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2013, Vol.9, No.5

  • 1.

    Influencing Facors on Impact of Event in Firefighters

    Hee Sook Kim | 이호진 | Park, Gyeong Ran | 2013, 9(5) | pp.1~16 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the factors influencing impact of event in firefighters. Method: Participants in this study were 135 firefighters from fire stations in G city. The data were collected from April 15 to May 1, 2011 using self-reported questionnaires about depression, stress coping style, and impact of event scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA with Scheffe of Post Hoc, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression analysis with SPSS/WIN 18.0 program. Results: Impact of event has positive correlation with depression(r=.52. p<.001). Impact of event was influenced by depression(β=.52, p<.001), female(β=.-19, p=.009), and mobilization times(β=.16, p=.034). These variables explained 43% of the variance in impact of event. Conclusions: The results suggest that various effective strategies to decreases of depression and mobilization times are important in reducing the impact of event in firefighters. Based on the outcomes of this study, it is necessary to develope an intervention program that emphasizes the critical incident stress management in order to decrease impact of event in firefighters.
  • 2.

    Consumer Information and Education Strategy of the Endocrine-disruptors(EDCs) for Effective Risk Communication

    Kim,Sung Sook | 홍연금 | 2013, 9(5) | pp.17~40 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The purpose of this research was to streamline the principles of mid and long -term plans for increasing the effectiveness of education and communication activities for proper use of endocrine disruptors-related products. The research methods were 1) evaluating the effectiveness of activities implemented by the Korean Government and consumer organizations from 2005 to 2010. 2) inquiring the risk strategies of the U.S. and Japanese Governments and NGOs 3) developing the consumer information and education strategy and contents for the pregnant and the pre-school children like a picture puzzle and board games. Therefore, the findings of this research were needs of improving the education and communication materials and channels and clarifying the principles of this research education and communication strategies focused on the endocrine disruptor-sensitive consumer groups like the pregnant and school children. Concretely, that is, 1) diverse education materials production, 2) mobile application and web mail tools for two-way communication, 3) offering the endocrine-disruptor workbooks to the teachers and social educators, 4) consistent management of the next-generation like the pregnant and the children, 5) facilitating the co-works with the consumer organizations and businesses, 6)improvement of linkage between the education and communication.
  • 3.

    The Private Investigator Industry in the United States : The Present and Future

    Park Dong Kyun | Park ki beom | 2013, 9(5) | pp.41~56 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Modern society has in recent times relied almost exclusively on the police and other arms of the criminal justice system to prevent and control crime. But today the sheer volume of crime and its cost, along with budget cutbacks in the public sector, have overstrained public law enforcement agencies. One of the primary functions of private security personnel is investigation. Private investigation may be defined as the occupational activity performed by a private investigator who spends the majority of his or her time occupied with seeking information for a client who pays for such services. This study analyzed the private investigator system in the U. S. Allan Pinkerton started the first contract private security in the U. S. Pinkerton's early success helped define the role and abilities of the private security industry. Private investigators are individuals knowledgable in the methods and techniques of investigations, and they sell that expertise. In many cases, the client purchases the investigator's expertise and resources to acquire the desired information. Private investigators find facts and analyze information about legal, financial, and personal matters. All investigations, regardless of type or purpose, depend on the gathering of factual information. Gathering factual information is the main purpose fo any investigation. They offer many services, including verifying people's backgrounds, tracing missing persons, investigating computer crimes, and protecting celebrities. In general, private investigators are involved in locating missing persons, obtaining confidential information. and solving crimes. Many PIs work for businesses and lawyers while others work independently. Independent offices may be only one person operations while others may employ several operatives or contract work to part-time investigators. Private investigators may perform pre-employment background checks or look into a charge that someone has been stealing money from a company. They might be hired to prove or disprove infidelity in a divorce case. Private investigation combines the skills of both science and art. Private investigators must be mindful of the law when conducting investigations. They must have a good understanding of federal, state, and local laws, such as privacy laws, and other legal issues affecting their work. Investigators generally work alone, but they may work with others while conducting surveillance or following a subject. Many investigators enter the field after serving in law enforcement, the military, or federal intelligence jobs. These people, who frequently are able to retire after 25 years of service, often become private detectives or investigators as a second career. So, they must be knowledgeable of many things from good public relations to proper protocal, security principles and procedures, medical response, and how to aggressively control access to a crime/incident scene. Private investigators usually have some college education. However, many jobs do not have formal education requirements and private detectives and investigators learn on the job. Previous experience in investigative work can be beneficial. But education and training, coupled with common sense and good attitude, should be requisites for the position of private investigators. In most states, private investigators need a license. In Florida, for instance, there is double requirement - the applicant must be sponsored by a private investigator who works for a private investigative agency. The employment of private investigator is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2014. The future of security is positive. Demand for investigators is expected to be generated by fear of crime, increased litigation, and the need to protect confidential information and property.
  • 4.

