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2014, Vol.4, No.1

  • 1.

    Anticonvulsant potential of some traditional medicinal plants

    Mohammad Asif | 2014, 4(1) | pp.1~1 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Epilepsy has now become the most serious brain disorder. A number of synthetic antiepileptic drugs are available in practice, however their effectiveness does not grip true with the entire population suffering from epilepsy. Traditional systems of medicine are popular in developing countries and most of the population relies on traditional medicines for their primary health care need. Medicinal plants to be an important source of traditional medicines. Various plants are used for the treatment of epilepsy in traditional system of medicines and various plants are yet to be scientifically investigated. Phyto-constituents have been the basis of treatment of human diseases including epilepsy. Herbal products are extensively used for the treatment of many diseases worldwide and where allopathic fails or has severe side effects. Psycho neural drugs are also have very serious side effects like physical dependence, tolerance, deterioration of cognitive function and effect on respiratory, digestive and immune system. So the treatments through herbal medicines are widely used across the world due to their wide applicability and therapeutic efficacy with least side effects, which in turn has accelerated the research regarding natural therapy. In this review we have summarized some herbal anti-epileptics.
  • 2.

    Papaya: A gifted nutraceutical plant - a critical review of recent human health research

    Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi | Kim Hyung Min | Kaliyaperumal Jegajeevanram and 2other persons | 2014, 4(1) | pp.2~2 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The plant kingdom is considered to be a repository of modern medicine, attributable to their rich source of bio-active molecules and secondary metabolites. It is indeed the Nutraceuticals that enhance immunity and ensure a healthier life because of their prophylactic and therapeutic values. Over centuries, papaya [Caricaceae; (Carica papaya Linn.)] is a renowned nutritious and medicinal plant. Each part of the papaya like root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, rinds, and latex has its own nutraceutical properties. It serves as food, cooking aid, and Ethnomedicine to prevent and treat wide-range of diseases and disorders. It has also been traditionally used as appetite enhancer, meat tenderizer, purgative, medicinal acne, abortifacient and vermifuge. Over decades, a series of scientific attempts were made to authenticate the nutraceutical properties of papaya. These studies validated that the papaya has antiplasmodial, antitrichochramal, antitrichomonal, antidengue, and anti-cancer activities. They have also exhibited that papaya possesses antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and contraceptive features, and it helps in the management of sickle-cell anaemia, HIV, heart diseases and digestional disorders too. Nevertheless, the responsible bio-active molecules and their mode of actions remain indistinct and imprecise, and this calls for further pharmacological and clinical research on them. Conclusively, papaya is one of the naturally gifted plants; though its nutraceutical properties as a food or as a quasi-drug are poorly understood or undervalued by people. Accordingly, this scrutiny, demand for instigation of public health awareness campaigns to promote papaya consumption, so that the society shall acquire optimal benefits of papaya and in turn prevent and alleviate various diseases and illness.
  • 3.

    New evidence on mechanisms of action of spa therapy in rheumatic diseases

    Sara Tenti, Antonella Fioravanti | Giacomo Maria Guidelli | Nicola Antonio Pascarelli and 1other persons | 2014, 4(1) | pp.3~3 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Spa represents a treatment widely used in many rheumatic diseases (RD). The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water ameliorates RD are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, among which the mechanical, thermal and chemical effects are most prominent. Buoyancy, immersion, resistance and temperature play important roles. According to the gate theory, pain relief may be due to the pressure and temperature of the water on skin; heat may reduce muscle spasm and increase the pain threshold. Mud-bath therapy increases plasma β-endorphin levels and secretion of corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. It has recently been demonstrated that thermal mud-bath therapy induces a reduction in circulating levels of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α, important mediators of inflammation and pain. Furthermore, balneotherapy has been found to cause an increase in insulin-like growth factor-1, which stimulates cartilage metabolism, and transforming growth factor-β. Beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-degenerative effects of mineral water were confirmed in chondrocytes cultures, too. Various studies in vitro and in humans have highlighted the positive action of mud-packs and thermal baths, especially sulphurous ones, on the oxidant/antioxidant system. Overall, thermal stress has an immunosuppressive effect. Many other non-specific factors may also contribute to the beneficial effects observed after spa therapy in some RD, including effects on cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. adipokines) and changes in the environment, pleasant surroundings and the absence of work duties.
  • 4.

