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2016, Vol.6, No.4

  • 1.

    Biologically active compounds from natural and marine natural organisms with antituberculosis, antimalarial, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities

    Mohammad Asif | 2016, 6(4) | pp.22~22 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The biologically active compounds derived from different natural organisms such as animals, plants, and microorganisms like algae, fungi, bacteria and merine organisms. These natural compounds possess diverse biological activities like anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities. These biological active compounds were acted by variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. The synthesis of natural products and their analogues provides effect of structural modifications on the parent compounds which may be useful in the discovery of potential new drug molecules with different biological activities. Natural organisms have developed complex chemical defense systems by repelling or killing predators, such as insects, microorganisms, animals etc. These defense systems have the ability to produce large numbers of diverse compounds which can be used as new drugs. Thus, research on natural products for novel therapeutic agents with broad spectrum activities and will continue to provide important new drug molecules.
  • 2.

    Biological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on inflammation

    kim minho | 2016, 6(4) | pp.23~23 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the rapid developments in nanotechnology, an increasing number of nanomaterials have been applied in various aspects of our lives. Recently, pharmaceutical nanotechnology with numerous advantages has growingly attracted the attention of many researchers. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are nanomaterials that are widely used in many fields including diagnostics, therapeutics, drug-delivery systems, electronics, cosmetics, sunscreens, coatings, ceramic products, paints, and food additives, due to their magnetic, catalytic, semiconducting, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, ultraviolet-protective, and binding properties. The present review focused on the recent research works concerning role of ZnO-NP on inflammation. Several studies have reported that ZnO-NP induces inflammatory reaction through the generation of reactive oxygen species by oxidative stress and production of inflammatory cytokines by activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-B). Meanwhile, other researchers reported that ZnO-NP exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of NF-κB, caspase-1, IκB kinaseβ, receptor interacting protein2, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Previous studies reported that size and shape of nanoparticles, surfactants used for nanoparticles protection, medium, and experimental conditions can also affect cellular signal pathway. This review indicated that the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of ZnO-NP was determined by the nanoparticle size as well as various experimental conditions. Therefore, the author suggests that pharmaceutical therapy with the ZnO-NP is one of the possible strategies to overcome the inflammatory reactions. However, further studies should be performed to maximize the anti-inflammatory effect of ZnO-NP to apply as a potential agent in biomedical applications.
  • 3.

    Molecular dynamics simulations approaches for discovering anti-influenza drug

    Sungjoon Cho | Youngjin Choi | 2016, 6(4) | pp.24~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The emergence of influenza virus and antigenic drift are potential cause of world-wide pandemic. There are some commercially available drugs in the market to treat influenza. During past decade, however, critical resistances have been raised for biological targets. Because of structural complexity and flexibility of target proteins, applying a computational modeling tool is very beneficial for developing alternative anti-influenza drugs. In this review, we introduced molecular dynamics (MD) simulations approach to reflect full conformational flexibility of proteins during molecular modeling works. Case studies of MD works were summarized for the drug discovery and drug resistance mechanism of anti-influenza pharmaceuticals.
  • 4.

    The effect of Ssukdaemeori on depression: A heartrending song of sorrow, Han Ak (Korean music, 韓樂) is wetting on YouTube sung by Bang-ul, Im (https://youtu.be/IFzFeJcVLp4)

    고경자 | kim ji youn | 2016, 6(4) | pp.25~25 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine Ssukdaemeori of Chunhyangga may have effect on depression for music therapy. Ssukdaemeori of Chunhyangga, one of the five surviving stories of pansori (a long epic song), is a touching, sad song in Han Ak (Korean music, 韓樂). In this paper, the author reports on the very sad song, Ssukdaemeori. While listening to the song, Koreans feel the same amount of despair when Ssudaemeori’s heroine, Chunhyang, cries out in hopelessness and grief. The author argues that Koreans get to see the saddest parts of themselves reflected back at them in the sorrowful sight of the heroine. It is also believed that Ssukdaemeori has contributed to the healing of Koreans' indignation and pain. For example, depression is currently a social problem. However, listening to sorrowful music like Ssukdaemeori can have a good effect on people feeling sad and depressed.
  • 5.

