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2012, Vol.2, No.2

  • 1.

    Tamil traditional medicinal system - siddha: an indigenous health practice in the international perspectives

    Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi | Kaliyaperumal Jegajeevanram | Jerome Xavier and 2other persons | 2012, 2(2) | pp.12~12 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Traditional Medicinal System (TMS) is one of the centuries-old practices and long-serving companions to the human kind to fight against disease and to lead a healthy life. Every indigenous people have been using their unique approaches of TMS practice where among, the Chinese, Indian and African TMSs are world-wide renowned. India has a unique Indian System of Medicines (ISM) consisting of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy. Siddhars are the saints as well as the eminent scholars, who have attained Ashta-mahasiddhi [Tamil: (Ashta-Eight; Mahasiddhi-Power)] or enlightment. They have postulated, practiced, immensely contributed and have established the concept of the Tamil medicinal system called Siddha System of Medicine (SSM). From ancient time, SSM has flourished and has been widely practiced in the southern part of India particularly in Tamil Nadu. The induction of the modern medicinal system has immensely influenced the existence of SSM and has made the SSM principles and practices undervalued/extinct. However, at present, still a considerable group of people are using the SSM as a basic health-care modality. In this context, the present scrutiny deals with the TMS history, its significance with a special reference to SSM history, Siddhars, the basic concept of SSM, its diagnostic procedures, materia medica and treatment. Conclusively, Siddha is one of the most ancient indigenous health practices despite its several thorny challenges and issues, which needs to be flagged effectively and to be preserved and revitalized in the international arena in the near future.
  • 2.

    Acupuncture and blood borne viral infections: a brief summary

    Viroj Wiwanitkit | 2012, 2(2) | pp.13~13 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Blood borne infectious diseases are usually a public concern. The transmissions of many diseases are via blood borne mode. Several activities are related to this transmission such as injection, blood transfusion and transplantation. Also, the acupuncture practice can be a possible route for blood borne infectious disease transmission. In this specific review, the author briefly reviews acupuncture and blood borne viral infections.
  • 3.

    Cordycepin: pharmacological properties and their relevant mechanisms

    Baoyan Fan | Haibo Zhu | 2012, 2(2) | pp.14~14 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Cordycepin, a nucleoside derivative, was extracted from Cordyceps sinensis, and then proved to be a bioactive compound present in traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps. Early investigations revealed cordycepin possessed anti-microbial activity mainly by inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. Although cordycepin is not used as antibacterial agents in clinic, its other pharmacological effects and possible mechanisms have gradually been deeply studied. This review serves to summarize the research progress of cordycepin.
  • 4.

    Fuku shin, a Kampo diagnostic procedure, could be one of useful diagnostic tools for anxiety disorders and depression

    Young-Chang P. Arai | Makoto Nishihara | Jun Sato and 6other persons | 2012, 2(2) | pp.15~15 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Kampo medicine, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, has been used in clinical practice in Japan. The most appropriate Kampo formula should be chosen for each individual by the four diagnostic procedures. Fuku shin, the abdominal exam, is one of the most important approaches in the procedures. There are several abdominal conformations (signs) when administering Fuku shin. In Kampo medicine, psychiatric illness-marked by depression and anxiety-has been shown to be related with an abdominal conformation, Shin ka hi koh (Epigastric Obstructive Hardness). The aim was to see the occurrence of abdominal conformations in each level of depression and anxiety symptoms. Two hundred fifteen patients were assigned to high-, moderate-, or low-level psychiatric comorbidity based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and were studied regarding the occurrence of major abdominal conformations. Moderate and high psychopathological groups showed the higher occurrence of Shin ka hi koh [Low, 21%; Moderate, 67%; High, 74%] (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, moderate and high psychopathological patients showed the higher occurrence of a specific abdominal sign.
  • 5.

    Treatment of fever with traditional Chinese medicine according to Zheng on cancer patients (based on case reports)

    Peng Cao | Lan-Ying Liu | Xue-Ting Cai and 3other persons | 2012, 2(2) | pp.16~16 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Fever in cancer patients is often due to the following causes: evil qi and toxity stagnancy, disorders of qi and blood, deficiencies of zang and fu organs, and the disorder of yin and yang. The treatments given to cancer patients with a fever are according to five: (a) Excessive inner heat and toxicants: remove heat and the toxicant, induce purgation. We use Cheng-Qi-Tang plus Qing-Wen-Bai-Du-Yin. (b) Tangle of damp and heat, and qi stagnancy: remove damp and heat, smooth the qi channel. We use Gan-Lu-Xiao-Du-Dan or San-Ren-Tang. (c) Obvious blood and heat stagnancy: remove heat and blood stasis. We use Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang. (d) Deficiency of spleen qi, inner heat caused by a yin deficiency: nourish spleen qi and yin to remove the inner heat. We use Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang or Xiao-Jian-Zhong-Tang. (e) Prominent yin deficiency and hectic fever: replenish yin and remove inner heat. We use Qing-Hao-Bie-Jia-Tang or Chai-Qian-Mei-Lian-San. The pathogenesis of fever in cancer patients is complicated. We can see both deficiency and excess in one differentiation. Therefore, we must make sure of it, then we can get the most effective treatment.
  • 6.

