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2012, Vol.8, No.2

  • 1.

    Exploration of Disaster Event Related Policy Change Model and Theory - Comparison of Major Policy Process Theories and Models -

    이동규 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.1~27 | number of Cited : 23
    Abstract
    The objective of this research is to explore the appropriate theories and models explaining the policy change in conjunction with disasters or crises. Compared to Multiple Streams Model(Kingdon, 1984; 1985), Punctuated Equilibrium Model(Baumgartner & Jones, 1993), and Advocacy Coalition Framework Model(Sabatier, 1988; 1993; 1999; 2007), this study focuses on Event Related Policy Change Model that is relevant framework to explain the policy change after sudden events or catastrophes. Because this model makes it possible that we could consider the role of the focusing event in issue formation, agenda setting, policy making process, and policy change process. This study examines the policy change process and mechanism after catastrophes that are labeled as 'Focusing events'. Also, this research tries to make the model to understand the policy change process after focusing events. In conclusion, further study is required to explore theories and models appropriate to natural disaster, man-made disaster, and social disaster cases in Korea.
  • 2.

    The 2006∼2011 Trend of Social Risk Perception and Policy Implication

    Cha, Yong Jin | 2012, 8(2) | pp.28~47 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Using a psychometric paradigm, this study examines the trend of the lay people’s social risk perception. The purpose of this study is to explore potential implications for risk policy through a comparison of 2006 and 2011 sample. The results show that the samples have a two-factor structure and the higher order factors-“unknown risk” and “dread risk”-structure the risk perceptions of the 40 risks. In a two-factor dimension, the 40 risks can be categorized as four types. The trend analyses indicate the changes of the types on the 2006 and 2011 samples. Nuclear reactor accident, nuclear power plant, radiation processed food have been viewed as relatively known. Magnetic field, asbestos and genetically modified food have been viewed as relatively dread. Vaccinations and prescription drugs have been evaluated as relatively unknown. Radioactive waste disposal and mercury have been evaluated as relatively well unknown. Based on the results, the potential implications for effective risk analysis are also discussed.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Crisis Management System of Local Government in Korea and Japan - Focus on Business Continuity Plan(BCP) -

    Hyun-jae Choi | Kim, Jong-Eop | 2012, 8(2) | pp.48~71 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    In the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that the destruction potential of a wide range of natural and man-made hazards was growing in many countries. One of the major reasons behind this trend is the concentration of people and economic assets in hazard-prone areas. Therefore, the increasing threat of 'mega-risks' urges for the creation of partnerships between the public and private sector, and between local community groups and the national government in order to assess, prevent and respond to harmful events. Particularly, the roles of local government have enlarged in the risk management of disasters. The aim of this study is to establish the basis for an appraisal of all disaster preparedness system in local government of South Korean and Japan. To this end, the study reviews recent Japan's experiences which are significant now and which might be of particular relevance for the coming decades. From these, the study then draws some lessons for disaster preparedness and mitigation policy, considered in a holistic way for local government of South Korea. The first part of the study looks at a short overview of the theoretical concepts on risk management. The second part gives the current situation of Korean and Japan and its disaster management system, with comparison between local governments of both countries, and the lessons learnt from Japan's experiences and policies. Part three then discusses possible policy responses for local government of Korea.
  • 4.

    The Role Restructuring of Central Disaster and Safety Countermeasures Headquarters for Integrated Disaster Countermeasures - Focusing on the Foot and Mouth Disease -

    Yang Gi Geun | 2012, 8(2) | pp.72~89 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to provide the integrated disaster countermeasures directions focused on central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters. Presently, central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters and central accident headquarters has a key role in the integrated disaster countermeasures when major disaster occurs. Nevertheless, the information on the specific legal provisions or the manual about role and organization time of central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters is lacking. Therefore, it is required to establish the specific role of central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters in emergency laws and manuals of crisis countermeasures for efficient major disaster management. Today as grand complex disaster is growing up, role and importance of central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters in national disaster management will be larger. Nevertheless, effective actions of central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters are difficult because of the role and organization time between central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters and central accident headquarters in "Disaster and Safety Management Basic Act" and crisis manual are ambiguousness. The improvements of central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters for the integrated disaster countermeasures are as follows: first, roles of central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters in "Disaster and Safety Management Basic Act" and crisis manual have to clearly defined. second, disaster agencies must collaborate centre around central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters for the integrated disaster countermeasures, third, the role and organization time between central disaster and safety countermeasures headquarters and central accident headquarters have to be clearly defined, fourth, the integrated disaster countermeasures support system and communication channel have to be secured, finally, disaster plan for the integrated disaster countermeasures have to be improved.
  • 5.

