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2012, Vol.2, No.4

  • 1.

    Treatment of chemotherapy-related peripheral neuropathy with traditonal Chinese medicine from the perspective of blood-arthralgia Zheng

    Peng Cao | Jie Yang | Xueting Cai and 2other persons | 2012, 2(4) | pp.30~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Traditional Chinese medicine classifies peripheral nerve impairment as paralysis and arthromyodynia, and considers that it is the result of defects of meridians and vessels, QI and blood, bones and muscles. Huangqi (Astragalus) Guizhi (Cassia Twig) Wuwu Tang, as a Qi invigorating formula, is usually used to improve peripheral nerve impairment. In recent years, some scholars have conducted research into Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) treatment with Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang and certain values of this treatment approach have been identified. CIPN is a type of blood-arthralgia Zheng in traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this review, we will discuss the treatment of CIPN with Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang according to blood-arthtalgia Zheng.
  • 2.

    Role of Curcuma longa, a traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant, in diabetes

    Ameeta RaviKumar | Sudha Ponnusamy | Smita Zinjarde and 1other persons | 2012, 2(4) | pp.31~31 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Curcuma longa belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and can be found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is widely used in Asiatic countries, especially India and South East Asia where it is cultivated commercially as a condiment. Its rhizomes exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacterial, antioxidant effects, nematocidal activities, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities and are of pharmaceutical importance. Another relevant medicinal property exhibited by it is antidiabetic property which is reviewed here. Studies on the efficacy of crude C.longa extracts against type 2 diabetes in murine models reveal that it demonstrates a hypoglycemic effect by lowering the blood glucose levels under in vivo conditions. Clinical studies have revealed the safety of curucmin (major principle component exhibiting pharmaceutical properties from C.longa) on humans but with very low bioavailability. In view of its effective hypoglycemic effect and its low bioavailability, further studies are needed for the characterization of the bioactive principles and formulating the development of C.longa extracts as a novel anti-diabetic therapeutic agent.
  • 3.

    Urine therapy briefing for scientists

    Kook-Hee Kang | 2012, 2(4) | pp.32~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Urine is a gift of God for the health of human being in proverbs of the Old Testament in Hindu. Urine therapy (UT) is not a mysterious folk remedy, it is doctor's examined prescription based on modern science and UT is recommended strongly with absolute confidence. It is effective and amazing to a number of incurables such as chronic fatigue, lingering, a cold, nose allergy, diabetes, high blood pressure, and gout. Also, UT is applied not only for human beings but also for animals, the latter including amazing effects for pigs and cows. The purpose of this manuscript is to help change the misunderstandings of urine and UT and to help reader realize it is one of the helpful alternative remedies.
  • 4.

    Effect of traditional dry cupping therapy on heavy menstrual bleeding in menorrhagia: A preliminary study

    Arshiya Sultana | Khaleequr Rahman | 2012, 2(4) | pp.33~33 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Menorrhagia (kasrate tams) is the most common gynecologic complaint in contemporary gynecology, affecting 10 to 15% of the adult female population. It can occur at any age. In the Unani system of medicine, since antiquity, dry cupping therapy (hijamat bila shurt) has been used to treat menorrhagia. An effort was made to evaluate the usefulness of dry cupping on excessive menstrual blood loss in menorrhagia with a well validated menstrual pictogram. This study was conducted on 15 patients at the National Institute of Unani Medicine, Hospital Bangalore, from January 2010 and July 2010. Unmarried or married patients aged 17 - 47 year with a history of excessive or prolonged bleeding per vaginum were included. Two large cups (with 5.7 cm internal diameter) were applied below each breast for 15 min, only once during the menstrual period when the patient reported to the outpatient department. If the menstrual flow was not reduced, the next day again dry cupping was repeated. The outcome was to assess the efficacy of dry cupping on the reduction in the amount of menstrual blood loss. The data was analyzed by the Wilcoxon matched test. The mean scores of menstrual blood loss before and after the treatment was 400.26 (277.95) and 48.4 (32.082) ml respectively, p = 0.002, considered statistically significant. A dry cupping therapy is a useful treatment modality in decreasing the amount of menstrual blood flow in menorrhagia. Further randomized controlled clinical trials and validation are needed in a large population.
  • 5.

    Effect of chloroform extract of traditional Dicranopteris linearis leaves against paracetamol- and CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats

    Syafawati Shamsahal Din | Siti Syariah Mamat | Noor Aisyah Ismail and 8other persons | 2012, 2(4) | pp.34~34 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective activity of the chloroform extract of D. linearis leaves (CEDL) using the paracetamol (PCM)- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury models in rats. The rats received dH2O (negative control), 200 mg/kg of silymarin (positive control) or CEDL (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 days and then were subjected to the hepatotoxic induction on the 7th day. The samples (i.e. blood and liver) were collected and underwent biochemical and microscopical analysis, respectively. From the data obtained, both inducers caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of AST and ALT when compared to the control group, which were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by CEDL in a generally dose-dependent manner. These biochemical findings were supported by the histopathological analysis and histological scoring. In conclusion, CEDL possesses potential hepatoprotective activity, which could be associated with its flavonoid and tannin contents with the mechanisms of hepatoprotection linked to either its antioxidant or anti-inflammtory /immunomodulating activities. Further in-depth studies are required to identify the responsible bioactive compound.
  • 6.

