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2013, Vol.3, No.2

  • 1.

    Alternative drug therapies are superior to epidermal growth factor receptor -targeted chemotherapeutic drug responses in non-small cell lung cancer

    Sourav Sikdar , Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh | 2013, 3(2) | pp.10~10 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Cancer is one of the major dreaded diseases causing high mortality. Lung cancer is second in position of all cancer related deaths and mainly divided into two morphologic sub-types: small-cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC is an aggressive neoplasm which hardly responds to any conventional chemotherapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinase that is mainly over-expressed in NSCLC. EGFR is mainly involved in the pathogenesis and progression of different carcinoma. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that EGFR and EGF like peptides are often over-expressed in human NSCLC and these proteins are able to induce cell transformation. The conventional therapies mostly inhibit the EGFR activity and expression level in human NSCLC with the use of some EGFR-inhibitors like HKI-272, EKB569, CL-387785 etc. and some synthetic chemotherapeutic drugs like erlotinib, gefitinib, plumbagin, docetaxel, cisplatin etc., alone or in combination of two or more drugs. These therapies selectively act by competitive inhibition of the binding of adenosine triphosphate to the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR, resulting in inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway. But these chemotherapeutic drugs have some cytotoxic activities to the normal cells and have some adverse side-effects. Recent studies on some traditional alternative therapies including some herbal and plant extracts, active ingredients like curcumin, different homeopathic drugs, etc. can target EGFR-signalling in NSCLC with less toxic side-effects are being currently developed.
  • 2.

    A need of convergence between personal genomics and Korean medicinal typology

    Jin Ju kim , Joo-Ho Chung , Sung-Ki Jung | 2013, 3(2) | pp.11~11 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Advances in individual genome sequencing technology and next generation sequencing technology have allowed for widespread research of human genome, which would give us opportunities not only to change our focus from the experience-based Korean medicine including typology and Sasang constitution to the evidence-based Korean medicine but to provide effective tailored medical care and Tang theory.
  • 3.

    In silico target identification of biologically active compounds using an inverse docking simulation

    Youngjin Choi | 2013, 3(2) | pp.12~12 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Identification of target protein is an important procedure in the course of drug discovery. Because of complexity, action mechanisms of herbal medicine are rather obscure, unlike small-molecular drugs. Inverse docking simulation is a reverse use of molecular docking involving multiple target searches for known chemical structure. This methodology can be applied in the field of target fishing and toxicity prediction for herbal compounds as well as known drug molecules. The aim of this review is to introduce a series of in silico works for predicting potential drug targets and side-effects based on inverse docking simulations.
  • 4.

    Positive impact of integrated amrita meditation technique on heart rate, respiratory rate and IgA on young healthy adults

    Balakrishnan Vandana , Lakshmiammal Saraswathy , Gowrikutty K Suseeladevi and 2 other persons | 2013, 3(2) | pp.13~13 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of the current study was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and IgA. One hundred and fifty subjects were randomized into three groups IAM, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) and Control. Baseline values were collected before giving the training for all the subjects and the IAM and PMR groups were given training in the respective techniques. BP, HR, RR and IgA were recorded manually at 0 h, 48 h, 2 months and 8 months after the first visit. HR was found to be reduced in the IAM group 48 h onwards and the fall sustained till 8 months (p < 0.05). IAM group showed significant drop when compared to the PMR group and control group in all the subsequent visits (p < 0.05). RR decreased significantly in the IAM group in the third and fourth visits (p < 0.05). RR of IAM showed significant decrease when compared to PMR and control from the third visit onwards. IgA showed significant increase in comparison with PMR and control in the third and fourth visits. BP did not show any difference in any of the visits. There was subject dropout from randomization to completion of the study, in all the three groups. The significant decrease in HR and RR and increase in IgA in the IAM group when compared to the PMR and control group shows the efficacy of the technique in reducing the physiological stress indicators for up to 8 months.
  • 5.

    Natural products traditionally used by the tribal people of the Purulia district, West Bengal, India for the abortifacient purpose

    Amaresh Maiti , Nithar Ranjan Madhu , Chanchal Kumar Manna | 2013, 3(2) | pp.14~14 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The paper provides a brief account of 11 plant species used by the tribal people of the district Purulia, West Bengal, India. Most of the plant species are common in this district and some have not been reported earlier for abortive purposes, pharmacology for preparation of medicines for antifertility. All these data were obtained from the tribal medicine men (ojha). At least 10 interview reports of various tribal medicine men were recorded. Parts of various medicinal plants were observed personally, collected and preserved as herbarium specimens for proper identification. The reports of various indigenous methods may help to give some clue in searching the potent contraceptives.
  • 6.

