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2012, Vol.2, No.3

  • 1.

    Terminalia arjuna Bark and inotropic therapy for heart failure

    Shi Jesse Liu | 2012, 2(3) | pp.21~21 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Heart disease that ultimately leads to heart failure (HF) has been the number one cause of death in the United States as well as in many other countries for over a century. Inotropic therapy utilizing cardiotonics to increase cardiac contractility remains a significant component of the management of HF. However, adverse effects of currently available cardiotonics have been compromising their therapeutic value and often lead to further myocardial dysfunction. Thus, discovery of safe cardiotonics remains a main challenge to improvement of inotropic therapy for HF. This review briefly summarized cellular mechanisms underlying the inotropic action of currently available cardiotonics, newly-developed carditonics and the bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA), a tropical tree used in ayurvedic medicine. The potential of TA bark as a new cardiotonic in inotropic treatment for HF was also discussed.
  • 2.

    Recent advances in pharmacologic study of anticancer natural products from medicinal plants in Morocco

    Mohamed Bnouham | 2012, 2(3) | pp.22~22 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on experiments reporting the antiproliferative, cytotoxic effects of plants and natural products in Morocco in the last two decades. A bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing recognized books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (Scirus, Embase, HighWire, MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, Ovid, ScienceDirect, SciELO, Google Scholar). We used medical subject heading terms and the words 'anticancer', 'antiproliferative', 'antineoplastic', 'antitumoral', 'cytotoxic', 'Morocco', to identify relevant articles. Moroccan plants with attributed anti-cancer properties studied as plant extracts that have been evaluated for cytotoxic effects, antitumoral effects, plants with active compounds tested on cancer cell lines, and plants with active compounds that have been assayed on animal models were chosen for this research. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental research conducted on medicinal plants, particularly those which show antiproliferative or cytotoxic activities alongside bioactive components. A total of 20 plant species belonging to 12 families have been identified as active or promising sources of phytochemicals with antiproliferative properties. The plant families, which cover all the species studied in this field, are Lamiaceae (7 species) and Asteraceae (4 species); the most studied species being Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) and Arisarum vulgare (Araceae), Thymus Genus (Labiateae) and Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae). Based on the search results, it is recommended to increase the number of experimental studies and to begin conducting clinical trials with Moroccan plants and their active compounds selected by in vitro and in vivo activities.
  • 3.

    Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal maggots Lucilia sericata in wound healing process

    Jana Bohova | Juraj Majtan | Peter Takac | 2012, 2(3) | pp.23~23 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The healing properties of medicinal maggots (larval stage of Lucilia sericata) are widely used in the chirurgical debridement of non-healing wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, venous and pressure ulcers, where classical approaches have failed. Several kinds of wounds are prone to complications coming out of a specific wound bed environment. There are multi-resistant bacterial species present, their pathogenic impact is multiplied by their ability to form a biofilm. Moreover, immunological events in chronic wounds differ from those in acute wounds. Non-healing wounds are cycled in the early inflammation phase with increased levels of inflammation attributes like inflammation cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases produced by inflammation phase cells. Application of larval therapy promotes progress in the healing process to the next stages involving tissue granulation and re-epithelisation. Larval debridement is an effective method of cleaning the wound of cell debris, necrotic tissue and bacterial load. This happens in a mechanical and biological manner, but the whole complex mechanism of the maggot healing activity is still not fully elucidated. Centuries of clinical practice brings noticeable proof of the maggots’ beneficial effect in wound healing management. This long history led to the investigation of the bioactive components of the larval body and its extracts in vitro. We introduce a review which describes the immunomodulation impact of maggot body components on the cellular and molecular levels of the wound healing process.
  • 4.

    Traditional Korean medicine theory based-therapeutic potential of Gung-Gwi-Tang on postpartum obesity: psychosocial aspects of postpartum obesity

    Jung Hwa Kim | Moon Phil-Dong | 2012, 2(3) | pp.24~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Obesity is psychological and socioeconomic problems as well as health problems related to physical disease and disorder. The obesity epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among pregnant women, represents a critical public health problem throughout the world. Gung-Gui-Tang (GGT), a prescription of traditional Korean medicine, has been used to treat dizziness due to loss of blood as well as static blood after childbirth. However, the therapeutic potential of GGT on postpartum obesity has not been fully elucidated in an experimental model. In our research, GGT inhibited the increases of body weight and adipose tissues in postpartum mice fed a high-fat diet. GGT also inhibited the elevations of plasma lipid profiles such as triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase. Overall, these results provide evidence that GGT can help to inhibit postpartum obesity and open new perspective to recover the shape of mother into the moment of conception.
  • 5.

    Role of hyperforin in diabetes and its associated hyperlipidemia in rats

    Srikanth Ineedi | Anshul Shakya | Gireesh Kumar Singh and 1other persons | 2012, 2(3) | pp.25~25 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible roles of hyperforin against hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Biochemical parameters were measured following hyperforin treatment (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days. Hyperforin treatment significantly reversed the elevations in plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Hyperforin also reversed the declines in plasma HDL-cholesterol and liver glycogen, but did not reverse the change in plasma insulin levels when compared to the diabetic control rats. Hyperforin treatment also reversed the oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin. Moreover, the effect of the hyperforin on peripheral glucose utilization in normal rats was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Hyperforin treatment significantly increased (p < 0.05) the glucose tolerance compared to the vehicle in OGTT. The antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of hyperforin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were comparable qualitatively to glibenclamide (1 mg/kg, p.o.). In conclusion, we report for the first time through an in vivo study that hyperforin is potentially valuable for the treatment of diabetes and its associated hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress by enhancing the glucose utilization by peripheral tissues such as muscle and adipose tissues.
  • 6.

    Homeopathic mother tincture of Conium initiates reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage and makes HeLa cells prone to apoptosis

    Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh | Kausik Bishayee | Avinaba Mukherjee and 1other persons | 2012, 2(3) | pp.26~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Adverse side-effects and lack of scientific validation of some chemotherapeutic agents prevent the use of many traditional medicines claimed to have anti-cancer effects. Ethanolic extract of Conium maculatum has long been used in traditional and alternative systems of medicine including homeopathy for the treatment of glandular enlargements, cancerous tumours or hard lumps of testicles, prostate, ovaries, breasts and/ or uterus, particularly in the breast. However, if and how it acts still remains scientifically unknown. This study aims to test if Conium extract (CE), used as mother tincture of Conium in homeopathy, has demonstrable anti-cancer potentials without having much cytotoxicity in normal cells. Cytotoxicity of the drug was tested by conducting MTT assay on both normal (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and HeLa cells. We also evaluated DNA fragmentation and DNA damage by DAPI and diphenylamine assay. The LDH activity assay was done to evaluate the percentages of apoptosis and necrosis. ROS accumulation also was evaluated to pin-point the actual events of apoptosis. Administration of drug clearly demonstrated its anti-cancer potentials as evidenced by the DNA damage analysis. The ROS activity also increased in case of the CE treated cells. LDH data revealed that the mode of cell death was mainly apoptotic and not necrotic. CE appears to induce apoptosis of cancer cells through ROS mediated pathway, and has negligible cytotoxicity against normal cells.
  • 7.

    Evidence of hydrolyzed traditional Korean red ginseng by malted barley on activation of receptor interacting proteins 2 and IkappaB kinase-beta in mouse peritoneal macrophages

    임홍균 | 김규엽 | Moon Phil-Dong | 2012, 2(3) | pp.27~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Red ginseng, which has a variety of biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects, has been used for thousands of years as a general tonic in traditional oriental medicine. Here, we tested the immune regulatory activities of hydrolyzed red ginseng by malted barley (HRG) on the expressions of receptor interacting proteins (Rip) 2 and IB kinase-β (IKK-β) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. We show that HRG increased the activations of Rip 2 and IKK-β for the first time. When HRG was used in combination with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ), there was a marked cooperative induction of nitric oxide (NO) production. The increased expression of inducible NO synthase from rIFN-γ plus HRG-stimulated cells was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of nuclear factor-B (NF-κB). In addition, the treatment of peritoneal macrophages with rIFN-γ plus HRG caused significant increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression and production. Because NO and TNF-α play an important role in the immune function and host defense, HRG treatment can modulate several aspects of the host defense mechanisms as a result of the stimulations of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and NF-B. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HRG increases the productions of NO and TNF-α from rIFN-γ-primed macrophages and suggest that Rip2/IKK-β plays a critical role in mediating these immune regulatory effects of HRG.
  • 8.

    Self-rated ability to follow instructions for four mental states described in yoga texts

    Raghavendra Bhat Ramachandra | Shirley Telles | Nagendra Rama Rao Hongasandra | 2012, 2(3) | pp.28~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There were no studies available measuring the ability to follow instructions for meditation. Hence, the present study was planned to assess the ability to follow instructions for the four mental states viz., cancalata (random thinking), ekagrata (non-meditative concentration), dharana (focused meditation) and dhyana (defocused meditation or effortless meditation) described in yoga texts. Sixty male volunteers with ages ranging from 18 to 31 years (group mean age ± S.D., 22.78 ± 2.73) participated in the study. They were assessed using a visual analog scale immediately after each of the four states on four different days. The results showed that following dharana, scores on the visual analog scale were significantly lower compared to those related to cancalata, ekagrata and dhyana. Hence, dharana is the most difficult of the four states.
  • 9.

    Socioeconomic impact of traditional Korean medicine, Pyeongwee-San (KMP6) as an anti-allergic inflammatory drug

    송영훈 | 남선영 | Youngjin Choi and 3other persons | 2012, 2(3) | pp.29~29 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The prevalence of allergic disease has been increasing over the past few decades in the majority of Western industrialized nations. There are some socioeconomic disparities regarding allergic disease status and management. Pyeongwee-San (KMP6) is Korean medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disease. It is known that KMP6 has an improving effect on the spleen and stomach functions in traditional Korean medical theory. Here, we hypothesized that KMP6 could be used to regulate the inflammatory reaction. We show the molecular mechanisms of Pyeongwee-San (KMP6) on inflammatory reactions. A molecular docking simulation showed that hesperidin, component of KMP6, regulate the enzymatic activity by interaction in the active site of caspase-1. KMP6 control the activity of caspase-1 in activated human mast cell line (HMC-1 cells). KMP6 reduced the expression of receptor interacting protein (RIP)-2 in HMC-1 cells. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin protein production and mRNA expression were inhibited by KMP6. In the activated HMC-1 cells, KMP6 suppressed the activation of mitogen-ativated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB. In addition, KMP6 significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Our findings indicate that KMP6 may attenuate allergic reactions via the regulation of caspase-1/RIP-2 signaling pathway. These studies will help advance the social welfare system.