Among five sense organs or Gyanendriyas ‘Eyes’ are considered as most important sense organs. They are said to be the path to mind and seat of Tejas (Light). Now a days due to their overuse and negligence in maintenance we are facing many eye related problems like Dry Eye Syndrome, Cataract, Age related Macular Degeneration, Glaucoma, Computer Vision Syndrome etc. To observe the association of defective lifestyle and related eye problems with their preventive measures, different Ayurvedic procedures are reviewed from ancient literatures and some modern researches. Dinacharya (Daily regimen) explained in Ayurveda helps to prevent many derangements. Lifestyle modification in terms of proper daily regimen and dietary regimen could help to prevent eye problems. Padabhyanga (foot massage) is one of the procedures mentioned in Dinacharya, an effective therapy for healing of eye disorders.
The kidneys are exposed to toxicants and waste product and can be affected easily by these toxicants and by products of the metabolism. The consumption of adequate water is necessary to remove waste and to keep kidney healthy. Deficiency of liquid in the blood leads to various adverse effects on the kidney. The most common adverse deficiency of liquid in blood is deposition of solid matter in the kidney and subsequently formation of kidney stone. Nephrolithiasis (kidney stone) can be treated by drugs if it is small in size but if it blocks the route due to its big size then surgery is the only way to remove it. The recurrence rate of the problem is very high and it may reappear within 10 years. In Unani literature Hasāh wa Raml al-Kulya (nephrolithiasis) is described in detail. As per Unani literature stagnation of Ghalīz mādda (filthy and viscous matter) in the kidney is the main cause of the formation of kidney stone. Various single and compound formulations drugs are described for the management of kidney stone which are very effective as well as safe. Management is divided into two parts i.e. symptomatic treatment to relieve pain and to methods adopted to remove stone from the kidney. Musakkin-i-Waja‘(analgesic) drugs are used for pain while Mufattit-i-Hasāh (lithotriptic) and Mudirr-i-Bawl (Diuretic) drugs are used to remove stone. Majoon Aqrab, Qurs Kaknaj and Dawa-e-Gurda etc. are compound drugs mentioned in literature for removal of kidney stone. Single drugs like Alu Balu, Tukhm Khayar, and Kharkhask etc. are also used for same purpose.
The Karafs is a dried herb of whole plant of Apium graveolens L. from Apiaceae (carrot family). The seeds (fruits) of Apium graveolens are known as Tukhm-e- Karafs in Unani Medicine. Karafs is known as Celeri in French, Apio in Spanish, Selderiji in Dutch, Syelderey in Russian and Chin in Chinese. It is cultivated in different parts of the world for its seeds as spice and green leaves and root as salad crop. Its seeds are also used for medicinal purposes in complementary and alternative medicines. In Unani it is used as a single drug or as an ingredient in compound formulations used for management in various ailments. The seeds have various pharmacological actions like hepatoprotective, diuretic and lithotriptic etc. It is commonly found in Western Asia, Europe, North Africa and various parts of India like Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh etc. In Unani its actions are described as Mudirr-i-Bawl (Diuretic), Mufattit-i-Hasāh (Lithotriptic), Dafi‘-i-Tashannuj (Antispasmodic) and Kāsir-i-Riyāh (Carminative). It is used for the treatment of Hasah al-Kulya (Nephrolithiasis), Nafkh al-Mi‘da (Flatulence), Istisqā’ (Oedema) and Ihtibās al-Bawl (Retention of urine) etc.
Over a span of few decades, the world has seen the emergence of new viruses that have posed serious problems to global health .COVID-19 is a major pathogenic threat to the modern world that primarily shoots the respiratory system of human beings. Wuhan which is the capital city of Hubei, China was the first place in the world where first cases of COVID-19 emerged and the scores of cases significantly increased at an immense rate leading to city isolation and establishment of new specially designed hospitals. SARS-CoV had emerged from bats in china (2002) and MERS-CoV from camels transmitted via bats in Middle East (2012) where the previous versions of COVID-19 took place. Infections with SARS-CoV-2 are now widespread, like Nuclear Chain Reaction (NRC). In this review we will discuss the COVID-19 origin, transmission, incubation, diagnosis and therapies available at the present scenario.
Introduction: Qūbā (Tinea Corporis) is a very common disease widely prevalent worldwide. 20 – 25 % individuals suffer for this stubborn disease. Unani System of Medicine offers its treatment. There are many pharmacopoeial formulations indicated for various types of dermatophytic infections. In this study clinical efficacy and safety of the topical Unani formulation Marham Kharish Jadeed (a compound drug in the dosage form of an ointment) was assessed and compared with a standard conventional medicine.
