Cross-Cultural Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.6

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pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088
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2020, Vol.60, No.

  • 1.

    A study on fraternity, the idea of the French Revolution: Problems with Korean translation and history of the concept

    Won Koh | 2020, 60() | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A study on fraternity, the idea of the French Revolution: Problems with Korean translation and history of the concept Koh, Won Kyung Hee University This article examines fraternity, the idea of the French Revolution, to comprehend the historical meaning of the term. People in Korea often get confused by the terms fraternity and philanthropy. However, fraternity is a distinctly different term from philanthropy. The word fraternity appeared during the growth of communes in medieval Europe. Communes were born out of a voluntary association among the citizens, based on the bond of an oath. It is the fraternity that bound the people and gave the city freedom from the dominion of feudalism. The radicals of the French Revolution accepted fraternity as the idea of the revolution. After the fall of the radicals, the liberals changed the meaning of fraternity, and “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”, which was the slogan of the radicals, became a symbol of the French Republic in the late 19th century.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Study on the Semantics of the Word 'Jeon/hu' in Korean and 'qian/hou' in Chinese

    Guo, Hui | 2020, 60() | pp.27~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper compared the semantics of 'Jeon/hu' in Korean and 'qian/hou' in Chinese to identify the difference in meaning between them. Nones are used to describe the direction in Korean, which is different from English. Nones are also used to describe the direction in Chinese, but there are many different points between the two languages. This is because, in Korean, not only are native words used to describe the direction, but many Sino-Korean words are also used. Therefore, in this paper, the direction of 'Jeon/hu' and 'qian/hou' were chosen as the subject of the study. Firstly, the study identifies the meaning of 'Jeon/hu' in Korean and 'qian/hou' in Chinese, including for example, the spatial meanings, the time-based meanings, and the abstract meanings. Then, the study compared the semantics of 'Jeon/hu' and 'qian/hou' to find the difference in meaning between them.
  • 3.

    Against ‘Left Populism’: Democracy Without ‘the Common World’?

    MAN KWON KIM | 2020, 60() | pp.53~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Witnessing the populist explosion all over the world, this paper aims to theoretically and practically review the idea of radicalizing democratic movements under the banner of ‘left populism’ urged by Chantal Mouffe and her followers. In considering this political strategy, this paper takes the following question seriously: Can populism be bound by democratic norms? To answer this question, this paper develops a fourfold discussion; first, it critically delves into the theories of left populism, especially constructed by Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau; second, it checks the reality of populist movements all over the world: the dominance of (far) right wing populism; third, it takes into account the efficacy as well as the legitimacy of this strategy in the Korean context; and finally, it argues that the left populist strategy could degenerate into a politics of fragmentation paralyzing not only democratic norms but also democracies themselves.
  • 4.

    A Study on Images of Windows in Mallarmé’s Poetry

    DO YOONJUNG | 2020, 60() | pp.83~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper was to verify and rediscover Mallarmé's poetic world by analyzing various images of windows in Mallarmé's poetry. The images of windows in Mallarmé’s poetry can be extracted from multiple pieces, but among them, "Le pitre châtié", "Don du poème", "Sainte", "Une dentelle s'abolit ...", "Ses purs ongles...", "Les Fenêtres", were analyzed. The window in the poetry of Mallarmé was an escape from the confined space, a projection screen that illuminates the light and shape of indoors and outdoors, as well as the base of the painting, and an open space that reveals the empty space open to another world. It was also a passage to communicate with the outside world. Additionally, it was a magical space that provided the lyric subject standing in front of the window a moment to transform. It was an obstacle that bounds this world (“Ici-bas”) and the ideal world (“Au-delà”), but it was also the art itself which was the means of escape and a shelter from this life. Mallarmé’s windows were diverse and in some cases they were opposite each other, which gives Mallarmé’s poetry dynamism. The confirmed and newly discovered points by this analysis are as follow. First, in the poetic situation surrounding the windows of Mallarmé's early poetry, influenced by Baudelaire, the difference with Baudelaire was clear. Second, the world of Mallarmé's poetry focuses on the act of writing and the salvation by it, and comprises the meta-poetry, embodying the act of creation and the work created itself in an allegory. Third, the drama of aspiring to the ideal world with a window motif and devotion to art is mainly focused on evening, night, and dawn. Finally, the window motif and the form of poetry are deeply connected.
  • 5.