    Developing on the Public Announcement Program of Emergency Management Capability in Local Governments

    유병태 | Keumho Oh | 2013, 9(5) | pp.57~70 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    New paradigm to the advancement of technologies and policies for disaster management is required for building resilient and safe society which can protect life and properties of the citizens from the complex disaster environment. In these circumstances, enhancing the capacity of disaster management of local society has become important issues, which is based on the interactive system among central authority, local authority and citizens. The Disaster and Safety Management Basic Act prescribes that local government should announce the emergency management capacity in public. However, It does not describe in detail which items should be announced by local government. In this study, the public announcement items designed for explaining the emergency management capacity of local government are suggested. The conceptual framework of public announcement system is categorized into 4 stages, such as assessing the vulnerability, indexing the emergency management capacity, evaluating and improving the capacity, and participating of local society. The 9 index categories are suggested; (1) understanding the characteristics of disaster in the local area, (2) disaster management system, (3) preparation of disaster management plan, (4) disaster mitigation project, (5) logistics of emergency resources, (6) emergency operation system, (7) preparation of disaster response plan, (8) participating and sharing education/training/information, (9) assessing the outcomes based on the goal. And 58 detailed index under the 9 categories are suggested. This study provides some examples that show how the suggested index can be used for assessing the emergency management capacity. It is expected that the enhancement of emergency management capacity of local society can be achieved by the efforts of local government analyzing and improving the vulnerability as well as the participation of local society who recognize the emergency management capacity of their area announced by the local government.
  • 5.

    President Roh Moo-hyun Died: Secret of Subjects Means That the Psychological State

    김화수 | Sunggu Jo | Kim, Dong-Je | 2013, 9(5) | pp.71~86 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study, the psychological necessity of the guard says 50 people who began this research in order to achieve these objectives has been working in the Executive Office of the President Guard wife and the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency and practitioners in the case of the death of President Roh Moo-hyun, in-depth interviews the analysis was conducted, during the qualitative analysis program Nvivo utilizing recently developed the concept of the final two categories and 13 have been identified. And necessity is psychological categories Constable subjects identified through the categorization unnecessary, was that these qualitative findings suggest a few discussion points to give. As a result, type of importance of recognition of psychological state of security subjects are analyzed and the results are the following; the basics of security operation 20(39.0%), prior task of security goal 13(20.3%), effect of hiring security 7(10.9%), effect of security success 6(9.3%), prevention of suicide 4(6.2%), prevention of crime 4(6.2%), improvement of activeness of security 3(4.6%), convenience of security subject 2(3.1%). The types of unnecessary factor to recognize psychological state of security subjects are the following; priority of security manual 26(46.4%), difficulty in reality 13(23.2%), guard based on security principle 7(12.5%), limited information about security subject 6(10.7%), increase of external factors 4(7.1%). Showed the guard our country based on the results of research subjects most necessary factor is the psychological state, and the ups and downs of the escort operation unnecessary factor escort work manuals. Forward to guard the subjects of suicide and internal threats such as external threats until now the focus of this study if the focused attention can have them should the implications that provide the first study of its kind to have meaning. Sustainable research at the national level, these measures the contrast can respond appropriately to the environment, the new guard would be nice looking.
  • 6.

    Study on Developing Guideline Manual for Ground Fire Fighting on Forest Fire Occurrence Site: Case Study on the Duties of SamCheok City Ground Fire Fighters

    권춘근 | Lee Si Young | 2013, 9(5) | pp.87~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The manual was proposed for individual role, according to the stage of forest fire suppression at forest fire occurrence site, for forest fire crew who has a responsibility local governments office. The scopes of this manual are ① apply to initial attack before arriving helicopter, ② apply to ground fire fighting support with air attack, ③ apply to mop-up after withdraw air attack, ④ apply to night suppression when air attack is impossible. This manual is arranged to incident commander or ground fire fighter duties from the 1st stage for acceptance of forest fire to the 10th stage for withdraw of helicopter. This was developed for the purpose of reduction of life, property, and forest from systematic and rapid response of forest fire through the forest fire crews are well aware of normal times.
  • 7.

