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pISSN : 1598-0685 / eISSN : 2671-9088

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2020, Vol.61, No.

  • 1.

    The Origin of Oral Literature and Literariness in Sub-Saharan Francophone Africa

    Sun-Ah Park | 2020, 61() | pp.1~33 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study assesses the creative value of African oral literature through theoretical consideration of genres and literariness based on the origin of oral literature in sub-Saharan francophone Africa. We first identify the point at which the oral culture tradition evolved into the genres of oral literature and examine the characteristics of these literary genres. In addition, we address the problem of literariness lost in the process of oral literature to literal literature and suggest a theoretical approach to explore it. We next study paratextual materials such as object language, sound language, and body language, as the main literary elements organically connected to African’s lyricism and daily life. Then we take a typological approach to oral literature, analyzing the literariness of “space” and “style” in the performance process. Finally, we explore the unique literariness of African oral literature by examining the relationship between the narrator, such as “Griot” and the auditor from the perspective of Jauss and Iser's receptive aesthetics. This study demonstrates that the oral literature, rooted in the oral cultural tradition of sub-Saharan Africa, is an art of a priori and stereoscopic expression equal to that of any other written literature.
  • 2.

    Narrative Structure of the African Oral Traditional Contes Based on the Spiders’ Stories in the work of Bernard Dadié

    YU Jai-Myong | 2020, 61() | pp.35~67 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Translating African oral contes into French maintains the traditional culture and at the same time aims to become part of French literature. This paper investigates the narrative structure of African oral contes by analyzing The Spider Kacou Ananzè by Bernard Dadié. Dadié generalizes oral stories of Agni-baoulé of Côte d’Ivoire into a narrative structure with a definite form. In the spider story, the spider enters a utopian sphere, escaping from the reality of drought, famine, and happenstance; returns to its original environment after violating a taboo; and then longs for the utopia it lost. In this story, Dadié animistically depicts the relationship between humans and the environment, showing that the fulfillment of utopia is the ultimate value in this environment and gains significance only through the community.
  • 3.

    The Orality of West-African Culture

    LEE Kyung-Lae | 2020, 61() | pp.69~99 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A true understanding of African modern culture necessitates awareness of the lore of African oral tradition, and this essay illuminates various aspects of orality in West Africa. Oral utterance is a social attribute inherent in human beings, and the oral tradition is the essence of African civilization. Africans believe in the representational power of oral language in the creation of the world, and value its infinite ability to cause action. This essay explores the functions of African oral languages as means of communication, holy expression, materializing authority, governing and ruling, connecting ancestors and descendants, aesthetically and poetically conveying human experiences, and narrating creation myths. Despite its many functions, the use of oral language is rigorously controlled by usage rules. The orality in West African culture has influenced African literature to this day. This essay reveals how orality in African culture has been restored or subverted.
  • 4.

    Archetypes of Legendary Characters and “Evil Playfulness” in the Oral Literature of Madagascar

    CHO JI-SOOK | 2020, 61() | pp.101~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the main characters and their “evil playfulness” in Contes Populaires Malgaches (1893), a collection of oral stories from Madagascar published in France in the 19thcentury. We will focus on the evil playfulness of Kotofetsy and Mahaka, characters in in the story of the Merinas (also known as Imerinas) who are one of Madagascar’s main peoples. Kotofetsy and Mahaka are tricksters, or tricky villains. They deceive, conspire, or brag to transmute evil into “fun,” through impressive, but sly and even cruel exploits. The oral stories in which they are protagonists reveal their brutal playfulness and Madagascar's unique oral literature and cultural traditions. More importantly, however, Kotofetsy and Mahaka are figures that embody the universal archetypes of many cultures.
  • 5.

    The Phonological System of the Mid-19th-Century Peking Dialect in Hsin jing lu by Thomas Wade

    Hyun-Ah Khoo | 2020, 61() | pp.133~180 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I studied the phonological system of the Peking dialect and distinct sound of Hsin jing lu, which was created by Thomas Wade in the mid-19th century. This system includes the consonant ŋ, and tʂ, tʂ‘, ʂ, ɻ, ts, ts‘, s combined with o, and the entering tone of Dang-jiang (宕江) group did not produce rhyme ye, most of which has final u. After the middle of the Qing dynasty, increased exchange between the northeastern region of China and the Beijing area brought about contact between the Peking dialect and Northeast Mandarin. Some characters of Shan—she, he, kou, yi, deng, Duan, and zu (山攝 合口 一等 端組) appear inHsin jing lu, but it does not have a medial u or merge zhi, jing, and zu (知精組).隔 and 客 are read as final ie; 容, 榮, and 融 are read with no initial consonant; and 濃 is read as a final əŋ as in Northeast Mandarin. Because Hsin jing lu describes the phonological characteristics of the Peking dialect and its contact with Northeast Mandarin in the mid-19th century, understanding it is important in studying the history of the Peking dialect.
  • 6.