    Changes in Mental Illness Patterns and Their Meaning in Adapted Novels - Focusing on Jo Joong-hwan’s “Bibongdam” and Neural Fever

    PARK SUNGHO | 2020, 60() | pp.127~156 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Jo Joong-hwan’s “Bibongdam” is an adapted novel serialized in Maeilshinbo, followed by “Ssang-ok-ru” and “Janghanmong”. This novel, based on Ruiko Kuroiwa’s Warawatsunomi, like the two previous novels, focuses on the story of a mentally ill female. It is neural fever, or ‘Shingyungryulbyung’ that appears in “Bibongdam” like the hysteria of “Ssang-ok-ru” and the melancholia of “Janghanmong”. The main character, Park Hwa-soon, suffers from neural fever and as a result is faced with murder charges. The main thrust of this novel is that she avoids the charges through trials and heals from neural fever and restores her relationship with her lover, Im Dal-sung. However, the neural fever in “Bibongdam” is different from other mental illnesses in previous novels. While other novels’ mental illnesses were linked to the guilt of the female character, neural fever has its own identity as a disease separate from the guilt of Park Hwa-soon. So, unlike other mental illnesses that are healed through atonement or forgiveness, neural fever is healed by a doctor and is not associated with the atonement of the main character. Im Dal-sung, who treats the Park Hwa-soon’s neural fever, is also a doctor, focusing only on medical practice, and does not forgive her. Also, the subjects that enable the atonement and forgiveness of the characters are transferred from the characters to external institutions. The medical institution treats her neural fever, and the judicial institution finds her innocent. In the previous novels, forgiveness and reconciliation is made by male characters representing moral values, but in “Bibongdam”, it is realized by institutionalized power. In this process, the character, or ‘individual’, is reduced and is revealed as being embraced by the system. The appearance of the first person narrator, regarded as a characteristic of “Bibongdam”, is also related to this reduction of these individuals.
  • 6.

    The Status of Faculties and the Autonomy of University in Accordance with the Change of University

    Yunho Seo , Chun, Yunku | 2020, 60() | pp.157~192 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    With the phenomenon of university corporatization, university restructuring in our current society is in full swing and the internal division of university faculties is being advanced. Until now, the status of university faculties has been governed by education-related laws such as the private school law and higher education law. However, these laws were legislated at a time when Korean higher education institutions were on the path of continuous growth, so they are unsuitable for the current university situation, entering the period of university restructuring. Conventionally, the labor law has neglected the regulation of university faculties, while entrusting its legislative reform to the educational laws. As a result, the protection of university faculties during university restructuring is becoming significantly weaker than that of ordinary workers. Thus, to support or promote university restructuring, which is inevitable in response to the university restructuring accompanied by a decrease in the school-age population, conversely, it is in the field of labor law necessary to actively include university faculties that face university restructuring as the objects of protection. At the same time, conversely, the legislative alternatives and disciplines suitable for university restructuring are being requested in education-related laws such as the private school law and higher education law. It is necessary to examine the proposal for legislative improvement classified into liquidation-type university restructuring and survival-type university restructuring. For universities that are expected to encounter difficulty in normal management because of the accumulation of shortages regardless of misconduct, it is necessary to ensure that the corporate dissolution incentives and the dismissal compensation for university faculties are balanced so that the university can be closed in an orderly manner wherein pain is shared fairly. To this end, various legislative supports must be sought, and the most crucial imperative is to quickly establish a social safety net for university faculties. At the same time, in the survival-type university restructuring that has a strong effect on the existence of universities and departments and the personal lives of university members, it is necessary for the university members to advocate the right to participate in the decision-making process and procedures of the university headquarters to properly reflect their intentions. In particular, it is crucial to ensure that the university members actively participate in democratic decision-making in the course of department integration and abolition.
  • 7.

