This empirical study aims to address a concern that theoretical and practical lessons of the local governments from a series of disasters have not been reflected into their disaster management policies. We reviewed and analyzed the literature for the past 10 years and explored a trend of the changes in typical types of disasters such as fire accidents and traffic accidents. The data analysis did not support the roles of accumulated knowledge or experiences as a determinant of the organizational learning. This study highlights an importance of operating the on-scene disaster management, facilitating research activities on disaster prevention and mitigation, improving the on-scene professionalism, developing the disaster management plans based on the local contexts, and involving the public into local disaster management governance and capacity building.
Based on the understanding of the experiences among the victims of flood disasters in Busan, this study intends to provide the fundamental data for designing strategies for psychological support for them. The data were collected through in-depth and unstructured audio-taped interviews of 12 flood disaster victims over a one-year period, asking about their experiences during the disaster. The Colaizzi's method was used for a phenomenological analysis of the interview data, which put their experiences into seven different categories: first-time experience in a flood disaster, discomfort with life without necessities, pain, anxiety about re-disaster, recovery and compensation, support, sympathy and gratitude. The findings from this study suggests the development and implementation of a mediation program to help the disaster victims overcome the impacts of the accident or disaster, as well as the widespread adoption of pre- and post-disaster education programs throughout the nursing and education professions. Further studies can provide valuable resources for post-disaster programs including the training manual.
The lack of environmental flow of Namdae River in Gangneung causes water pollution that could decimate population of fish and is destroying the ecosystem. Only 0.056 m³/s of water flow amount was measured at the Obong Dam, substantially below a legal environmental flow (0.4 m³/s). The Korea Rural Community Corporation takes more than 2 billion won every year for supplying residental water to the Gangneung City from Obong Dam. Considering its failure to maintain the legal guideline of environmental water flow while providing residential water to Gangneung City, it makes undue profits about 290-670 million won every year. Therefore, the Gangneung City should conduct negotiations with the Korea Rural Community Corporation for re-establishment of water rights for Namdae River. It is crucial for recovery of the ecosystem in Namdae River to map out a plan that secures the supply of proper environmental flow.
This study is to analyze the characteristics of impact force by debris flow based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM), according to the variance of supplying water discharge and channel slope angle. The more supplying water discharges, the earlier fluctuation of debris flow is occurred with a longer duration and a higher amplitude of impact force. The debris flow velocity is speedier at the fluctuation points than on the downstream channel and maintains for a few seconds. The impact force of debris flow at the fluctuation points is stronger than at the early occurrence points. This finding indicates that the supplying water discharge, which is the energy source for debris flow, interacts with the particles of the flowing debris flow and thus the energy of debris flow increases. Such rising impact force of debris flow contains great energy and keeps attacking the check dam.
This study investigated the effect of job stress on organizational commitment and turnover intention among emergency managers. The surveys were collected from 97 emergency managers who are classified as private experts and assigned to the emergency centers in the 1-1-9 Fire Department. Job stress, organizational commitment and turnover intention of emergency managers scored 59.91, 2.57, and 2.51 respectively. Among the sub-categories of job stress, job insecurity was found to be the highest risk factor. Job stress was negatively associated with organizational commitment, but positively associated with turnover intention. In terms of explanatory power, the effect of job stress on organizational commitment was 31.9%, while the effect of job stress on turnover intention was 35.8%. The findings of this study highlight the need of developing a policy alternative to alleviate job stress of 1-1-9 emergency managers.
The overcrowding of the city has increased the number of underground faculties, such as subway, underpass, underground public spaces, and so forth. Morever, a growing risk of collapse has been observed due to deterioration of the facilities. The deeper urban underground faculties were installed, the more limitations the traditional method using only traditional heavy equipments faced in rescuing isolated victims rapidly and safely. In this study, a rapid rescue technology based on horizontal drilling techniques was proposed to minimize the loss of human lives and properties resulting from collapse and burial accidents.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the water discharge and the sediment volume concentration of debris flow at the end of downstream channel according to the various locations of the berm. The aspect of debris flow by the variance of the supplying water discharge was also investigated at the each locations of berm, based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM). For the case of fewer water supply, the closer the berm was to the upstream channel and the higher the slope angle was, the larger water discharge of debris flow was observed. The increase in water supplying discharge lead to a higher fluctuation at the end of downstream channel. For the case of sediment volume concentration, the value of sediment volume concentration remain unchanged for each location of the berm with a low level of supplying water discharge. On the other hand, an inflection point was occurred when the supplying water discharge increased and the slope angle of the channel was large.
This article aims to explore the characteristics of infectious diseases in Seoul from the perspective of historical study. The research question starts with the idea that understanding the features of the outbreak of communicable diseases for the last decade could help public health authorities in Seoul to better cope with upcoming risks in the future. The high frequency of the recent outbreaks of infectious diseases in Seoul is due to neither malnutrition nor unhygienic environment. Considering that the rapid spread of infectious diseases has had a strong impact on regional economy and urban development in Seoul, historical research and heuristic search were conducted to provide information on the long-term trends and characteristics of the outbreaks of infectious diseases. The findings could be used to better deal with infectious diseases in other cities as well.