    Teaching Chinese Punctuation Marks for Intermediate and Advanced Learners Based on the New HSK levels 3-6 Tests

    KIMSEUNGHYUN | 2020, 61() | pp.181~218 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper I studied the teaching of Chinese punctuation marks for -ntermediate and advanced learners, using an analysis of the previous new HSK tests and examination of the meanings and functions of the punctuation marks. In chapter 1, I analyzed the chinese punctuation marks appearing in the reading texts of 20 sets of the previous New HSK levels 3-6 and found a total of 13. I also studied the average number, frequency, and distribution of the punctuation marks for each set, conducted a step-by-step comparative analysis of the punctuation marks. In chapter2, I examined the meaning and function of the punctuation marks in my sample. This allowed me to analyze the meanings and functions of each sentence symbol in the various texts. Finally, I made an educational proposal based on my analysis. Because learning and knowledge of commas ( , ) and periods( 。 ) is very important for intermediate and advanced learners, I suggested that these marks be learned in stages. Because use of slight-pause marks( 、), colons( ; ), and semicolons( ; ) increased at more advanced levels, I suggested that these marks appear first in simple and then in increasingly longer sentences so the learners could practice interpreting and understanding the sentences correctly. Finally, I noted that advanced knowledge of the meanings and functions of the punctuation marks should be required to support learners' reading and writing.
  • 7.

    Suicidal Motives of <<Lonesome People>> by Hauptmann

    Kim, Hwa Im | 2020, 61() | pp.219~244 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In western literature, suicide was one of the most important motives. Also, we can see frequent use of suicidal motives in the German’s naturalism works. Suicidal motives also play an important role in <<Lonesome people>> by Hauptmann, a representative playwriter of German naturalism. This paper focuses on describing multiple perspectives of suicidal motives of Johannes, the main character. First, the suicide by Johannes can be interpreted as Durkheim’s “egoistic” suicide. Second, his death can be categorized by Freud’s psychoanalysis. Third, the realistic problem, which is economical stress, influenced his suicide.
  • 8.

    The Signification of the “Decisive Moment” in the Photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson

    Jungmin OH | 2020, 61() | pp.245~266 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the semiotic analysis of the photographs in general, the iconic sign produces the interpretant, or meaning to the viewer, which leads to the concordance between the interpretant and the object photographed. In this article, a semiotic analysis of the photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson as an image-sign reveals the signification of the “decisive moment”. In that case, the interpretant does not correspond to the object in the pattern proposed by Charles Sanders Peirce, because it is not the iconic sign, but the plastic sign that produces the interpretant. So Cartier-Bresson's “decisive moment” shows the necessity to correct Peirce's semiotic pattern and even Martine Joly's opinion expressed in her discourse on the uniqueness of a work of art because she didn’t see that she meant the uniqueness that comes from the object and not from the plastic sign, which is not the signification of the photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson.
  • 9.

    A Study of Marguerite Yourcenar’s Early Art Essays and Their Influence on Her Novels

    OH Jung-Sook | 2020, 61() | pp.267~295 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of Marguerite Yourcenar's early art essays (1928-1940) on her novels. The specific essays I examined were Arnold Böcklin’s Isle of the Dead (1928), Michaelangelo's Sistine Chapel (1931) and Poussin Exhibition in New York (1940). In the essay on Böklin's -Isle of the Dead- series, Yourcenar considers it to be in the genealogy of Hans Holbein the Younger's Dance of Death and Albrecht Dürer's Melancholia. This short essay includes all the themes– plague, reformation, and death–that she later explores in her novel, The Abyss. She writes the essay on Michelangelo in the first person and structures it more like a novel than objective art criticism. Yourcenar portrays Michaelangelo not as a great painter of extraordinary genius and artistic spirit, but as a lonely old man with no human connections. The core themes of this essay include the artist's aspiration to keep the beauty on the ceiling of the chapel forever, the pain of impossible love and the sorrow of a woman who cannot become the object of desire. These themes, as well as the style and tone of this essay, are identical to a chapter in Yourcenar's novel Fires, which was published eight years later. Her essay on Nicolas Poussin, on the other hand, is narrated objectively and presents a wealth of information appropriate to art criticism. Of the four narrative functions of art criticism presented by A. Terneuil, the essays on Böklin and Michaelangelo fulfill the psychological function, and the essay on Poussin combines the informational, rhetorical, and structural functions in an organically harmonized narrative. Even in this seemingly objective art criticism, however, Yourcenar's subjective experience of exile and her identity crisis in being cast out from the old world into the new resonate from every page.
  • 10.