    Case studies on prophylactic ayurvedic therapy in migraine patients

    Vaidya Balendu Prakash | Nitin Chandurkar | Tejashri Sanghavi | 2012, 2(2) | pp.17~17 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Ayurveda is a nearly 3000 years old traditional medical system of India. Most of the time, people turn to ayurvedic physicians in desperate conditions. Here clinical practices of Ayurveda were initially found effective in the management of migraine among few patients. Later, it was developed as an ayurvedic treatment protocol (ATP) which consists of four herbo-mineral formulations (HMF), three meals and three snacks in a day with eight hours sleep at night. ATP brought significant relief in reducing the frequency, intensity of pain and associated symptoms in the migraine patients. IHS diagnostic criteria was followed to establish the diagnosis of migraine and uniform ATP was prescribed to each patient who were primarily treated by the ayurvedic physicians at their respective clinics. Such observations were presented at appropriate international forums. In an effort to validate the above, the present study carries the details of nine migraine patients who were first diagnosed and treated for migraine by a leading headache expert at Mumbai in India and were then referred to receive ATP. A total number of nine subjects volunteered to this program. Out of those, seven subjects completed 120 days of ATP. Five subjects reported significant improvement in overall symptoms of migraine. All subjects were followed up periodically for four years. No Grade II side effects were observed in any treated case. HMF has also been proved to be safe in experimental studies. Further pharmacological and randomized controlled clinical studies are in progress at the respective departments of a premier medical institute in India.
  • 7.

    Merging the old with the new: a cybermedicine marriage for oncology interactions with traditional herbal therapies and complementary medicines

    Kevin Yi-Lwern Yap | Ken Juin Lim | 2012, 2(2) | pp.18~18 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    An oncology-specific database called OncoRx (http://bit.ly/cancerRx) was previously set up in cyberspace to aid clinicians in identifying interactions of anticancer drugs (ACDs) and chemotherapy regimens with traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). Since then, users have requested the drug-CAM interactions (DCIs) of 5 specific CAMs (cranberry, melatonin, co-enzyme Q10, huachansu, reishi mushroom) to be updated in the database. Pharmacokinetic properties (metabolism, enzyme induction/inhibition, elimination), TCM properties and DCIs of each CAM were collated with 117 ACDs using 9 hardcopy compendia and online databases as resources. Additionally, individual ACDs and CAMs were used as keywords for PubMed searches in combination with the terms ‘anticancer drugs’, ‘drug interactions’, ‘herb-drug/drug-herb interactions’, ‘pharmacokinetic interactions’ and ‘pharmacodynamic interactions’. DCI parameters consisted of interaction effects, evidence summaries, proposed management plans and alternative non-interacting CAMs, together with relevant citations and update dates of the DCIs. OncoRx is also used as a case to introduce the “Four Pharmaco-cybernetic Maxims” of quality, quantity, relationship and manner to developers of digital healthcare tools. Its role in Hayne’s “5S” hierarchy of research evidence is also presented. OncoRx is meant to complement existing DCI resources for clinicians and alternative medicine practitioners as an additional drug information resource that provides evidence-based DCI information for ACD-CAM interactions.
  • 8.

    Inhibitory effect of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on acetylcholinesterase activity and attenuation of scopolamine-induced amnesia

    Amrendra Kumar Chaudhary | Ruchi Solanki | Vandana Singh and 1other persons | 2012, 2(2) | pp.19~19 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Capparis zeylanica Linn. a ‘Rasayana’ drug is used for its memory enhancing effects in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and memory enhancing activities of Capparis zeylanica Linn. The in-vitro and ex-vivo models of AChE inhibitory activity were used along with Morris water maze test to study the effect on memory in rats. The anticholinesterase effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica was measured by spectrophotometric Ellman method at 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10 and 30 mg/ml and brain monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) activity was assessed by Naoi’s method. The results of in-vivo and ex-vivo AChE assay revealed that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica inhibit AChE activity, whereas these extracts did not alter MAO activity at any concentration tested as compared to moclobemide and L-deprenyl. The results indicate that Capparis zeylanica improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits through inhibition of AChE activity, and not by direct MAO inhibition.
  • 9.

    Antimicrobial activity of Gynura segetum’s leaf extracts and its active fractions

    Lay-Jing Seow | Hooi-Kheng Beh | Pazilah Ibrahim and 2other persons | 2012, 2(2) | pp.20~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Gynura segetum (Lour.) Merr. (Compositae) is a well recognized medicinal plant in Indonesia and Malaysia. It is believed to have an anticoagulant effect and is used in treating snake-bites, inflammations and other skin afflictions. This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Gynura segetum leaves extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. The antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of leaves of Gynura segetum were evaluated using the agar well-diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the active subfractions was determined by the tube dilution method. Gas Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried out to identify the chemical compositions of the active extracts. The ethyl acetate fraction and its subfraction E4 performed potent antimicrobial activities and fifteen known chemical constituents were identified by GCMS analysis as 4-vinylphenol, 1-tetradecene, phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-hexadecene, E-15-heptadecenal, hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester, 1-docosene, octadecanoic acid, 1-eicosene, cyclotetracosane, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester, butanedioic acid, monomethyl ester, niacin and 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid. The results of this study suggested a connection between the antimicrobial activities and the chemical structures. The plant may be used as a potential source for antimicrobial agents.