    Analysis of the Characteristics of the River Bed Variation for Gagok Down Stream Considering Flood Season

    Maeng, Seung-jin | 이승욱 | 황길순 and 1other persons | 2013, 9(5) | pp.103~116 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    In this study, the long-term runoff of Gagok’s downstream was estimated using SSARR (Stream Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation), a hydrology model, while change in the riverbed was simulated using RMA-2 and SED-2D to predict future River Bed Variation under the assumption that changes in the flow velocity of the upper stream and past discharge due to the creation of general development estate for a breakwater of Hosan Port and LNG production plant in the estuary of Gagok Stream will occur in the future. Parameters of SSARR model should be calculated through verification with the observed runoff volume. However, since no observation data is available on the water system, the parameters of the Pyeong Chang River basin with reliable observation data and similar physical characteristics to those of the watershed were applied. In addition, the daily mean runoff on the previous year was calculated by simulating daily runoff from 1972 to 2011, and flood discharge estimated through flow regime alternation analysis was used as the boundary condition. Based on survey data, terrain data, the input data of a hydraulic model was constructed, and the downstream boundary condition was calculated at EL.14.0m by means of a trial error method. Results of the hydraulic model analysis showed that the maximum value of mean flow velocity by cross section was 1.16m/s, occurring in the section where analysis begins, and the minimum value was 0.31m/s, which was simulated in the downstream. Results of the River Bed Variation analysis using SED-2D showed minimal change in the behaviors of the right bank in the section where analysis begins. Sedimentation aspects of the longitudinal section in the downstream also showed a tendency to decrease. These results point to the conclusion that the decision to include or exclude sedimentation of flood discharge introduced from the upper stream has a significant effect on River Bed Variation. Accordingly, it is necessary to conduct an analysis of the River Bed Variation due to the construction of a general development estate for a breakwater at Hosan Port and the LNG production plant by securing observation data constantly in the future, which will in turn help prepare measures to mitigate damages caused by floods.
  • 8.

    Development of Flood Risk Management for Changkyung Palace, Korea

    Hyosang Lee | Jung Sung Heuk | Hojin Lee | 2013, 9(5) | pp.117~136 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The risk of natural disaster has been increasing due to the effects of climate change and abnormal regional climate, such as flood and earthquake. The need of a risk management system is raised to protect architectural heritages from those risks. In this study, flood risk of Changkyeong palace, Korea, is assessed using SWMM(Strom Water Management Model) with rainfall scenarios(probabilistic rainfall: 100, 200 and 500 return period and observed extreme rainfall of 1942, 1964, 2001 and 2010). The flood risk for architectural heritage is presented as the degree of inundation risk. these results are used to build up a flood risk management for architectural heritage of Changkyung palace. Although the lower part of Changkyung palace are inundated, the major area which the heritages are located, are in low risk of flooding. The flood risk management system, which is based on scenarios analysis in this study, suggests a systematical approach to deal with the risk of the flooding. It will be used as a fundamental management tool for architectural heritages.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Efficient Application Plans of Bicycle Patrol System

    Jeon, Dae-yang | Kim, Jong-Oh | 2013, 9(5) | pp.137~152 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    A patrol is very important activities among police functions. Patrolling using the car and walking patrol are essential means and incidentally use bicycle patrol. A Patrol using car is common lately, it is critic to reduce contact chance with police officers and citizen. Bicycle patrol is become known to complement the weakness of car patrol and walking patrol. Bicycle patrol can use in alley and byway impossible to go through with patrol car, and can patrol more wider area than walking patrol. It should be considered what kind of paradigm in our country to carry bicycle patrol. A Regional Police agencies can manage special bicycle patrol team because cost use a lot and supervision is needed. Bicycle patrol accomplish as a part of community policing. It is necessary to operate bicycle patrol team in order to suitable the topography and condition according to every jurisdiction. In compliance with the situation, electric bicycle and electric patrol car could be utilized.
  • 10.

    Theories of Explaining Causes of Large Scale Blackouts: Current Literature and a Future Research Framework

    Park, Hyunsoo | 2013, 9(5) | pp.153~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Recently large scale blackouts have been a global issue to be addressed. Korea also faces highly unlikely but catastrophic large scale blackouts due to the complexity of its interconnected grid systems. There are different explanations on the causes of large scale blackouts in different fields. At first, therefore, this article categorizes them as techno-economic approaches and complex & network theories. The latter observe the cascading outage itself as a physical phenomenon independent of the social organization of technological events, while the former searches for the causes of large scale blackouts in the physical structure of interconnected transmission systems and market design. Because they do not deal with organizational and institutional problems in their explanations, this paper includes organizational & institutional approaches – Normal Accident theory, High Reliability Organizational theory, and New Institutionalism – to explain social causes of large scale blackouts. Finally, a theoretical framework is outlined that makes an attempt to synchronize different theories in different fields to show multi-dimensions of explaining large scale blackouts and to guide future policy direction.