    De-stereotyping French Partitive Articles

    Rhee, Eun-mee | 2020, 61() | pp.297~329 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In French grammar, the partitive article is considered as an expression of quantity. Textbooks on French often indicate that it is used to express an undetermined quantity or a part of something. They sometimes even say that the article includes the plural form des. Korean French-learners find it difficult to use the partitive article because of such confusing explanations. In this study, I prove this difficulty by having Korean French-learners fill in empty boxes in sentences with appropriate articles and observing that they fulfilled their tasks very poorly. When they see pieces of an object, they tend to use the partitive article, while native French speakers will use the indefinite article. I suggest that we should teach Korean French-learners the difference between enumerable nouns and non-enumerable nouns first. After that, they should learn that the indefinite article as a determinative is associated with countable nouns of some objects with unidentified or unspecified numbers, while the partitive article is linked with non-enumerable nouns that are intrinsically non-countable. This will clarify that the plural form des cannot appertain to the partitive article. I also would like to highlight that understanding the partitive article takes part in the process of interpreting the utterance.
  • 11.

    The Perception of Modernity and Ethics of Coexistence in Bong Joon-ho's movies Barking Dogs Never Bite and Parasite

    Lee, Chan | 2020, 61() | pp.331~367 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The object of this paper is to clarify the ethics of coexistence and the perception of Korean modernity in director Bong Joon-ho's movie Parasite, winner of the Palme d'Or at the 2019 Cannes Film Festival and the 2020 Academy Award for Best Picture, and his first feature film, Barking Dogs Never Bite. Although there about 20 years separate the two movies, they treat the same subject using a unique narrative grammar that incorporates and intermingles the genres of drama, thriller, and black comedy. The fusion of these genres makes both movies “paradoxical texts” that reveal the contradictions and absurdities inherent in Korean social reality. This paper particularly focuses on the fact that Parasite expands the backwardness and absurdity of Korean capitalism that Bong Joon-ho explored in Barking Dogs Never Bite into a universal capitalist structure in which he explores the relationship between labor and capital. Paradise also deepens the paradoxical relationship between the negative perception of Korean modernity and the ethics of coexistence first explored in Barking Fogs Never Bite. In tracing the evolution of Bong Joon-ho's ideas and craft, this paper not only examines both the formal aesthetics and the subject focus of films, Ed: but also presents the unique aesthetics of Bong Joon-ho's movies, represented as “Bong Tail” and “Aesthetics of Beep.” Ed: Please clarify. I couldn't find reference to these terms.
  • 12.

    Learning New HSK Chinese Vocabulary in Isomorphism Using Coined Units of Beginner TOPIK Sino-Korean Vocabulary in Reverse

    Choe Geum-Dan | 2020, 61() | pp.369~393 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the 99-item beginner TOPIK kanji-unit vocabulary, 48 items from New HSK vocabulary correspond in meaning and usage in three types of homo-arranged-morphemic pairs: same-form-morpheme with same meaning, same-form-morpheme with partly same meaning, and same-form-morpheme with different meaning. Of the total 48 pairs of Chinese-coined vocabulary units for Chinese characters, same-form-morphemes with same meaning accounted for 41 pairs—85.42%, and those coined units are used identically in Chinese and Korean. Thus, Korean-speaking Chinese learners can apply the corresponding vocabulary in their native languages to learn the target language easily and efficiently for the language proficiency test. Since these 41 pairs of the Sino-Korean vocabulary are repeatedly learned from the 170-item beginner TOPIK vocabulary—4.15 times the Sino-Korean vocabulary— associating coined units should contribute greatly to the quantitative expansion of vocabulary acquisition. 4 pairs—8.33%—were same-form-morpheme with partly same meaning. Learning these few vocabulary items should involve recognizing the commonalities and differences between Chinese and Korean vocabulary and identifying the causes of linguistic interference. There were 3 pairs—6.25%—of same form-morpheme with different meaning. Clearly recognizing the differences between these Chinese and Korean vocabulary words will not only help learners retain the second- language vocabulary, but also will illuminate the causes of the mother tongue's language interference and the formation of intermediate languages. We hope that the results of this study, aimed at using Sino-Korean coined units and their vocabulary families, will be used as to foster effective New HSK vocabulary acquisition for Korean-speaking Chinese learners.