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2007, Vol.3, No.2

  • 1.

    Creating the New Field of the National Crisis and Emergency Management and Its Operating Strategy: Classi- fication and Management Plan of the National Living Safety Crises

    Lee, Jae Eun | Hyun-jung Yoo | 2007, 3(2) | pp.1~17 | number of Cited : 28
    Abstract
    This paper has suggested the national living safety crisis as the new field of the national crisis and emergency management and proposed its operating strategy. Because we, Korean people, have faced the various new types of crises increasingly, for example, harmful food and drug, dangerous traffic accidents, and lots of risks in the school. So, as the developed countries established the safety mechanisms for their people, we have to prevent and prepare for the living safety crisis and accidents. This article divided the national living safety crises into four types(type 1, 2, 3, 4) according to the two criteria; both the responsible subject for the safety(individual, society) and the scope of occurrence and damage(narrow scope, middle range & wide scope). This study proposed the realization of the safety in the usual life as a vision of the newly suggested national living safety sector and the advanced safety management system in the usual life as a strategic goal for achieving the vision. For our safe living conditions, the following directions are needed; improving the legal institution and the administrative system, training the specialist, institutionalizing the safety budget, establishing the networks among the related organizations, distributing the safety management manual, and forming the safety culture and consciousness, etc.
  • 2.

    Major Policies and Current Status of Ministry of Environment(MOE) for the Response to Chemical Accidents

    윤이 | 양희선 | 박춘화 and 3other persons | 2007, 3(2) | pp.18~29 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Due to the increase of the amount of chemical aterials and continuous introduction of new chemicals, the occurrence possibility of chemical accidents is gradually increasing and the social caution on terrors using hazardous chemicals is growing heavier. Chemical accidents has possibility to cause fatal disaster, and thus it is very important to radically manage chemicals and to prepare for quick and correct counter- measures of chemical accidents. The Ministry of Environment has been proceeding various projects for the preliminary prevention and the ordinary response. 1) Through revision of the Toxic Chemical Control Act, it has been developing various systems to prevent chemical accidents including reinforcement of manage- ment standard of hazardous chemicals handling facilities and designation & management of Accident Precaution Chemical. 2) It has promoted and expanded its organizations including establishing and managing the exclusive body which supplies technical supports that are necessary to develope policy and response system to prevent chemical accidents. 3) It in stages expanded response equipments including personal protection equipments, detection and analysis instruments for better performance of on-site task. 4) It has been operating education programs targeting early response agents including fire fighter, police, local government civil servants, etc. 5) It established the Chemical Accidents Response Information System(CARIS) and various response organization are using the system. 6) It has been enforcing the "Accident Impact Assessments system" which predicts and impact of the accident and through this manages the contaminated area. In addition, the MOE will continuously proceed the following efforts: 1) the establishment of the Toxic Chemicals Transport Vehicle Management System which traces the course of toxic chemical transport vehicle and monitors the accident in real time, 2) the extention of information supply on chemicals and chemical products to civilian, 3) the modification of on-site response capacity through developing accident response technologies and various guidelines, and 4) the purchase of the Special Vehicle for Chemical Accidents.
  • 3.

    The History and Epidemiological Characteristics of Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Korea

    Mo, In-pil | 2007, 3(2) | pp.30~37 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The first outbreak of avian influenza(AI) was occurred at breeder farm in 1996 and diagnosed as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). However, the source of infection was not identified. In 1999 and 2000, LPAI was reoccurred at more than 50 poultry farms and now recognized as enzootic disease because of prevalence throughout the country. In 2001, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from duck meat imported from mainland China. This is the first case of isolation HPAI virus from poultry meat and also outside of mainland China. After that, several HPAI outbreaks were occurred in chickens, ducks and other avian species and caused severe economic losses in Korean poultry industry. Although we tried to find out the source of infection, we failed. Migrating water fowl is one of the sources for introduction of avian influenza virus in the domestic fowls. Although we isolated many different subtypes of LPAI or HPAI viruses from the feces of wild birds for several years, we did not find the exact source of infection. We present and analysis the biological characteristics of HPAI viruses isolated for preparation the future pandemic outbreaks in Korea.
  • 4.

    A Study on NGO's Active Participa- tion for National Crisis Management Affairs

    ChanGwon Jeong | 2007, 3(2) | pp.38~55 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The Globalization, Information and Democracy's progression changed to administrational environment from authoritative government to cooperative governance. Therefore, we should try to change a past one-sided policy of decision-making behaviour, culture and public servant's coercive and authoritative attitude. And we should establish partnership with NGO(Non-government organization). Government-NGO's cooperative relation esta- blishment will increase the synergy effect in National Crisis Management affairs. Accordingly, we can call for NGO's active participation condition in order to improve our business and adapt a new environment. First, in order to attracted NGO's active participation in National Crisis Management, the related law need to amended as soon as possible. Second, to establish the division(team) for coordination and connection with NGO in government Third, to transfer from the bad perception or image to affirmative partner between public servant and NGOs. Fourth, to cancel absolutely undesirable past behaviour and culture. For example, closed organization culture, path dependence and case by case business style etc. Lastly, We should be established NGO-government partnership planning and strongly steer to achieve our national security. If we will accomplish to above of the conditions, our response ability for variable threats such as war, military conflict, terror, civil strife, disaster, and any other equivalent incidents, should be more strength than present.
  • 5.