    On the meanings and functions of -kilato ha- constructions, supplemented by comparison with Japanese and Chinese counterparts

    SIM JIYOUNG , Park, Jinho , Bao, Juan and 1 other persons | 2020, 60() | pp.193~221 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The basic meaning of -kilato ha- is “supposing selecting an option in spite of the fact that it is not the best one.” It is based on the meaning of the delimiter -lato (non-best option) and that of the nominalizer -ki (supposition of an irrealis state-of-affairs). This basic meaning is modulated and realized in various ways in constructions expressing simile, condition, question, order/request, proposal/advice, hope, obligation, etc. Though it is used mainly in irrealis constructions, -kilato ha- can also be found in realis constructions, e.g. in constructions expressing exclamation or contrast. Renyoukei+demo+suru in Japanese is markedly similar to -kilato ha- in morphology and semantics, but it prefers irrealis to realis much more than -kilato ha-. As Chinese is markedly different from Korean in the typological respect, you cannot find an exact counterpart of -kilato ha- in Chinese. However, the nǎpà…yě concessive construction can express similar meanings, and adverbs such as qǐmǎ/zhìshǎo or jiù can express the meaning “non-best option”
  • 8.

    Tirso‘s Don Gil de las calzas verdes: The Epitome of Baroque Comedy

    Yoon Yong-wook | 2020, 60() | pp.223~250 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Tirso was a leading playwright in Spain in the 17th century, and his work, Don Gil de las calzas verdes, is regarded as a play with an excellent comic identity in light of today's comedic theory of "different" and "unfamiliarity," young people's resistance to unfair practices related to marriage as a social judgment on absurdity, and the notion of harmony and reconciliation at the end of the play. The play also features a constant confrontation between the fictional story of Don Gil de las calzas verdes and the real story of Juana abandoned by her beloved man. Within this confrontation, the Baroque worldview of coincidence, chaos, and fantasy unfolds pleasantly with a comic touch. In other words, the play can be regarded as the epitome of Baroque comedy, which depicts the Baroque worldview using Tirso's unique comic touch.
  • 9.

    Discussion of a Connection System Between College General Mandarin Course and Future-oriented High School Public Education

    LEE youngwol | 2020, 60() | pp.251~274 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the face of this digital revolution era, our society is profoundly impacted by technological development. In the intermediate stage in which the senior high school credit system could be associated with, the necessity of an online education system has been increasingly emerging. The connectivity between the intermediate stage and higher education, and the educational gap have become serious problems. With the right combination of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the effort from all sectors of society, the field of education also has been continually having discussions about the new education of human resources and calling for innovative changes in public education as well. Thus, this paper investigated how the collage general Mandarin courses and the Mandarin public education as the second foreign language in senior high school are realized. Additionally, by the principles of lifelong education and the future-oriented perspective of the Fourth Industrial Revolution era, this paper proposes the necessity and appropriateness of constructing a connection system between various fields, and a practical project as well.
  • 10.