    Attenuation of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene initiated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in mice by the combined treatment of a traditional homeopathic remedy Chelidonium Majus 200C and vitamin-C

    Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh | Surjyo Jyoti Biswas | Susanta Roy Karmakar | 2012, 2(4) | pp.35~35 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The homeopathic remedy Chelidonium majus 200C (Chel-200) is traditionally used by homeopathic practitioners in liver ailments arising out of hepatotoxicity. The present investigation was aimed at examining whether vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid or AA), used in both traditional and orthodox medicines, can show better effects when used in combination with Chel-200, in favorably modifying the toxicological effects induced by the chronic feeding of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB, initiator) and phenobarbital (PB, promoter) in mice for 7 days through 120 days to induce hepatotoxicity and liver tumors. Mice were euthanized at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of carcinogen feeding to assess various cytogenetical, biochemical and histological changes occurring in them. In a placebo controlled study, Chel-200 or the respective placebo (Alcohol-200C or Alc, “vehicle” of homeopathic drug), was orally administered to toxicant-fed mice. Sub-groups of the mice receiving Chel-200 were also fed either AA or an Alc placebo and their individual and conjoint effects were studied against the respective controls, to evaluate if the combination therapy of Chel-200 with AA can be of additional help in the amelioration of the toxicities generated by the toxicants. The combined feeding of Chel- 200 and AA appeared to reduce the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects significantly, when compared to either only the Chel-200 or AA fed group. A similar trend was also obtained in the results of scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies of the livers. Experiments in other mammalian models are warranted to confirm if these drugs in combination could be used in palliative care of human patients with liver diseases including cancer.
  • 7.

    Neurobehavioural effects of exposure of wistar rats to smoke from traditional Carica papaya (pawpaw) leaves

    Aboyeji Lukuman Oyewole | Bamidele Victor Owoyele | 2012, 2(4) | pp.36~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was carried out to investigate the neurobehavioural effects of the smoking of Carica papaya leaves based on ethnopharmacological information. Twenty -four rats used for the study were grouped into four groups namely; Groups 1 (Control, unexposed to any smoke) and Groups 2 - 4 (exposed to smoke from varying amount of pawpaw leaf powder). Groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g (low dose), 12.50 g (medium dose), and 18.75 g (high dose) of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 one days with each exposure lasting 3 min. The spontaneous motor activities and locomotory behaviour of the animals were assessed using an open field maze and hole board maze test. The results showed that the smoking of Carica papaya leaves led to a significant (p < 0.05) increase in locomotory activities from 33.36 ± 3.36 (control) to 66.50 ± 6.16 (high dose), number of head dips (from 8.50 ± 0.36, to 12.83 ± 0.87) and rearing behaviour (from 14.83 ± 0.74, to 27.0 ± 1.46). However, the freezing durations as animals were introduced into the maze and grooming behaviour were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the treated groups. In conclusion, the increased ambulations and exploratory behaviours imply that the anxiety level is low in the treated groups compared to the control group which thus confirms that dry Carica papaya leaf may possibly contain psychoactive substance(s) that become active when smoked.
  • 8.

    Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of traditional Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii Sarg

    Amrendra Kumar Chaudhary | Shamim Ahmad | Avijit Mazumder | 2012, 2(4) | pp.37~37 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the present study, the volatile oil, chloroform extract and methanol extract of the woods of the plants Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus clavatus using the Agar diffusion method. The susceptibilities of the microorganisms to the extracts were compared with each other and with a selected standard antibiotic. It was observed that the volatile oil and chloroform extracts showed the significant antibacterial activities while the least antibacterial activity was recorded with the methanolic extracts. The higher Minimum Inhibitory Concentration value of the extracts and oils against fungus suggested that the plants may possess less antifungal activity. Phytochemical analysis and thin-layer chromatography profiling revealed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in the oil and chloroform extracts, which could explain the antimicrobial activity. The findings suggest that the Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii have antimicrobial properties and they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, further work is required in order to isolate the active constituents of the plants responsible for the antibacterial activity.
  • 9.

    Effects of various receptor antagonists on the peripheral antinociceptive activity of aqueous extracts of Dicranopteris linearis, Melastoma malabathricum and Bauhinia purpurea leaves in mice

    Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria | Nurul Husna Sodri | Halmy Hassan and 2other persons | 2012, 2(4) | pp.38~38 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aimed to determine the possible mechanisms of the peripheral antinociception of the aqueous extracts of Dicranopteris linearis (AEDL), Melastoma malabathricum (AEMM) and Bauhinia purpurea (AEBP) leaves in mice. Briefly, the antinociceptive profile of each extract (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg; subcutaneous (s.c.)), was established using the abdominal constriction test. A single dose (500 mg/kg) of each extract (s.c.) was pre-challenged for 10 min with various pain receptors’ antagonists or pain mediators’ blockers and 30 min later subjected to the antinociceptive assay to determine the possible mechanism(s) involved. Based on the results obtained, all extracts exerted significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive activity with dose-dependent activity observed only with the AEMM. Furthermore, the antinociception of AEDL was attenuated by naloxone, atropine, yohimbine and theophylline; AEMM was reversed by yohimbine, theophylline, thioperamide, pindolol, reserpine, and 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride; and of AEBP was inhibited by naloxone, haloperidol, yohimbine and reserpine. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of those extracts possibly involved the activation of several pain receptors (i.e. opioids, muscarinic, 2-adrenergic and adenosine receptors, adenosine, H3-histaminergic and 5HT1A, dopaminergic receptors).