    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of traditional medicinal plants, Gynura segetum

    Lay-Jing Seow | Hooi-Kheng Beh | Amirin Sadikun and 1other persons | 2014, 4(1) | pp.4~4 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Gynura segetum, family Asteraceae is a cultivated species and can be found growing in the tropical regions of Indonesia and Malaysia. The plant is known for its use for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, diabetes, hypertension and skin afflictions. In the current study, anti-inflammatory effect of Gynura segetum leaf has been investigated. The present study investigated the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Gynura segetum leaf by using hen’s egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay. Different solvent extract of Gynura segetum leaf were tested, the most active methanol extract was further fractionated and tested. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract showed a significant good anti-inflammatory effect (76.8% inhibition at 50 µg/disc) on the HET-CAM assay as compared with the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (82.1% inhibition). However, the fractionated sample exhibited a significantly lower activity in comparison to crude methanol extract. The results demonstrated that Gynura segetum leaf displayed remarkable anti-inflammatory effects, which support the folkloric uses of this plant for treatment of inflammation.
  • 5.

    Screening and isolation of antibacterial proteinaceous compounds from flower tissues: Alternatives for treatment of healthcare-associated infections

    Renato Goulart de Almeida | Simoni Campos Dias | Osmar Nascimento Silva and 9other persons | 2014, 4(1) | pp.5~5 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Healthcare-associated infection represents a frequent cause of mortality that increases hospital costs. Due to increasing microbial resistance to antibiotics, it is necessary to search for alternative therapies. Consequently, novel alternatives for the control of resistant microorganisms have been studied. Among them, plant antimicrobial protein presents enormous potential, with flowers being a new source of antimicrobial molecules. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of protein-rich fractions from flower tissues from 18 different species was evaluated against several human pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that protein-rich fractions of 12 species were able to control bacterial development. Due its broad inhibition spectrum and high antibacterial activity, the protein-rich fraction of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was subjected to DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, yielding a retained fraction and a non-retained fraction. The retained fraction inhibits 29.5% of Klebsiella pneumoniae growth, and the non-retained fraction showed 31.5% of growth inhibition against the same bacteria. The protein profile of the chromatography fractions was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE, revealing the presence of two major protein bands in the retained fraction, of 20 and 15 kDa. The results indicate that medicinal plants have the biotechnological potential to increase knowledge about antimicrobial protein structure and action mechanisms, assisting in the rational design of antimicrobial compounds for the development of new antibiotic drugs.
  • 6.

    Characterization of Bacillus anthracis proteases through protein-protein interaction: an in silico study of anthrax pathogenicity

    Amrita Banerjee | Pradeep Kumar Das Mohapatra | Shilpee Pal and 4other persons | 2014, 4(1) | pp.6~6 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Anthrax is the deadly disease for human being caused by Bacillus anthracis. Instantaneous research work on the mode of infection of the organism revealed that different proteases are involved in different steps of pathogenesis. Present study reports the in silico characterization and the detection of pathogenic proteases involved in anthrax infection through protein-protein interaction. A total of 13 acid, 9 neutral, and 1 alkaline protease of Bacillus anthracis were selected for analysing the physicochemical parameter, the protein superfamily and family search, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, protein-protein interactions and motif finding. Among the 13 acid proteases, 10 were found as extracellular enzymes that interact with immune inhibitor A (InhA) and help the organism to cross the blood brain barrier during the process of infection. Multiple sequence alignment of above acid proteases revealed the position 368, 489, and 498-contained 100% conserved amino acids which could be used to deactivate the protease. Among the groups analyzed, only acid protease were found to interact with InhA, which indicated that metalloproteases of acid protease group have the capability to develop pathogenesis during B. anthracis infection. Deactivation of conserved amino acid position of germination protease can stop the sporulation and germination of B anthracis cell. The detailed interaction study of neutral and alkaline proteases could also be helpful to design the interaction network for the better understanding of anthrax disease.
  • 7.

    Therapeutic potential of traditionally used medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) against diabesity: An experimental study in rats

    Ajit Kumar Thakur | Shyam Sunder Chatterjee | Vikas Kumar | 2014, 4(1) | pp.7~7 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Metabolic effects of ten daily doses of standardized extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves (AP) rich in andrographolide were evaluated in a rat model of type-2 diabetes and in diet induced obese rats. AP was administered per-orally as suspension in 0.3% carboxymethylcellulose at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days. Blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile of rats were measured by using enzyme kits. In addition, effects of such treatments on anti-oxidant enzymes activity and histopathological changes in various organs of diabetic rats were assessed. AP treatments reversed body weight losses and increased plasma insulin level in diabetic rats. The anti-oxidant enzymes activity became normal and histopathological changes observed in pancreas, liver, kidney and spleen of diabetic animals were less severe in extract treated groups. On the other hand, hyperinsulinemia and increased body weight gains observed in high fat or fructose fed rats were less severe in the extract treated groups. These observations revealed therapeutic potentials of the extract for treatments of diabesity associated metabolic disorders, and suggest that the effects of the extract on insulin homeostasis depend on the metabolic status of animals. Activation of cytoprotective mechanisms could be involved in its mode of action.