    The Challenges of Korean Livestock Policy, Grasped by Foot-and-mouth Disease Discourses

    이수철 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.90~107 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This essay is aimed to analyse cause, progress, measures of foot-and-mouth which is started from Andong(2010 Nov.) and declared an end in 2011 Apr. Setting up government press release as governmental discourse and 5 major newspaper reports as counter discourse, a series of events is analysed by the method of discourse analysis. It can be concluded that the foot-and-mouth disease of Korea is not only simple problem of defence system for foot-and-mouth disease, but overall problems which should be considered of structure of livestock industry. There are big different perspectives in all aspects between governmental discourse and counter discourse. Government looks at livestock farming as an industry, counter discourse as high level value, like as environment, food security etc. These differences in perspective are revealed through discourses, it showed the execution direction of agricultural policy.
  • 6.

    The Analysis of Factors Influencing on the Sense of Security of Students

    백승도 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.108~122 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study has a goal to create questions to measure the sense of security, and to identify factors influencing the sense of security of college students and whether the characteristics of the demography statistics lead to difference in establishing the sense of the security. Pre-research creates 30 questions. The analysis of factors using SPSS 19.0 program resulted in 6 following factors: security situations, confidence in military, attendance, satisfaction, pride, sense of security. The regression analysis indicates that the security situations(t=5.658, p=.000), the confidence in military(t=4.485, p=.003) and the attendance (t=5.040, p=.000) favorably affect the sense of security. The pride (t=1.606, p=.109) and the satisfaction statistically does not influence on one. The degree of influence on the sense of security states that the first is the security situations(β=.250), the second is the attendance(β=.226), the third is the confidence in military(β=.196). The demography statistics shows that the sex(t=7.839, p=.000), the military service(t=-5.394, p=.000) and the grade(F=9.891, p=.000) statistically have the meaningful difference in recognizing the sense of the security. The region(F=1.407, p=.000) does not have the meaningful difference.
  • 7.

    A Study on Satisfaction of Fire Inspection by Firefighters and Building Managers

    Jong-Youl Lee | 배수연 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.123~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study is to show how satisfied firefighters and building managers are with fire inspections and their differences using a questionnaire. As a background, current realities and policies are analyzed. One interesting finding is with respect to contracting-out of the inspection work. Most firefighters prefer it, but most building managers oppose it. The reason why they are against it is that it produces a cost burden. Both parties agree on such desirable directions like active participation of building managers, reducing the scope of inspection, enhancing expertise of inspectors, clarification of punishment, and avoiding overlapping inspections.
  • 8.

    A Study on How to Reduce the Corruption of Firefighters in Korea

    채열식 | 정병수 | Ryu Sang Il | 2012, 8(2) | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to identify the reasons of corruption of firefighting officers and find out the countermeasures to resolve the problems in order to acquire the trust of citizens through the recovery of the image of firefighting while the news on the corruption of firefighting officers has continuously increased. Accordingly, in this study, it was tried to review the status of the corruption, to perform the case study from the perspective of the triggering factors of the corruption and to propose a method to reduce the corruption through a case study. Conclusively, the corruption triggering factors can be classified as internal organizational factors, institutional factors, social environmental factors and personal factors. To reduce the corruption of firefighters in the future, the followings should be in place; First, in the dimension of internal organization, the accusation and monitoring system should be operating actively, and the best efforts should be made so that fast and fair actions could be followed. Second, from the institutional perspectives, unreasonable administrative restrictions should be lifted and the institutions should be improved. Unreasonable institutions and procedures can trigger the corruption in firefighting business, and unrealistic restrictions, unclear execution standards and complicated administrative factors should be improved and corrected in timely manner. Third, in the dimension of social environments, anti‐corruption advertisements should be enforced. In other words, we need to make efforts to enlighten the awareness of anti‐corruption in all fields of the society not to mention of the public sector as well as to directly improve the corruption triggering environments. Finally, in the personal dimension, the ethical education for the public servants should be enforced. Additionally, welfare should be enforced so that they can keep the sound ethics of the public servants not to fall in the ‘Corruption for a Living.’
  • 9.