    Japanese New Words and Japanese Society in the COVID-19 Era

    Hae-mi, Lee | 2020, 60() | pp.275~300 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    New words can immediately reflect the present state of a specific society and express it. The purpose of this paper was to understand Japanese society amid the COVID-19 pandemic through new words. Analysis targets were articles introducing new words related to COVID-19 in Japan, COVID-19-related newspaper articles retrieved July 5-31, and COVID-19 related posts on Twitter. In these analyses targets, new words related to COVID-19 were collected and analyzed. The results are as follow. A total of 107 new words were observed. Among them, approximately 70% were created because of the need to refer to newly created objects and phenomena. This paper focused on the remaining 30% that a new word created by the government and a new word made by the Japanese citizens. Also analyzed the meaning, intention, and characteristics of each new word. It was possible to infer the Abe government’s attitude toward COVID-19 and Japanese citizens’ evaluation of this through a new word. Summarizing the results, The Abe government practiced measures to counter COVID-19 by coining the new words; ‘Three Cs’, ‘Nonessential outings’, ‘Go To Travel’, ‘Go To Eat Campaign’, and ‘Tokyo Alert'. Against this, the Japanese citizens expressed their anger with a new word; ‘Shukinpei (集 近閉)’, adding a satirical element to the ‘Nonessential outings’, ‘Go To trouble, Go To Corona Infection Campaign, Go To Murder Campaign, Go To interests, Go To Hell, Go To Cancel’ and ‘Abenomask, Abenogenocide, Abeka (アベ禍)’, not only criticized the policy but the new words created by the government indicated how the Abe government responded to COVID-19. The result of the response was known through a new word made created the Japanese citizens.
  • 11.

    Zenobia and Coverdale’s Veil: Hawthorne’s Sexual Politics in The Blithedale Romance

    Jin Man Jeong | 2020, 60() | pp.301~327 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay examines if Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Blithedale Romance suggests a prospective feminist vision distancing from his contemporary dominant belief in gender. First, this essay identifies Zenobia’s inner inconsistency, focusing on her voices torn between defending her feminist cause energetically in the beginning and undercutting it skeptically at the latter part of the story. Arguably, despite her seeming eagerness in enhancing women’s rights as shown in Nina Baym’s longstanding claim, Zenobia continues to advocate the established notion of womanhood, unveiling her conservative voices. Second, this essay investigates the irreparably discordant perspectives that the narrator Coverdale as Hawthorne’s persona has assumed toward gender issues. Similar to Zenobia, he discloses his rear view wherein he promotes surreptitiously his or the author’s conservative, rigid ideology of gender as undeniably dichotomous and hierarchical, while at the front he is disguised as an earnest supporter of the feminist cause. Also, this essay articulates that Coverdale’s disguised sexual politics cannot be sustained safely, by testifying how his narrative that has chased ‘chimaera’ as an illusion of gender is being disrupted unknowingly by itself. Thus, aside from referring to a historical context around Hawthorne, a close reading concerning Zenobia and Coverdale’s (un-)veiling of gender ideology and a deconstructive approach to Coverdale’s narrative would facilitate elucidating the sexual politics underneath The Blithedale Romance and Hawthorne’s contentious attitude toward gender as well.
  • 12.

    H.F.'s Testimony: A Study of Daniel Defoe's A Journal of the Plague Year

    Sungran Cho | 2020, 60() | pp.329~358 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Daniel Defoe's A Journal of Plague Year deals with the 1665 Great Plague of London, personal and collective trauma. This paper treats Defoe's novel as testimony and its narrator as a witness and explores the efficacy of such testimony. This paper examines the representation of the sufferings caused by the plague and discusses the plague from the perspective of the social class. It also examines the effect of the narrative strategy of using vivid imagery rather than the didactic narrative form. Regarding the narrator's treatment of the social class, the paper argues that H.F. has keen social consciousness and sympathy for the poor and his testimony shows that the poor suffer more from the plague because of their poverty. This testimony of suffering using vivid imagery renders the realistic picture of the past plague year of 1665, foretelling the reader about the imminent catastrophe of the plague in 1772. What Defoe intends using H.F. as the witness of the trauma is two-fold; first, he suggests that healthy people be quarantined separately from the sick people in case the plague spreads and increase the number of the plague houses. Second, he suggests people repent their sins to prevent another plague which is the sign of God's wrath. Ultimately, this paper argues that his testimony creates collective memory and functions as a memorial for the nameless plague victims, while warning against future calamity. The witness-narrator acquires partial healing from his trauma through his talking while the listener-reader partially participates in the vicarious experience with horror and sympathy, thus 'working through' their trauma.