    A Study on The Efficient Alloca- tion and Use for Korea Disaster Budget and Funds

    위평량 | 2007, 3(2) | pp.56~68 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    The purposes of this study are suggesting the allocation principle of the disaster management budget and emphasizing the importance of prevention budget. For these purpose, this article reviewed fiscal system, budgeting principle, long-term budgeting plan and the present status of local-governments' fund-using. Through this analyzing, policy implications are suggested. First, total cost should be minimized and demander's satisfaction should be maximized before budgeting and new model should be developed. Second, it needs to designate an controlling institute for budgeting. It could solve the departments' sectionalism, could improve rationality of budgeting, and could minimize wasting expenditure of the budget. Third, civil specialists should be included in the local fund management committee. Forth, sufficient research is needed in the respect of disaster prevention.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Efficient Disaster Relief Services in Korea

    이은애 | 2007, 3(2) | pp.69~81 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Based upon some case studies including the Typhoon 'Nari' of 2007, the paper attempts to discuss the problems/obstacles observed in the process of disaster relief services by local governments, and to search an efficient disaster relief service system in Korea. Two primary problems, namely i) local governments' lack of emergency response capacity and ii) poverty of cooperative relief system in the fields are elaborated. In order to resolve these problems, necessity of private-public partnership in the relief service is emphasized, and significance of people's participation for the effective response-recovery are highlighted. The concept of co-production was introduced in order to recognize local people as disaster relief service producer, and the role of intermediate support organizations are stressed to propel the cooperation among administrative bodies, NGOs and local people. As the realistic strategies for the co-production as well as cooperation, local governments' response capacity building, role of local volunteer centers and formation of cooperation network among the stakeholders are suggested.
  • 7.

    Prospect of Natural Disaster in Korea with Global Warming

    Jai Ho Oh | 2007, 3(2) | pp.82~94 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The climate of the globe change drastically as strained elastic thread shrinked suddenly. As the amount of greenhouse in the atmosphere grows, the drastic change could happen in very short time, for example, in several months. Every person should try to delay this greenhouse effect let alone Governments. The little changes of everyday's habits like using buses instead of private car, lowering the temperature of air conditioner, lessening the consumption of meats, ect will help saving the earth from greenhouse effect.
  • 8.

    Emergency Relief System of Typhoon Disaster in China

    Hongzhou Lai | 2007, 3(2) | pp.95~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    China is one of the countries most severely afflicted by natural disasters in the world. Especially, the frequent and severe typhoon disasters have resulted in huge losses of life and property in China. In recent years, China’s emergency management system of disaster relief is gradually set up and reinforced. Meanwhile, the emergency operational mechanisms of disaster relief are successively established and enhanced, which cover the disaster situation monitoring and joint consulting mechanism, the early warnings releasing mechanism, the pre-disaster emergency evacuation mechanism, the emergency response mechanism for disaster relief, the disaster relief funds appropriation mechanism, the disaster relief goods supply mechanism, and the disaster relief performance assessment mechanism. Some latest technologies are initially applied to disaster relief efforts so as to further improve the national capacity of emergency response
  • 9.

    The Search for Collaborative Emergency Management: Thailand Emergency Response

    Tavida Kamolvej | 2007, 3(2) | pp.105~116 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The importance of public safety has gained recognition from governments of all countries around the world. Public safety includes how well communities cope with extreme phenomena, such as natural disasters and threats of manmade hazards, as well as how effectively emergency response agencies respond to such crises. The uncertainty and unexpected consequences of these extreme events create severe conditions such as large scale destruction of buildings, dramatic change in geography, destruction of communication and electrical infrastructure, exacerbated by a lack of understanding of risks to which communities are exposed. Natural disasters may create heavy damage across wide areas that require public agencies to work together nationally and locally to manage states of emergency. Such crises require a clear understanding of risks and skillfully coordinated operations to return the situation to normal. Under urgent constraints of time and threat to life, information and communication facilities are critical to enable multiple agencies to coordinate their actions simultaneously and make timely informed decisions. In states of emergency, all participating response agencies need to work together and communicate with each other. This study examines how emergency management policies are implemented in Thailand at national and local levels separately and cooperatively, and what information and communication processes are essential to emergency management.