    The Role and Preparedness Directions of Military Resources in the Disaster Management

    고창석 | Yang Gi Geun | 2012, 8(2) | pp.162~179 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to provide the role and preparedness directions of military resources in the disaster management of Korea. Today we live in a society where natural disasters, man-made disasters and social disasters are happening constantly, these disasters have more and more larger and the damage from the disasters has increased astronomically. Major disaster is much too big for only government to resolve the damage from the disasters. Because of insufficient equipment and resources in the disaster field, rapid emergency recovery is hard to achieve in spite of increased damages and disaster frequencies. Also, that exceeds the ability of government agencies is becoming more common in disaster. Therefore, it is required to mobilize reserved military resources of emergency relief and recovery after large-scaled disaster. The suggested alternatives for the role and preparedness directions of military resources in the disaster management are as follows: first, we have to recognize overcoming disaster as the primary duties of military, second, modify disaster-related laws and legislations, third, establish principles of support of military, fourth, maintain the cooperative system among the civil society, government and the military, fifth, establish a disaster management education and training system, sixth, establish the international cooperative system for disaster management.
  • 10.

    Characteristic Analysis of Sediment Load in Mangyeong and Dongjin River during Flood Season

    김형산 | Maeng, Seung-jin | Chung, Se-woong and 1other persons | 2012, 8(2) | pp.180~200 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Discharge, sediment load, bed-material investigation, and long-term runoff analysis were performed at Daecheon water level station in Mangyeong River and Sintaein water level station in Dongjin River. Aim of this study estimates total sediment load and specific sediment yield entering Saemangeum Lake. The Modified Einstein Procedure was applied to estimate total sediment load and then a sediment rating curve was derived using sediment load data, as measured in this study and measured by other institutes in 2005. Runoff data for estimating long-term data on sediment load entering the lake are available for long-term runoff simulations. The HSPF model was applied to simultaneously perform water volume and quality simulations. The simulations were performed for a period of seven years, from 2002 to 2008. Using the simulated long-term runoff from 2002 to 2008 and the sediment rating curve at two water level stations, the mean sediment load entering the lake was estimated at 141,923(ton/yr) at the Daecheon water level station and 96,716(ton/yr) at the Sintaein water level station. Based on the long-term runoff analysis and the sediment rating curve obtained from data gathered from Daecheon and Sintaein water level stations, specific sediment yield at Saemangeum Lake was estimated at 276(ton/㎢/yr), while the sediment load entering the lake was 916,005 (ton/yr). The utilization of land and rivers in these regions vary with time. Therefore, these sediment load and analysis data better reflect the present condition of the rivers than previous data.
  • 11.

    Climate Crisis - Countermeasures for National Emergency Management-

    Jai Ho Oh | 우수민 | 허모랑 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.201~214 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    November 29, 2011 KMA was released “Future climate projection and impact of climate change by new climate change scenarios”. Unless carbon emissions is implemented globally, it would be occurred rise in temperature by 3.2 degree, increase of precipitation by 16%, rise of sea level by 27cm over Korea in 2050. Then it is projected the twice or six times higher temperature and increase in number of rainfall days by 60%. Continuous global warming would be occurred the floods and landslides, destruction of water resources over the Asia region as well as in Korea. Especially, rapid economic growth, population increase and urban concentration of the population in Southeast Asia make vulnerable for climate change and population of many coastal areas in South East Asia would be faced in danger from the sea and the river side. The rise in temperature and precipitation would be reduced crop production and it is predicted the water shortages and famine in the most Asian developing countries. These global warming and water shortages around the world from rising international grain prices will be coming ‘agflation era’, the global food crisis could be the fuse. Thus, long-term environmental changes such as continued global warming, rising sea levels, destroy of forests, soil erosion, salinity, flooding, desertification would be occurred the climate refugees. Ultimately, these climate crises around the world cannot ignore the possibility of climate war. So we have to develop the plan to manage the crisis of food, water and energy due to the climate change. One of those measures, "National security center on climate change" is proposed to operate for monitoring the abnormal climate phenomena in real time in accordance with global warming and climate change.
  • 12.