    Effects of compound traditional Astragalus and Salvia Miltiorrhiza extract on acute and chronic hepatic injury

    Yan Yang , Xiaoxiang Zhang , Xin Liu and 2 other persons | 2013, 3(2) | pp.15~15 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Previous reports showed that Compound Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (CASE), which was mainly composed of astragalosides, astragalus polysaccharide and salvianolic acids, inhibited hepatic fibrosis by mediating transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling. Our aim was to examine the effects of CASE on D-galactosamine (D-GalN) treated liver injury in mice and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. CASE was administered to mice with D-GalN-induced liver injury and to rats with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, respectively. Liver injury was routinely evaluated by relative liver weight, serum levels of ALT, AST, hyaluronic acid (HA), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hydroxyproline (HYP) and histopathologic changes. Treatment of mice with CASE (60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, ig) significantly lowered ALT, relative liver weight, and MDA levels when compared with D-GalN treated mice. CASE (120, 240 mg/kg) significantly lowered ALT, AST, HA, HYP, and MDA levels against CCl4 treated rats. Decreased SOD level was reversed with CASE treatment. Upon histopathological examination, CASE treatment had significantly inhibitory effect on the progression of hepatic fibrosis in rats. These results indicate that CASE might be effective in treatment and prevention of acute and chronic hepatic injury due to its antioxidant activity.
  • 7.

    Surprisingly, traditional purple bamboo salt, unlike other salts does not induce hypertension in rats

    KIM YOUNGSIK , 이은희 , Kim Hyung Min | 2013, 3(2) | pp.16~16 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Hypertension induces many of the social costs related by cardiovascular diseases. Sodium is known as a crucial factor in inducing type I hypertension. In traditional Korean medicine, bamboo salt (BS) has been used in the attenuation of salts toxic coldness and nowadays it has shown various therapeutic effects. It contains mostly sodium chloride (about 91.7% of BS); however, the effect of BS on hypertension is still not completely understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of BS on blood pressure for the first time. Two group of BS, sun-dried salt (SDS), NaCl, or distilled water (DW, vehicle control) was administrated orally for 8 weeks. Although BS had no effect on body weight and food intake, it increased water intake (p < 0.05). The BS groups, in terms of blood pressure, was similar to the DW group; whereas the SDS and NaCl groups showed significantly increased blood pressure levels (p < 0.05). BS also decreased sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) mRNA expression, unlike SDS or NaCl. These observations indicate that BS may be a promising strategy for the prevention of various diseases including salt-related diseases.
  • 8.

    Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya

    Catherine Kaluwa Kaingu , Jemimah Achieng Oduma , James Mucunu Mbaria and 1 other persons | 2013, 3(2) | pp.17~17 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Reproductive dysfunction is a major health concern amongst the inhabitants of Tana River County. An ethno botanical study was conducted in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao sub divisions of Tana River County to document the utilization of medicinal plants for the management of female reproductive ailments. The target population was practicing herbalists from Pokomo, Ormo and Giryama communities in the study area. Structured questionnaires and focussed group discussions were used to collect data. Forty eight plant species distributed in 40 genera and 29 families were documented as being important for the management of pregnancy related complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, fibroids and as contraceptives. The species most frequently cited by the herbalists were fourteen. Fifty two percent of the plant species were probably being mentioned for the first time as being useful in reproductive health management. In conclusion, Tana River has a pool of TMPs with a wealth of indigenous knowledge that needs to be exploited. The plants used to treat dysmenorrhea for example may be important analgesic agents that need further investigation while those with anti-fertility properties may contain steroidal phyto chemical compounds. Such species therefore need further investigation to establish their efficacy and mechanism of action.
  • 9.

    Genuine traditional Korean medicine, BaekJeol-Tang for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    nara Han , 심우문 , 설무창 and 16 other persons | 2013, 3(2) | pp.18~18 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion. In particular, mast cells and their cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Korean medicine, BaekJeol-Tang (BT) was designed by traditional Korean medicine theory. We already reported therapeutic effect of BT in rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we report the specific underlying mechanism of BT in activated human mast cells, HMC-1 cells. In addition, we report for the first time that BT significantly inhibited the production and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α in activated HMC-1 cells. BT also decreased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and caspapase-1. Taken together, these results indicate that BT has potential as a regulator of inflammatory reactions for the treatment of arthritis such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.