    The effect of Yukjabaegi (six bit song) on overcoming grief through empathy sung by Hyang-ryun An pepped us up on YouTube (https://youtu.be/04RRMyOGW90)

    고경자 | 황성연 | 2016, 6(4) | pp.26~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to argue that Korean music, Yukjabaegi (six-bit songs), helps us overcome grief. It is not untrue to say that Yukjabaegi is among the greatest types of music in Korea. This is a testament to the prominence of this statue among Han Ak (Korean music, 韓樂). Empathy is an inherent human quality involving all parts of the brain which is also linked to feelings of love. Empathy is created the moment we imagine ourselves in someone else’s situation. Moreover, if empathy is good for us, the generation of empathy may actually mobilize our strength. Koreans have superior strength in overcoming grief and difficult situations by singing together. Often Koreans feel that their lives and labors are difficult, they start singing Yukjabaegi because they consider grief and anxiety wear on a person more than hard work. Listening to and singing Yukjabaegi can cheer up people who feel as limp as a rag after hard labor. Tackling reality and venting the experience via creative expression is bound to be healthy. Under a change of the rhythm pattern, Yukjabaegi thus becomes a major form of amusement for those suffering from difficult situations and comes as a true friend to share in our grief with us. Singing together via Yukjabaegi is a time to share grief. Thus, this, author believes that it is related to empathy. It helps us overcome grief by means of music therapy.
  • 6.

    Effects of shirodhara in generalized anxiety disorder

    Sanjeev Rastogi | Antriksha Baiswar | Anil Nischal and 2other persons | 2016, 6(4) | pp.27~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Anxiety is a common clinical presentation. Primary anxiety poses a significant problem in its management. Many among the current treatment options of anxiety are habit forming causing significant withdrawal symptoms. There are dose dependent responses often associated with drug adversities. Day time sedation is an undesired effect of many drugs used for anxiety management limiting its usage. Ayurveda recommends a bio- physical procedure to manage anxiety. Shirodhara, a dripping procedure is utilized as a front line therapy for anxiety in Ayurveda. Seeing the limitations of conventional biomedical management of anxiety requiring an improvement upon the existing protocols of managements, and also seeing the use of shirodhara for anxiety management in ayurvedic clinics, a pragmatic study to evaluate the effect of shirodhara in generalized anxiety disorder was done. This was a pragmatic study consisting of shirodhara with ksheer bala oil as an intervention upon generalized anxiety disorder patients. The study was conducted upon 13 patients and observations were done for six weeks. The responses observed through the changes in Hamilton Anxiety Scale were evaluated using paired t test to observe the pre-post significance.
  • 7.

    Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Salix Koreensis Andersson in DC. leaf methanol extract in vitro models

    김은지 | Mi-Hye Kim | 2016, 6(4) | pp.28~28 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Oxidative rancidity in foods causes undesirable changes in nutritive value, aroma, flavor, and color. Salix Koreensis Andersson in DC. (SK) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and is traditionally used to treat neuralgia, edema, pain, and inflammatory diseases. However, the regulatory effects of SK on oxidative and inflammatory reactions have not been elucidated. In this context, we scientifically validated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of SK leaf (SKL). The methanol extract of SKL was evaluated for in vitro anti-oxidative activities. SKL showed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of SKL were also investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. LPS resulted in decreased SOD activities compared with the unstimulated cells, but SKL significantly increased SOD activities reduced by LPS. In addition, LPS-induced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions were significantly and dose-dependently reduced by SKL in RAW264.7 macrophages without inducing cytotoxicity. In conclusion, these results indicate that SKL will be able to be effectively used as a food additive with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.