    Comparative Analysis on the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Competencies between Community Center and Fire Station - From the Perspective of Humanism focusing on Ouchi’s Z Theory -

    김두선 | Lee, Jae Eun | 2012, 8(2) | pp.215~237 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study analyzed the organizational culture of the administrative organization from the perspective of humanism focusing on Ouchi’s Z theory, setting the hierarchical normatism and employment stability as an independent variable and analyzing its relationship with organizational competence as a dependent variable. Additionally, the differences between the community centers which are the local government agencies in the field, and fire stations were analyzed. To improve the organizational competence of the local government agencies, the employment stability should be enhanced placing importance on the humanistic management style proposed in Ouchi’s Z theory, and the strict hierarchical normaltism of the administrative organization should be reduced. In the future, the frontier administrative agencies should make an organizational atmosphere highlighting Korean traditional values such as human relations rather than keeping the current performance or achievement emphasizing policy. They can give individuals the sense of success, and enable the organization to achieve the goal. Besides, as we cannot object the current performance centered trend, the balance between the human centered and performance centered should be set. On the other hand, the key will be the method to introduce the humanism to the public servants’ organizational culture.
  • 13.

    The Influenced Factors of Housing after Baby Boomers' Retirement

    변우섭 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.238~266 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was cleared on prospective about their homes after retirement and each factors affect the housing problem. In this study, after retirement housing that is important when considering the target group of elements extracted by Focus Group Interview Methods, and baby boomer 309 people were targeted for the survey. The findings are as follows: First, retirement living was affected. lifestyle preferences that a statistically significant relationship.(β=0.266, p<.05, 95% confidence level). In addition, after retiring from professional(β=0.16, p<.05), old officer's support obligation(β=0.191, p<.05) were statistically significant at 95% confidence level. Second, the retirement home for the recognition that there is a statistically significant relationship was affected. Three of them living(β=0.266, p<.05), the relationship between home and enjoy life after retirement(β=0.197, p<.01), the relationship between home and child care(β=0.187, p<.05) were a statistically significant at 95% confidence level. Third, after retiring from a residential environment that statistically significant relationships were affected. Therefore, research hypothesis 3 was adopted. Living after retirement(β=0.144, p<.01), after retirement location environment(β=0.418, p<.001), ease of living after retirement residence(β=0.256, p<.001) were affected at 95% statistically significant. Thus, as above, after the retirement of baby boomers preferred the factors of retirement home occupation, retirement homes and enjoying life relationships, the relationship between home and child care, retirement location environment, and after retirement.
  • 14.

    An Analysis of the Policy Conflicts in the Process of Making Policy toward High-tech Medical Complex - Using Press Report and Advocacy Coalitions Frameworks -

    Choi In Kyu | 2012, 8(2) | pp.267~286 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    In the selection of site process of the high-tech medical complex, the competition for holding a event gone to the local governments was very intense. And this can be arbitrated and the direnctly belonging committee of the agency of central government and president can be run in this inside as the representative case investing much time and effort in order to drop the reasonable crystallization. As to this research, which how becomes the interaction of the various policy doers related to the selection of site of the high-tech medical complex? In addition, how the partnership for coordinated policy through the belief structure was active. It tried to turn on how the policy calculation showed up through the role of the intermediaries. The analyzed result defense support force took the strategy which enhances the reliability by using the authority of the expert for the specification of the core norm and showed the appearance which consequently collected the foundation of the high-tech medical complex committee and opinion and presents the criteria of selecting site. The defense population in opposite position was the local government population pursuing by the core norm. In conclusion, when the discord between defense union through the competition for holding a event was progressed, then 2 places survived due to 60 evaluation groups, that is the intermediary, among the local government population and the policy in which the opinion of the government and practical affairs governmental department is reflected was determined. policy decision system of the selection of site of the high-tech medical complex is grasped through this and ACF model analyzed result. We try to present as the useful empirical data for the policy improvement method.
  • 15.

    Collaborative Network Structure for Information Exchange: Focusing on ‘Settlement Support Program’ for North Korean Defectors

    이동규 | Seo, Inseok | 장소진 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.287~317 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study seeks to illustrate the structure of settlement support program for North Korean defectors applying the concept of collaborative network. Network features, unity, centrality, cohesion and structural equivalence are measured which would explain collaboration network structure on information exchange among settlement support programs for North Korean defectors and collaborating organizations as to identify the structural characteristics. It is found that reliable organization or mediator is in need for coordination among themselves. Therefore, collaborative network among central government, local government and social corporation should be established around social cohesion monitoring center with an emphasis on information exchange through communication, trust, collaboration and opportunity. Also, it turns out that settlement support system should be improved in order to seek for government taking the initiative and private sector providing assistance. By analyzing density, centrality, cohesion and structural equivalence, policy implications are drawn for the core and collaboration of settlement support network.