The purpose of the study is to identify how the experiences in caring parents-in-laws have affected the lives of daughters-in-laws and to analyze how much the Long-Term Care Insurance for the Aged has reduced their economic burden. A qualitative case study was conducted through an in-depth interviews of three respondents inquiring about their personal experiences. We learned from the case study that their caring experiences could be described as “the beginning of a tough and long-term connection”, “the life as a daughter-in-law, not her own”, “a hard life like a rock”, “look-back of my life” and “new and transforming life.” Despite their unique experiences while serving their parents-in-laws as a traditional care-giver, they considered such experiences as an opportunity to turn their lives into a positive direction after their parents-in-laws passed away of dementia, They have been experienceing with a series of burdens from insufficient information, limited hours of the elderly home care service facilities, and the lack of facilities for the elderly with dementia and their families. In order to enhance the quality and accessibility of the long-term care service for the elderly, this case study suggests to improve the level of awareness of dementia among the family and the community, and to locate more consultation clinics with social workers specialized in dementia.
This study investigated which counseling education contents are needed for officers of the armed forces from the survey of 304 officers. Three domains and 13 counseling education contents were selected based on literature review and consultation, and the survey data were analyzed for each content by the t-test, the Borich needs analysis, and the Locus for Focus model. The t-test showed a significant difference between the current level and the desired level for all of the 13 counseling education contents. The Borich needs analysis prioritized the counseling education contents and the Locus for Focus model determined the five contents of highest priority such as ability of forming a relationship with subordinates, ability of guiding army life, ability of identifying problem severity, ability of managing crisis, and ability of performing counseling activities. Based on the integration of the results from both Borich needs analysis and the Locus for Focus model, we found out that the abilities of guidng army life, managing crisis, and identifying problem severity should be educated as the first priority. Implications and limitations of the findings were also discussed.
A series of statistical analyses including hydrochemical analysis, correlation alalysis, factor analysis, and multivariate cluster analysis were performed using the groundwater quality data in the 14 cities of Liaoning, China. The groundwater in Liaoning contains a great amount of Cl and Na. The factor analysis showed that the intrusion of the seawater to the coastal cities was the first factor to groundwater pollution, followed by the sewage of the house (second factor) and the sewage from the factories (third factor). The cluster analysis categorized all the cities in Liaoning into three groups: the cites quitely affected by the intrusion of seawater (Group 1), the cites generally affected by the seawater (Group 2), and the inland cites which are not much polluted (Group 3). The findings from this study provide valuable information to prevent the pollution of groundwater in the region.
Reputation is formed by the public, not by an organization or an individual. It is important to understand how people perceive a situation when a celebrity has a crisis, but members of different cultures may have different perceptions of the crisis that may require different types of crisis communication strategies. Cultural differences that led to differing perceptions between people in the U.S. and South Korea one year after the Tiger Woods’ sex scandal were investigated in this study. Results show that people in the two countries saw this crisis differently and that Tiger Woods’ involvement with charitable social activities had an influence on people’s perception about his comeback and endorsements.
A qualitative study was conducted to investigate the relationship between improvisation and organizational learning for a case of the Mobile Crisis Team (MCT), a mental health emergency response agency. It is found that two types of improvisation in MCT, such as interactional and role improvisation, require continuous interpretation of subtle signals and redefinition of the roles related to those of other participants at the scene. The analysis also identifies key antecedents such as unpredictability, urgency, flexible role structures, minimal procedures, and available resources. Finally, lessons learned from improvisational activities are integrated into the system through three types of learning: learning by doing, learning by sharing, and learning by collaborating. Based on these findings, this paper suggests that improvisation in emergency response, for which the nature of the work inherently involves high risk and unpredictability, is inseparable from organizational practice. Improvisational action in this organization should be understood as an active sense-making and role-making process by organizational members in the moment. This active engagement of participants postulates that there is shared understanding of role structures within the community of practice.
Each year, steep slope failures occur frequently because inopportune combinations of intensity and duration of rainfall trigger instability of the slopes. An Examination of effects of these two important rainfall factors on steep slope failure is a priority to prevent severe damage of properties and loss of lives resulting from slope failures. Slope failures are often triggered by a wetting band deepening caused by a decrease in matric suction due to water infiltration from the slope surfaces. The existing slope failure warning system in Korea does not reflect mechanical or hydraulic characteristics of unsaturated soils. In this study, geotechnical properties of unsaturated weathered soil, including permeability, soil-water characteristics curve, and shear strength, were examined by a series of experiments to evaluate slope stability. A procedure of steep slope failure risk evaluation is developed to reflect rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, and the mechanical and hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils.