A study about the aspect of translation on ‘Hu(怖)’ in novel 『Kokoro』- Focusing on novels translated in Korean and English -
Emotional expressions are expressions that show the internal condition of mind or consciousness. Types of emotional expressions include vocabulary that describes emotion, the composition of sentences that expresses emotion such as an exclamatory sentence and rhetorical question, expressions of interjection, appellation, causative, passive, adverbs of attitude for an idea, and a style of writing. This study focuses on vocabulary that describes emotion and analyzes the aspect of translation when emotional expressions of ‘Hu(怖)’ is shown on 『Kokoro』. The aspect of translation was analyzed by three categories as follows; a part of speech, handling of subjects, and classification of meanings. As a result, the aspect of translation for expressions of Hu(怖)’ showed that they were translated to vocabulary as they were suggested in the dictionary in some cases. However, they were not always translated as they were suggested in the dictionary.
Vocabulary that described the emotion of ‘Hu(怖)’ in Japanese sentences were mostly translated to their corresponding parts of speech in Korean. Some adverbs needed to add ‘verbs’ when they were translated. Also, different vocabulary was added or used to maximize emotion. However, the correspondence of a part of speech in English was different from Korean. Examples of Japanese sentences that expressed ‘Hu(怖)’ by verbs were translated to expression of participles for passive verbs such as ‘fear’, ‘dread’, ‘worry’, and ‘terrify’ in many cases. Also, idioms were translated with focus on the function of sentences rather than the form of sentences. Examples, what was expressed in adverbs did not accompany verbs of ‘Hu(怖)’. Instead, it was translated to the expression of participles for passive verbs and adjectives such as ‘dread’, ‘worry’, and ‘terrify’ in many cases.
The main agents of emotion were shown in the first person and the third person in simple sentences. The translation on emotional expressions when a main agent was the first person showed that the fundamental word order of Japanese was translated as it was in Korean. However, adverbs of time and adverbs of degree tended to be added. Also, the first person as the main agent of emotion was positioned at the place of subject when it was translated in English. However, things or the cause of events were positioned at the place of subject in some cases to show the degree of ‘Hu(怖)’ which the main agent experienced. The expression of conjecture and supposition or a certain visual and auditory basis was added to translate the expression of emotion when the main agent of emotion was the third person. Simple sentences without a main agent of emotion showed that their subjects could be omitted even if they were essential components because they could be known through context in Korean. These omitted subjects were found and translated in English. Those subjects were not necessarily humans who were the main agents of emotion. They could be things or causes of events that specified the expression of emotion.