the Real in Amores perros

    Eun-kyung Choi | 2020, 59() | pp.229~259 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Mexican director Alejandro González Iñárritu(1964~)’s movie Amores perros is comprised of three chapters such as “Octavio y Susana,” “Daniel y Valeria,” and “El chivo y Marú”, and the protagonists of each chapter resemble their dogs in the manner that they seek love. In this study, I examined these three stories under the theory of desire by Jacques Lacan, especially in “the fictitious characteristic of the dignified object,” “the destruction of the elevated object into the dignity of the Thing,” “the encounter with the real,” “the negation of the (pre)supposition of the Big Other,” and “tarrying with the negative.” First, I examined the objects of desire of the different social classes (the lower, the middle, and the upper classes and the homeless) shown in each chapter, such as women, ambition for a luxurious life, and ideology. And I concluded that, since their objects of desire are elevated to the dignity of the Thing, the protagonists of each chapter experience the destruction of their dignified objects of desire. Then, I suggest that, different from the protagonists of the previous two chapters who repeat the same vicious circle of desire, the protagonist in the third chapter appears on screen already realized the fictitious characteristic of the dignified object of desire. Especially, I focus on his encounter with the real, which results in his desertion of his “demonstrative” resistance to life, and which liberates him from the symbolic order and makes him tarry with the negative and to live a new life by denying the (pre)supposition of the Big Other.
  • 9.

    A Critical Comparative Discourse Analysis of the Editorials of the Global Times with a Focus on the US-China Media War Featured by COVID-19

    CHOI TAE HOON | 2020, 59() | pp.261~291 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study, based on the method of critical discourse analysis, examined the aspects of re/constructing the orders of discourse in the context of COVID-19 through the Global Times editorials. The research questions included: First, how have the headlines of the Global Times developed the construction of discursive patterns in the coronavirus phases for 60 days from January 19 to March 18, 2020? Second, what are the meanings and functions of the repetitive patterns of expression revealing the intertextuality of the editorials of the Global Times, and what events triggered those recursive patterns? Third, what are the strategies of politicization through the media war? The data included the editorials of the Global times during that period. The results showed that first, the revealed discourse orders were intended to: 1) decrease the people’s criticism of the Chinese government, 2) intentionally establish a confrontation with the US to promote patriotism, and 3) politicize all matters through a fierce media war that brings people together and transfers their own responsibilities to the US. Second, the essential expressions showing the intertextuality through the editorials pertained to “Nakjeong-Haseok,” meaning throwing a stone to a person fallen in a well, and “Donga-Byeongbu,” meaning the sick man of Asia. These two expressions are used repeatedly to form a patterned discourse practice and play a key role in China's effort to build a political image of moral superiority and justice. In other words, these two patterns of expression enable the Chinese public to unconsciously evoke immorality and unpleasantness about “Nakjeong-Haseok” and “Donga-Byeongbu.” Furthermore, these core expressions are recursively recalled in any relevant events for the conflicts between the US and China and thus, are entrenched in the Chinese minds, manipulating them so that they may believe in the legitimacy created by the discourse practice. Therefore, the constructed frame of discourse producing ideological distortion helps people pretend that everything that China does to the US is moral and just while whatever the US does to China looks immoral and unjust. Third, the core politicization strategies through the media war lie in 1) the allegation of triggering a media war by the US and the formation of China's self-defense ideology and 2) threatening and conciliating as double-layered linguistic strategies. China continues constructing ideology in the six ‘media war’-related editorials that the US had been preemptively attacked. As they make excuses to blame the US for the sin of preemptive strikes, they intend to let the public know that they are morally superior. The media war is a problem related to the “face” of China. It is a war that saves their face but does not need to be pursued for a long time. As a result, the editorials reveal the intersection of the dual structure of the threat and conciliation. In conclusion, the “Sick Man of Asia” can be seen as a new version of the “Chinese Threat Ideology.” However, the hypothetical “Chinese Threat Ideology" has been transforming into “visible devastating Chinese threats” as the pandemic has spread worldwide.
  • 10.

    On the Semantic Roles of Double Subject Constructions

    Hongshik Yi | 2020, 59() | pp.293~326 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, double-subject constructions were analyzed as simple sentences. It is difficult to support the predicate clause theory because it has a problem with the generative process of a predicate clause. Furthermore, it is difficult to suggest a process that assigns a semantic role to the first noun phrases in double-subject constructions. Therefore, analyzing double-subject constructions as simple sentences can overcome such difficulties. To overcome the burden of setting two case frames to the verbs in double-subject constructions, we chose to analyze the first noun phrase of a double-subject construction as an adjunct. However, the problem of assigning a semantic role to the adjunct words remains. In this paper, the possessor role was given to the first NPs of a double-subject construction. The possessor role reflects the relationship between the first noun phrase and the second noun phrase in the double-subject construction. It is judged that it is not appropriate to reflect the relationship between the two components of the so-called topic and comment. When the topic is decided, the following elements add information by making the topic the object of the comment. To reflect this point in a semantic role setting, the theme role was given to the first noun phrase. However, the semantic roles were decided according to the semantic relationship within the sentence hierarchy. The topic-comment relationship was decided according to the discourse hierarchy. Therefore, the theme role cannot be assigned to the topic component. We suggest that the possessor role should be assigned to the topic component.