Materials and methods: A clinical study was conducted on 60 participants of qūbā randomized into test and control groups (n=30 in each group). The participants were clinically diagnosed and confirmed by microscopy of skin scrapings. The efficacy of the Unani formulation was assessed in terms of TSS score and elimination of fungal elements from the skin lesions. The data collected were analyzed statistically.
Results and discussion: The study showed that the Unani formulation had comparatively better efficacy clinically than conventional medicine Terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream in terms of reduction of itching, erythema, scaling, peripheral raised margins of the lesion comparing to baseline. In this study, 27 participants in test group and 18 participants in control group were completely cured (≥75% reduction in TSS Score with Mycological Cure) after 4 weeks of treatment. The efficacy of the Unani formulation was found significant statistically. The individual drugs of the formulations having analgesic (Musakkin), blood purifier (Muṣaffi-i-Dam), demulcent (Mulaṭṭif), antifungal (Qātil-i-fafūndῑ), detergent (Jālῑ), refrigerant (Mubarrid) and antiseptic (Dāfiʻ-i-ʻUfūnat) properties might be responsible for the efficacy of Unani formulation.
Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the Unani formulation was found effective and safe in the management of qūbā. No local and systemic adverse effect was reported during the study.
Hasāh al-kuliya (Nephrolithiasis) is a common disease with a worldwide prevalence of about 12%. A 64 years old male patient, who visited the outpatient department of National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorder (NRIUMSD), Hyderabad, presented with complaints of mild dull pain in right flank region and burning micturition for one month. The ultrasonography of whole abdomen confirmed that there was one stone of 5 mm in calyceal region of each kidney. The patient was treated with the Unani regimen comprising of three formulations Majoon, Hajrul Yahood (5 gm), Jawarish Zarooni Sada (5 gm) and Habb-i-Mudir (1000 mg) for 6 months. The patient did not report any acute pain during the therapy. After 6 months of treatment the ultrasonography of whole abdomen showed absence of the stone from each kidney, ureters and bladder. There was no recurrence of the disease during next 6 months of post treatment follow up. This case report documented the successful medical treatment and prevention of recurrence of bilateral nephrolithiasis through Unani medicines. It concluded that the Unani regimen was effective and safe in the management of bilateral nephrolithiasis.
Kushta Jast (KJ) is a unique herbo-mineral preparation of the Unani System of Medicine (USM) which is prepared by taklis (calcination) and prescribed by the practitioners of USM for the treatment of various ailments, including the respiratory ailments. It is used as muqawwi (tonic) to boost the immunity (Muqawwi-i-badan), and can increase the phagocyte activity of the immune cells, thereby, promoting the growth and spread of lymphocytes and increasing circulating antibodies to neutralize a harmful pathogen and reduce humma or body fever (Dafi‘-i-humma). Incidentally, the principal mineral component of KJ, zinc, has been widely acknowledged for its beneficial influence on the immune function, and decrease the risk of developing serious respiratory illnesses. In this manuscript, we provide a glimpse of the literature on KJ and postulate its potential beneficial effects in respiratory infections, including COVID-19.
Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an IgE (immunoglobin-E) mediated inflammatory condition of upper respiratory tract; main clinical features involve runny nose, sneezing, nasal obstruction, itching and watery eyes. AR is a global problem and has large variations in incidences, currently affects up to 20% - 40% of the population worldwide. It may not be a life-threatening disease per se but indisposition from the condition can be severe and has the potential to adversely affect the daily functioning of life. Classical yoga literature indicates that, components of yoga have been used to treat numerous inflammatory conditions including upper respiratory tract. A few yoga intervention studies reported improvement in lung capacity, Nasal air flow and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. This review examined various anti-inflammatory pathways mediated through Yoga that include downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The hypothalaminic-pitutary-adrenal (HPA) axis and vagal efferent stimulation has been reported to mediate anti-inflammatory effect. A significant reduction is also reported in other inflammatory biomarkers like- TNF-alpha, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), plasma CRP and Cortisol level. Neti, a yogic nasal cleansing technique, reported beneficial effect on AR by direct physical cleansing of thick mucus, allergens, and inflammatory mediator from nasal mucosa resulting in improved ciliary beat frequency. We do not find any study showing effect of yoga on neurogenic inflammation. In summary, Integrated Yoga Therapy may have beneficial effect in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis. Yoga may reduce inflammation through mediating neuro-endocrino-immunological network. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism how yoga might modulate immune inflammation cascade and neurogenic inflammation at the cellular level in relevance to allergic rhinitis; the effects of kriyas (yogic cleansing techniques) also need to be evaluated in early and late phase of AR. So the proposed model could guide future research.